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  • 1. AnthraxCreated by Danny Mills
  • 2. Anthrax• Anthrax is a bacteria• Bacillus anthracis• Comes in Two forms – Vegetative, spore• Reproduce by asexual fission andsporulation
  • 3. Spore Form• Spores occur when: – Poor nutrient conditions – Presence of oxygen – Very resistant – Survive for decades
  • 4. News Reports
  • 5. Primary Hosts• The primary hosts of Anthraxwarm blooded animals such as:HumansCattleSheep
  • 6. Ways Humans can Get it• Cutaneous (Skin) – Contact with infected tissues or animal fibers• Inhalational – Tanning hides, processing wool or bone• Gastrointestinal – Undercooked meat
  • 7. Where Humans can get it• Tanneries• Textile mills• Slaughterhouses
  • 8. Anthrax Around the World Anywhere from 30,000 to 100,000
  • 9. Cutaneous (Skin) Anthrax• A form of Anthrax -• 95% of all cases• Incubation: 2 to 3 days• Spores enter skin through open wound• Skin infection begins as a raised itchy bump
  • 10. Gastrointestinal Anthrax• Incubation: 2 to 5 days• Case fatality rate: 25 to 75%• has not been documented in U.S.• nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting, fever followed by abdominal pain and vomiting of blood
  • 11. Inhalational Anthrax• Incubation: 1 to 7 days• Usually Fatal• resemble a common cold – sore throat, mild fever, muscle aches and malaise• Then severe breathing problems and shock
  • 12. History of Anthrax• United States 2001 – Postal Services – 13 reported cases• The largest reported food-borne epidemic was in Zimbabwe, in the 1970s. – From eating animals that died of Anthrax
  • 13. Ways to Treat it• Ciprofloxacin, doxycycline and penicillin• Course of treatment: 60 days
  • 14. Prevention• Humans protected by preventing disease in animals• Safety practices in laboratories
  • 15. Vaccination• People who are at risk include – Livestock handlers – Military personnel• Vaccine/Immunity Shots – Five injections over 18-week period
  • 16. Interesting Facts (Bioterrorism)• 100 lbs of spores – Urban area of 5 million – Estimated impact • 250,000 cases of anthrax • 100,000 deaths• 220 lbs of spores – Upwind of Wash D.C. – Estimated impact • 130,000 to 3 million deaths
  • 17. Some Interesting Facts• Thousands of anthrax spores are required for human infection, of which all can fit in the area of a single pinhead.• Anthrax is a seasonal disease that is controlled by temperature fluctuations, amount of rain received, and soil type.• 143 nations around the world have signed a treaty banning the use of weapons loaded with anthrax spores.
  • 18. http://vetmed.iastate.edu/vdpam/new-vdpam-employees/food-supply-veterinary-medicine/swine/swine-diseases/anthrax-0http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/anthrax.pdfhttp://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/FastFacts/pdfs/anthrax_F.pdfhttp://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/DiseaseInfo/notes/Anthrax.pdfhttp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/military/keim-anthrax.htmlhttp://www.vetmed.lsu.edu/whocc/mp_world.htmhttp://chestjournal.chestpubs.org/content/116/5/1369.longhttp://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/faq/signs.asphttp://www.ph.ucla.edu/epi/bioter/detect/antdetect_intro.htmlhttp://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/s2008/cottor_mick/index_files/Page969.htm