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GCSE Physics Double Award notes

GCSE Physics Double Award notes

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  • 1. Electricity 2 Voltage, Potential Difference and Electromotive Force
  • 2. Aims of the Lesson- Voltage
    • Recall the meanings of the phrases ‘ potential difference ’ and ‘ electromotive force ’
    • Recall that in a series circuit the sum of the voltages is equal to the voltage across the whole circuit.
  • 3. Voltage
    • Page 118
    • - Worksheet on Alexandro Volta (basic notes on voltage)
    • Complete questions 9 and 10 pg 121
  • 4. Total PD in a circuit
    • Read page 119 and 120
    • Copy out the statement in the blue box.
    • Complete the Worksheet ‘Understanding Voltage’
  • 5. Energy Saver Light Bulb
    • Transfers Electrical to Light and Heat
    • 220 Joules of energy transferred for every coulomb of charge passing through
    • For a current of 140 mA (0.14 A)
    • 0.14 Coulombs passing through each second
    • Energy = 220 / 0.14 = 1571 J
    140 mA 220 V
  • 6. Aim of the Lesson
    • Clearly define what is meant by the current and voltage of a circuit!
    • Recall why a voltmeter is placed into a circuit in parallel and an ammeter is placed into a circuit in series
  • 7. Eh… explain that to me please!
    • What does the current flowing a circuit mean?
    • What does the voltage of a component mean?
    Number of Coulombs Going past a point every second Amount of Energy transferred For every Coulomb That passes through a component
  • 8. Voltmeter action
    • How does a voltmeter go into a circuit?
    First of all we need a circuit… Equipment you need- What is the Voltmeter measuring? Energy in and energy out , for each coulomb passing through a component
  • 9. Sorry Sir but I’m gonna’ have to search you… What have you got on you, Mr Coulomb?
  • 10. Experiment- Investigating Voltage How does the voltage of a component in a series circuit compare to the voltage of a component in a parallel circuit? The following two circuits are set up and the voltage is measured across both 1.5 V batteries and across each 1.5V bulb individually.
  • 11. Experiment- Investigating Voltage V 1 = V 2 = V 3 = V 4 = V 5 = V 6 = Series Parallel + V 1 Series + Parallel
  • 12. Investigating Voltage - Conclusion
    • In a series circuit the voltage supplied by the battery is divided between the components.
    • In a parallel circuit the voltage supplied is the same as the component’s voltage.
    • The energy each coulomb received (from the battery) is equal to the total energy given out as it goes round the circuit (conservation of energy).
  • 13. Voltage in a series circuit V V V 2V If the voltage across the battery is 6V… … and these bulbs are all identical… … what will the voltage across each bulb be?
  • 14. Voltage in a series circuit 4V V V If the voltage across the battery is 6V… … what will the voltage across two bulbs be?
  • 15. Voltage in a parallel circuit 4V 4V If the voltage across the batteries is 4V… What is the voltage here? And here? V V
  • 16. Summary In a PARALLEL circuit : Current SPLITS UP down each “strand” Voltage is THE SAME across each”strand” In a SERIES circuit: Current is THE SAME at any point Voltage SPLITS UP over each component
  • 17. An example question: V 1 V 2 6 V 3 A A 1 A 2 V 3 A 3 What is the easiest path for the Coulombs of Charge? All bulbs are identical in power rating
  • 18. Advantages of parallel circuits…
    • There are two main reasons why parallel circuits are used more commonly than series circuits:
    • Extra appliances (like bulbs) can be added without affecting the output of the others
    • If one appliance breaks it won’t affect the others either