By: Dannae Del Campo Méndez TEACHING VOCABULARY TO ADVANCED STUDENTS: A LEXICAL APPROACH
The teaching of vocabulary Aspects of lexis that need to be taken into account when teaching vocabulary.Boundaries between conceptual meaning: • Knowing not only what lexis refer to, but also where the boundaries are that separate it from words of related meaning.Polysemy: • Distinguishing between the various meaning of a single word form with several but closely related meanings.Pronunciation:• Ability to recognise and reproduce items in speech.
Homonymy:• Distinguishing between the various meanings of a single word form which has several meanings which are NOT closely related.Homophyny:• Understanding words that have the same pronunciation but different spellings and meanings (e.g. flour,flower).Synonymy:• Distinguishing between the different shades of meaning that synonymous words have.Affective meaning:• Distinguishing between the attitudinal and emotional factors.
Style, register, dialect:• Being able to distinguish between different levels of formality, the effect of different contexts, as well as the differences in geographical variation.Translation:• Awareness of certain differences and similarities between the native and the foreign language.Chunks of language:• Multi-word verbs, idioms, strong and weak collocations, lexical phrases.Grammar of vocabulary:• Learning the rules that enable students to build up diferent forms of the word .
Memory and storage systems Understanding how our memory works might help us create more effective ways to teach vocabulary.• Grouping • Using imagery,• Asosiating semantic mapping, using keywords.• Placing new words into a context Applying • Representing Creating sounds in memory. images Mental and Linkages. sounds Reviewing Employing well action • Physical response• In a structured or sensation, way using mechanical techniques
Dealing with meaning Guided discovery Students should star involve asking questionsusing EFL dictionaries or offering examples as early as possible, that guide the students from Intermediate to guess meanings upwards. correctly helps them learning and retaining
Using language • Is most likely to be learned when a learner feels a A lexical personal need to know it, or item… when is a need to express something to accomplish their own purposes. • Will depend on motivation, and this is what teachers should aim at promoting,Production… based on their awareness of students need and preferences.
The Lexical Approach Principles (Lewis 1993 , 1997) Apart from However, he said: identifying chunks His most “Language consist ;it is important to important not of traditional establish clear grammar andcontribution was ways of organising vocabulary, but to highlight the and recording often of multi- importance of vocabulary (with words vocabulary. collocation tables, prefabricated mind-maps, word chunks” trees, etc…) Lewis also defends the use of “real” or “authentic” material from the early stages of learning, because “acquisition” is facilitated bu material which is only partly understood.
Rationale of Plan a lesson that is based on itsthe lesson : main concepts, specially exploring the use of collocations.Choice of We wanted to use autenthicmaterial: material to expose the students to rich, contextualise, naturally- ocurring language. For the few words we predictNoticing students will not fully understandcollocations the meaning, we will ask them toand dealing look these up in monolingual dictionaries and notice exampleswith the to observ and record othermeaning: possible collocation of the word.
Group work: Working in group help fostering learning independence and specially in vocabulary work, learners can exchange knowledge and asking others to explain unknown items. We find it vital that students areChoice of given the oportunities to use thetask: language in real context .