Primary Sector
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Primary Sector






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Primary Sector Primary Sector Presentation Transcript

  • Primary sectors
    • 1. FARMING.
      • 1.1. Physical factors: climate, relief, soil.
      • 1.2. Social and economic factors: labour, market, government.
      • Arable, pastoral, mixed.
      • Intensive, extensive.
      • Commercial, subsistence.
      • Nomadic, sedentary.
      • 3.1. Shifting cultivation.
      • 3.2. Wet rice farming.
      • 3.3. Intensive commercial farming: market gardening.
      • 3.4. Extensive commercial farming.
      • 3.5. Plantation agriculture.
  • Farming is the growing of crops and the rearing of animals 1. Farming
  • 1.1 Physical factors: climate
    • Temperature : crops need a minimum of 6°C to grow. (Look over climates in the world)
    • Rainfall : crops need between 250 mm and 500 mm a year.
  • Climatic regions in the world
  • 1.1 Physical factors: relief
    • Flat land is easier to grow crops on, there is less soil erosion and machinery can be used safely.
    • Some places are too high to grow crops because they are too cold. Temperature decreases 6°C each 1000 m.
    • Only south facing slopes are warmer because they face the sun
  • 1.1 Physical factors: soil
    • Soil needs to be fertile, deep and well drained.
  • 1.2 Social, economic, technological and politic factors
    • Social :
    • Property
    • Possession
    • Social
    • Economic :
    • Subsistence
    • Market
    • Politic :
    • Agricultural Policies
    • Rural development Policies
    • Technological :
    • Tools
    • Species
    • Changing landscape
  • Social Factors
  • Social Factors
  • Economic Factors
  • Politic Factors
  • Rural development Policies Politic Factors
    • Quotas are limits on the amount of some produce set by the governments.
    • Subsidies are money paid by the government to encourage some types of produce.
  • Technological Factors
    • Farms can be categorised according to what is being grown or reared, the size of the operation, and the agricultural techniques being used.
    • Farming can be:
    • sedentary or nomadic;
    • subsistence or commercial;
    • arable, pastoral or mixed;
    • extensive or intensive.
    2. Classification
  • Sedentary or nomadic?
  • Sedentary or nomadic?
  • Subsistence or commercial?
  • Subsistence or commercial?
  • Arable, pastoral or mixed?
  • Arable, pastoral or mixed?
  • Extensive or intensive?
  • Extensive or intensive?
  • 3. Traditional Agrarian Landscapes
    • It occurs in equatorial forests in South-East Asia, Central and South America and Africa
    • It is extensive: when soil loses its fertility the land is abandoned.
    a) Shifting cultivation
    • They use manual labour and simple tools.
    • The farmers grow crops from themselves and their families (subsistence).
    • The main crops are rice, maiza, tapioca, sweet potatoes, bananas and vegetables .
    a) Shifting cultivation
  • b) Intensive subsistence farming : Wet rice farming
    • It occurs in many Asian countries (tropical and monsoon climate)
    • It requires 1000 mm to 2500 mm of rainfall a year and an average temperature of 20°C.
    • It is intensive: irrigation allows 2 or 3 crops per year in very small farms.
    • The level of technology varies (low in India or China, high in Japan or Taiwan). Planting and transplanting are usually done by hand.
    b) Intensive subsistence farming : Wet rice farming
  • 4. Modern agrarian landscapes
  • Intensive commercial farming: market gardening
    • It produces the vegetables, fruit and flowers that are found in supermarkets.
    • It uses limited land and it is often near urban markets.
    • Although they are perishable products, refrigeration and faster transport allow more distant markets to be served.
  • 3.3.Market gardening
    • Market gardens have high inputs, especially labour, and high yields (intensive).
    • A wide range of technology is available, from hand hoes to computer-controlled robots.
    • Farmers usually specialise in a few crops, e.g. salads or flowers.
    • Some vegetables are grown into greenhouses or using hydroponics (plants grow without soil)
    Intensive commercial farming: market gardening
  • Extensive commercial farming
    • It occurs in “new countries”, e.g. US, Australia or Argentina, especially in continental climate.
    • Farms are large and highly mechanised.
    • It can be arable, e.g. crops of wheat, maize, barley...
    • It can be also pastoral, e.g. cows and sheep
    • Farms are very big, more than 200 Ha.
    Extensive commercial farming
  • Plantation agriculture
    • It takes place in large farms or estates (40 to 1000 Ha) existing in South EastAsia and the Caribbean.
    • Crops are grown for export
    • It needs a lot of money for building, planting and making processing factories.
    • They employ many workers and use high levels of technology.
    • They produce coffee, cocoa, sugar or trees like tea, rubber and oil palm.
    Plantation agriculture