1
2
Cisco IOS File System and
Devices
3
Managing Cisco IOS Images
4
wg_ro_a#show flash
System flash directory:
File Length Name/status
1 10084696 c2500-js-l_120-3.bin
[10084760 bytes used,...
5
Creating a Software Image
Backup
6
Upgrading the Image from the
Network
7
LAB
Install TFTP server on a virtual machine
Connect the machine to a Router
To see the content of Flash file
#show Flas...
8
Resolving Host Names
 To use a hostname rather than an IP address to
connect to a remote device
 Two ways to resolve h...
9
Resolving Host Names
 Building a host table
 ip host host_name ip_address
R1(config)#ip host com1 10.0.0.1
R1(config)#...
10
Password Recovery
Normal Boot Sequence
POST
Bootstrap
IOS
Startup
Running
This setup is decided by configuration...
11
Configuration Register
1415 13 12 1011 9 8 67 5 4 23 1 0
Default 00 1 0 00 0 1 00 0 0 00 1 0 2102
48 2 1 48 2 1 48 2 1 ...
12
Password Recovery
Show version will give configuration register
value
Password is stored in NVRAM
To by pass NVRAM d...
13
Password Recovery
Router 2500
 o/r 0x2142
 i
Router 2600
 confreg 0x2142
>reset
14
15
WAN vs LAN
Distance between WAN and LAN
WAN speed is less
WAN is leased from Service provider
16
Remote Access Overview
 A WAN is a data communications network covering a
relatively broad geographical area.
 A netw...
17
WAN Overview
Service
Provider
 WANs connect sites
 Connection requirements vary depending on user requirements and
co...
18
WAN technology/terminology
 Devices on the subscriber premises are called customer premises equipment (CPE).
 The sub...
19
WAN technology/terminology
A demarcation point is
where customer premises
equipment (CPE) ends, and
local loop begins.
...
20
WAN technology/terminology
 Devices that put data on the local loop are called data communications
equipment (DCE).
 ...
21
WAN Devices
Modems transmit data over
voice-grade telephone lines
by modulating and
demodulating the signal.
The digi...
22
WANs - Data Link
Encapsulation
 The data link layer protocols define how data is encapsulated for transmission to
remo...
23
WAN Technologies Overview
 Covers a relative broad area
 Use transmission facilities
leased from service provider
 C...
24
Dedicated Digital Services
Dedicated Digital Services provide
full-time connectivity through a
point-to-point link
T ...
25
Digital Subscriber Lines
 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) technology is a broadband technology
that uses existing twiste...
26
Analog Services
• Dial-up Modems (switched analog)
• Standard that can provides 56 kbps download speed and 33.6
kbps up...
27
Cable Modems (Shared
Analog)
 Cable TV provides residential premises with a coaxial cable that has a
bandwidth of 750M...
28
Wireless
 Terrestrial
Bandwidths typically in the 11 Mbps range
Cost is relatively low
Line-of-sight is usually req...
29
Circuit Switched Services
 Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
 Historically important--first dial-up digital ...
30
Integrated Services Digital
Network
32
WAN Connection Types
 Leased lines
It is a pre-established WAN communications path
from the CPE, through the DCE swit...
33
WAN Connection Types
• Packet switching
WAN switching method that allows you to share
bandwidth with other companies t...
34
Defining WAN Encapsulation
Protocols
 Each WAN connection uses an encapsulation protocol to
encapsulate traffic while ...
35
Defining WAN Encapsulation
Protocols
 Typical WAN encapsulation types include the following:
Point-to-Point Protocol ...
36
Determining the WAN Type to
Use
 Availability
Each type of service may be available in certain
geographical areas.
 ...
37
Max. WAN Speeds for WAN
Connections
WAN Type
Maximum
Speed
Asynchronous Dial-Up 56-64 Kbps
X.25, ISDN – BRI 128 Kbps
IS...
38
Leased Line
Circuit-switched
PPP, SLIP, HDLC
HDLC, PPP, SLIP
Packet-switched
X.25, Frame Relay, ATM
Typical WAN Encapsu...
39
WAN Protocols
• Point to Point - HDLC, PPP
• Multipoint - Frame Relay, X.25 and ATM
E0 S0 S0
WAN
LAN
Network
Datalink
P...
41
HDLC Command
Router(config-if)#encapsulation hdlc
• Enable hdlc encapsulation
• HDLC is the default encapsulation on
sy...
42
PPP Encapsulation
PPP is open standard
HDLC is only for encapsulation
PPP provides encapsulation and authentication
...
43
Feature How It Operates Protocol
Authentication PAP
CHAPPerform Challenge Handshake
Require a password
Compression
Comp...
44
PPP Authentication Overview
Two PPP authentication protocols:
PAP and CHAP
PPP Session Establishment
1 Link Establishme...
45
• Passwords sent in clear text
Selecting a PPP
Authentication Protocol
Remote Router
(SantaCruz)
Central-Site Router
(H...
46
Selecting a PPP
Authentication Protocol
(cont.)
Remote Router
(SantaCruz)
Central-Site Router
(HQ)
Hostname: santacruz
...
47

Configuring PPP and
Authentication Overview
Service
Provider
Verify who
you are.
Router to Be
Authenticated
(The rout...
48
Configuring PPP
Router(config-if)#encapsulation ppp
• Enable PPP encapsulation
49
Configuring PPP
Authentication
Router(config)#hostname name
• Assigns a host name to your router
Router(config)#usernam...
50
Configuring PPP Authentication
(cont.)
Router(config-if)#ppp authentication
{chap | chap pap | pap chap | pap}
• Enable...
51
Configuring CHAP Example
• hostname R1
• username R2 password cisco
• !
• int serial 0
• ip address 10.0.1.1 255.255.25...
52
Verifying HDLC and PPP
Encapsulation Configuration
Router#show interface s0
Serial0 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware...
53
Verifying PPP Authentication with the
debug ppp authentication Command
•4d20h: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Serial0, chang...
54
What is ISDN?
Provider
network
Digital
PBX
Small office
Home office
Voice, data, video
Telecommuter
Central site
55
Why ISDN?
 ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network
 Telephone services -> Telecommunication
services
 Used for vo...
56
• BRI and PRI are used globally for ISDN
Channel Mostly Used for
B Circuit-switched data (HDLC, PPP)
Capacity
64 kbps
D...
58
Interfaces and Devices
TE1
TE2 TA
NT1
2W4W
ISDN Ready
BRI Port
Analog devices:
phone, Serial port
After connecting to T...
59
Interfaces and Devices
Function Group – A set of functions implemented by a device or software
Reference Point – The in...
60
Reference Points
61
LAB-ISDN
E0
192.168.0.2 192.168.1.2
R2
ISDN Switch
BRI
192.168.1.1
R1
E0
BRI
192.168.0.1
10.0.0.1 10.0.0.2
Router(confi...
62
ISDN DDR configuration
Commands
Command Description
iproute Global command that configure static route or default
route...
63
Packet Switched Services
 X.25 (Connection-oriented)
 Reliable--X.25 has been extensively debugged and is now very st...
64
Frame Relay Basics
• FR is WAN layer2 protocol
• FR developed in 1984, its a faster packet
switching technology
• In 19...
65
Terminology
Frame Relay Network
R2R1
End Device Interface Device
Encapsulate Data
FR Network
DCE – Dedicated FR Switche...
67
LAB - Frame Relay
192.168.1.2/24 192.168.2.2/24
R2
FR Switch
S0
192.168.2.1/24
R1
E0
S0
192.168.1.1/24
192.168.3.9/29
E...
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  • Emphasize: In Cisco IOS Release 12.0, there are new copy commands. These new commands treat the RAM, Flash, NVRAM, TFTP, FTP, and so on as a file system. Since this class was developed when the most common Cisco IOS in the field is pre-12.0, these 12.0 commands are not covered in detail in this class.
  • Emphasize: This section introduces topics on managing your configuration file and Cisco IOS image.
  • Emphasize: The show flash command is an important tool to use to gather information about your router memory and image file. Caution students that they must know that they are loading the correct and appropriate image. The name for the Cisco IOS image file contains multiple parts, each with a specific meaning: The first part of the image name contains the platform on which the image runs. In this example, the platform is C2500. The second part of the name identifies the special capabilities of the image file. A letter or series of letters identifies the feature sets supported in that image. In this example, the “j” indicates this is an enterprise image, and the “s” indicates it contains extended capabilities. The third part of the name specifies where the image runs and if the file is compressed. In this example, “l” indicates the file is relocatable and not compressed. Relocatable means the Cisco IOS can be run from Flash or from RAM. You should be careful in reading the Cisco IOS image filename. Some fonts display the lowercase letter “l” and the number 1 as the same character. How you enter the characters will impact the ability of the router to load the files correctly. The fourth part of the name indicates the version number. In this example, the version number is 12.0 (3). The final part of the name is the file extension. The .bin extension indicates this file is a binary executable file. The Cisco IOS software naming conventions, name part field meaning, image content, and other details are subject to change. Refer to Cisco Connection Online (CCO) for updated details.
  • Purpose: This slide discusses how to create a backup version of a Cisco IOS software image to a TFTP server. Emphasize: Routers by default come with Flash memory that has a preloaded copy of the Cisco IOS software. Although Flash is extremely reliable—good for 65 years and 100,000 rewrites—it is a good idea to make a backup copy of the Cisco IOS software if you have a TFTP server available. If you have to replace Flash memory for some reason, you will have a backup copy at the revision level currently running on your network. The copy command screen output varies depending on the Cisco IOS software level. Determine the platform type of your TFTP server prior to beginning the backup procedure. The TFTP server may be running Windows, UNIX, Mac, or other OS. Filename and directory access procedures may vary depending on the TFTP server platform and platform version.
  • Purpose: This slide describes how to load a backup version of a Cisco IOS software image from a TFTP server to the router. Emphasize: If you need more Flash space to load a copy of the Cisco IOS software, you must first erase the Flash memory. You cannot erase a single image—you must erase all copies of Cisco IOS software from Flash. However, if Flash memory on the router is partitioned, you can erase one or more of the parts. After the TFTP transfer is completed, use the show flash command to view the file size to compare its size with that of the original on the server. If the Cisco IOS is running from Flash, then the Flash is in the read-only state. To change the Flash to a writeable state, you can use the boot system TFTP command to boot a Cisco IOS from a TFTP server and the Cisco IOS will be run from RAM, or you can go to the Rxboot mode to perform the copy.
  • To change the register back -- R1(config)#config-register 0x2102
  • Purpose: This figure introduces students to WAN connections. Emphasize: Highlight the interconnected WAN connections between the various company sites. The site graphically present a mobile dial-up user, a telecommuter using a DDR connection, and two office sites with multiple connections. This course teaches students how to configure a WAN. Tell students a WAN is a data communications network that serves users across a broad geographic area. Transition: Following are the various physical connections that will connect these sites.
  • CPE, which is usually a connection to a CSU/DSU or ISDN interface.
  • A dialed call is connected locally to other local loops, or non-locally through a trunk to a primary center. It then goes to a sectional center and on to a regional or international carrier center as the call travels to its destination.
  • E3/T3 34 Mbps or 45 Mbps
  • Purpose: This figure introduces students to various encapsulation options to use over the various physical connections. Emphasize: In order to exchange traffic over a WAN link, the packets must be encapsulated into a Layer 2 frame. There are a variety of Layer 2 encapsulation types available that can be used, depending on the WAN connection being used. Some of the types are listed on the figure. Encapsulation must be configured on the router when configuring the interface. Some of these encapsulation types will be seen again in the following chapters. In an ISDN environment, Point-to-Point (PPP) is the B channel’s Layer 2 encapsulation. Link Access Procedure on the D channel (LAPD) is the encapsulation for the D channel. Either the proprietary Cisco or Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) (defined in RFC 1490) encapsulations are the Layer 2 encapsulations for Frame Relay. Note: Other encapsulations not shown include AppleTalk Remote Access Protocol (ARAP), Compressed Serial Link Internet Protocol (CSLIP), or Synchronous Data Link control (SDLC). Transition: We will first look at the HDLC encapsulation.
  • Purpose: This figure introduces students to HDLC encapsulation. Emphasize: HDLC is the default layer 2 protocol for Cisco router serial interfaces. Cisco’s proprietary enhancement to HDLC incorporates a protocol or type field to allow multiple protocols to be carried on a single link
  • Purpose: This figure describes how to configure HDLC on a serial connection. Emphasize: encapsulation hdlc is the default encapsulation on a Cisco router’s serial connection. Transition: If the network consists of Cisco and non-Cisco devices, you should PPP instead of HDLC.
  • Purpose: This figure presents an overview of PPP. Emphasize: The figure illustrates the multiple protocols NCP supports. The two arrows pointing to the router interfaces is where PPP encapsulation occurs. The first bullet summarizes the role of NCP. The second bullet summarizes the role of LCP options that the administrator can use to set up and control the data link. Several RFCs are used to specify aspects of PPP. RFC 1548 is the major specification for the major PPP NCP and LCP operations.
  • Purpose: The figure presents an overview of the most popular PPP features. Emphasize: The table in the figure lists and describes the various LCP options. PPP compression is offered in Cisco’s Compression Control Protocol (CCP). RFC 1548 covers the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) approved PPP options in detail. RFC 1717 defines Multilink Protocol. RFC 1990, The PPP Multilink Protocol (MP) , obsoletes RFC 1717. Note: To further enhance security, Cisco IOS Release 11.1 offers callback over PPP. With this LCP option, a Cisco router can act as a callback client or as a callback server. The client makes the initial DDR call requests that it be called back, and terminates its initial call. The callback server answers the initial call and makes the return call to the client based on its configuration statements. This option is described in RFC 1570. Reference: Students will only learn how to configure PAP and CHAP authentication in this course. To learn how to configure the other LCP options, students should attend the Building Cisco Remote Access (BCRAN) course.
  • Purpose: This graphic presents the PPP authentication overview. Emphasize: A PPP session establishment has three phases: Link establishment phase—In this phase, each PPP device sends LCP packets to configure and test the data link. Authentication phase (optional)—After the link has been established and the authentication protocol decided on, the peer may be authenticated. PPP supports two authentication protocols: PAP and CHAP. Both of these protocols are detailed in RFC 1334, PPP Authentication Protocols. However, RFC 1994, PPP Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol, obsoletes RFC 1334. Network-layer protocol phase—In this phase, the PPP devices send NCP packets to choose and configure one or more network-layer protocol.
  • Purpose: This figure presents the PPP authentication protocol, PAP. Emphasize: PPP sets line controls for the call. There are two types of authentication protocols: PAP and CHAP. PAP provides a simple method for a remote node to establish its identity using a two-way handshake. PAP is done only upon initial link establishment. PAP is not a strong authentication protocol. It provides no encryption. It may be fine in DDR environments when the password changes each time one authenticates. CHAP is the preferred protocol.
  • Purpose: This figure presents the PPP authentication protocol, CHAP. Emphasize: CHAP is done upon initial link establishment and can be repeated any time after the link has been established. CHAP transactions occur only when a link is established. The local access server does not request a password during the rest of the session. (The local access server can, however, respond to such requests from other devices during a session.) CHAP is specified in RFC 1334. It is an additional authentication phase of the PPP Link Control Protocol. Transition: Now that you know how PPP and PPP authentication operates, the following section describes how to configure it on an IOS router.
  • Purpose: This figure provides a sign post highlighting the tasks to complete to enable PPP and PPP authentication. Emphasize: Highlight the steps the student must take to enable PPP authentication.
  • Purpose: This figure describes how to encapsulate PPP on an interface.
  • Purpose: This figure describes how to set the hostname on the local device and a remote device’s username and password. Emphasize: Correct configuration is essential since PAP and CHAP will use these parameters to authenticate. The names and password are case sensitive.
  • Purpose: This figure continues with the PPP authentication configuration commands. Emphasize: If both PAP and CHAP are enabled, then the first method specified will be requested during link negotiation. If the peer suggests using the second method or simply refuses the first method, then the second method will be tried.
  • Purpose: This page shows an example of CHAP configuration between two routers. Emphasize: When you configure the usernames and passwords for the local databases, the passwords on both systems must be identical. Usernames and passwords are case sensitive. Transition: The next section shows how to verify that the connection is operating as intended.
  • Purpose: This graphic presents the show interface command, which is used to verify that PPP encapsulation is configured on the interface. The same command is used to verify proper HDLC configuration.
  • Purpose: This page shows an example of debug ppp authentication output. The output illustrates of a successful CHAP authentication challenge. Emphasize: The debug ppp authentication command displays the authentication exchange sequence as it occurs.
  • Purpose: this figure describes various ISDN environments. Emphasize: The icons in the cloud represent ISDN switches. The figure displays different sites that may use ISDN.
  • used for studo quality sound and moving images
  • Purpose: The figure explains BRI and PRI. Emphasize: Be aware of geographic variations regarding ISDN services. With PRI, for example, there are 23 B channels in the United States and Japan and 30 in Europe. Highlight that LAPD is the data link protocol on the D channel and PPP is typically seen on the B channels.
  • 1) TWO ROUTERs WHICH SUPPORTS BRI 2) ISDN Switch 3) R1, BRI should be connected to 20 line of ISDN switch 4) ISDN status can give the call establishing
  • dialer map command is used to associate an ISDN phone number with the next hop router address. ping and telnet Great IP tools for any network. However, your interesting traffic restriction must dictate that Ping and Telnet are acceptable as interesting traffic in order to bring up a link. Once a link is up, you can ping or telnet to your remote router regardless of your interesting traffic lists. show dialer Gives good diagnostic information about your dialer and shows the number of times the dialer string has been reached, the idle-timeout values of each B channel, the length of the call, and the name of the router to which the interface is connected. show isdn active Shows the number called and whether a call is in progress. show isdn status
  • frame-relay lmi-type
  • Ccna day5

    1. 1. 1
    2. 2. 2 Cisco IOS File System and Devices
    3. 3. 3 Managing Cisco IOS Images
    4. 4. 4 wg_ro_a#show flash System flash directory: File Length Name/status 1 10084696 c2500-js-l_120-3.bin [10084760 bytes used, 6692456 available, 16777216 total] 16384K bytes of processor board System flash (Read ONLY) Verifying Memory Image Filenames
    5. 5. 5 Creating a Software Image Backup
    6. 6. 6 Upgrading the Image from the Network
    7. 7. 7 LAB Install TFTP server on a virtual machine Connect the machine to a Router To see the content of Flash file #show Flash To copy flash #Copy flash tftp supply IP address of TFTP Server and file name To copy running-configuration #copy running-config tftp supply IP address of TFTP Server and file name
    8. 8. 8 Resolving Host Names  To use a hostname rather than an IP address to connect to a remote device  Two ways to resolve hostnames to IP addresses – building a host table on each router – building a Domain Name System (DNS) server
    9. 9. 9 Resolving Host Names  Building a host table  ip host host_name ip_address R1(config)#ip host com1 10.0.0.1 R1(config)#ip host com2 10.0.0.2  To view table R1#show hosts  To verify that the host table resolves names, try ping hostnames at a router prompt.
    10. 10. 10 Password Recovery Normal Boot Sequence POST Bootstrap IOS Startup Running This setup is decided by configuration register value
    11. 11. 11 Configuration Register 1415 13 12 1011 9 8 67 5 4 23 1 0 Default 00 1 0 00 0 1 00 0 0 00 1 0 2102 48 2 1 48 2 1 48 2 1 48 2 1 Bit Decimal This means that bits 13, 8, and 1 are on. To ignore NVRAM the 6th bit should be made ON When the 6th bit is turned on the value will be 2142
    12. 12. 12 Password Recovery Show version will give configuration register value Password is stored in NVRAM To by pass NVRAM during boot sequence we need to change the configuration register value To change the CR values press Ctr+Break and go to ROM monitor mode
    13. 13. 13 Password Recovery Router 2500  o/r 0x2142  i Router 2600  confreg 0x2142 >reset
    14. 14. 14
    15. 15. 15 WAN vs LAN Distance between WAN and LAN WAN speed is less WAN is leased from Service provider
    16. 16. 16 Remote Access Overview  A WAN is a data communications network covering a relatively broad geographical area.  A network administrator designing a remote network must weight issues concerning users needs such as bandwidth and cost of the variable available technologies.
    17. 17. 17 WAN Overview Service Provider  WANs connect sites  Connection requirements vary depending on user requirements and cost
    18. 18. 18 WAN technology/terminology  Devices on the subscriber premises are called customer premises equipment (CPE).  The subscriber owns the CPE or leases the CPE from the service provider.  A copper or fiber cable connects the CPE to the service provider’s nearest exchange or central office (CO). A central office (CO) is sometimes referred to as a point of presence (POP)  This cabling is often called the local loop, or "last-mile". CPE (Customer Premises Equipment) are equipments located at the customer’s site, they are owned, operated and managed by the customer.
    19. 19. 19 WAN technology/terminology A demarcation point is where customer premises equipment (CPE) ends, and local loop begins. The local loop is the cabling from demarcation point to Central Office (CO).
    20. 20. 20 WAN technology/terminology  Devices that put data on the local loop are called data communications equipment (DCE).  The customer devices that pass the data to the DCE are called data terminal equipment (DTE).  The DCE primarily provides an interface for the DTE into the communication link on the WAN cloud. The DTE/DCE interface uses various physical layer protocols, such as V.35. These protocols establish the codes and electrical parameters the devices use to communicate with each other.
    21. 21. 21 WAN Devices Modems transmit data over voice-grade telephone lines by modulating and demodulating the signal. The digital signals are superimposed on an analog voice signal that is modulated for transmission. The modulated signal can be heard as a series of whistles by turning on the internal modem speaker. At the receiving end the analog signals are returned to their digital form, or demodulated
    22. 22. 22 WANs - Data Link Encapsulation  The data link layer protocols define how data is encapsulated for transmission to remote sites, and the mechanisms for transferring the resulting frames.  A variety of different technologies are used, such as ISDN, Frame Relay or Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM).  These protocols use the same basic framing mechanism, high-level data link control (HDLC)
    23. 23. 23 WAN Technologies Overview  Covers a relative broad area  Use transmission facilities leased from service provider  Carries different traffic (voice, video and data) Dedicated • T1, E1, T3, E3 • DSL • SONET Analog • Dial-up modems • Cable modems • Wireless Switched Circuit Switched • POTS • ISDN Packet Switched • X.25 • Frame Relay •ATM
    24. 24. 24 Dedicated Digital Services Dedicated Digital Services provide full-time connectivity through a point-to-point link T series in U.S. and E series in Europe Uses time division multiplexing and assign time slots for transmissions – T1 = 1.544 Mbps E1 = 2.048 Mbps – T3 = 44.736 Mbps E3 = 34.368 Mbps
    25. 25. 25 Digital Subscriber Lines  Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) technology is a broadband technology that uses existing twisted-pair telephone lines to transport high- bandwidth data to service subscribers.  The two basic types of DSL technologies are asymmetric (ADSL) and symmetric (SDSL).  All forms of DSL service are categorized as ADSL or SDSL and there are several varieties of each type.  Asymmetric service provides higher download or downstream bandwidth to the user than upload bandwidth.  Symmetric service provides the same capacity in both directions.
    26. 26. 26 Analog Services • Dial-up Modems (switched analog) • Standard that can provides 56 kbps download speed and 33.6 kbps upload speed. • With the download path, there is a digital-to-analogue conversion at the client side. • With the upload path, there is a analogue-to-digital conversion at the client side.
    27. 27. 27 Cable Modems (Shared Analog)  Cable TV provides residential premises with a coaxial cable that has a bandwidth of 750MHz  The bandwidth is divided into 6 MHz band using FDM for each TV channel  A "Cable Modem" is a device that allows high-speed data access (Internet) via cable TV network.  A cable modem will typically have two connections because a splitter delivers the TV bands to TV set and the internet access bands to PC via a cable box  The splitter delivers the TV bands to TV set and the internet access bands to PC via a cable box
    28. 28. 28 Wireless  Terrestrial Bandwidths typically in the 11 Mbps range Cost is relatively low Line-of-sight is usually required Usage is moderate  Satellite Can serve mobile users and remote users Usage is widespread Cost is very high
    29. 29. 29 Circuit Switched Services  Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)  Historically important--first dial-up digital service  Max. bandwidth = 128 kbps for BRI (Basic Rate Interface)  2 B channels @ 64kps and 1 D channel @ 16kps  B channels are voice/data channels; D for signaling B B D
    30. 30. 30 Integrated Services Digital Network
    31. 31. 32 WAN Connection Types  Leased lines It is a pre-established WAN communications path from the CPE, through the DCE switch, to the CPE of the remote site, allowing DTE networks to communicate at any time with no setup procedures before transmitting data.  Circuit switching Sets up line like a phone call. No data can transfer before the end-to-end connection is established.
    32. 32. 33 WAN Connection Types • Packet switching WAN switching method that allows you to share bandwidth with other companies to save money. As long as you are not constantly transmitting data and are instead using bursty data transfers, packet switching can save you a lot of money. However, if you have constant data transfers, then you will need to get a leased line. Frame Relay and X.25 are packet switching technologies.
    33. 33. 34 Defining WAN Encapsulation Protocols  Each WAN connection uses an encapsulation protocol to encapsulate traffic while it crossing the WAN link.  The choice of the encapsulation protocol depends on the underlying WAN technology and the communicating equipment.
    34. 34. 35 Defining WAN Encapsulation Protocols  Typical WAN encapsulation types include the following: Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) High-Level Data Link Control Protocol (HDLC) X.25 / Link Access Procedure Balanced (LAPB) Frame Relay Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
    35. 35. 36 Determining the WAN Type to Use  Availability Each type of service may be available in certain geographical areas.  Bandwidth Determining usage over the WAN is important to evaluate the most cost-effective WAN service.  Cost Making a compromise between the traffic you need to transfer and the type of service with the available cost that will suit you.
    36. 36. 37 Max. WAN Speeds for WAN Connections WAN Type Maximum Speed Asynchronous Dial-Up 56-64 Kbps X.25, ISDN – BRI 128 Kbps ISDN – PRI E1 / T1 Leased Line / Frame Relay E3/T3
    37. 37. 38 Leased Line Circuit-switched PPP, SLIP, HDLC HDLC, PPP, SLIP Packet-switched X.25, Frame Relay, ATM Typical WAN Encapsulation Protocols: Layer 2 Telephone Company Service Provider
    38. 38. 39 WAN Protocols • Point to Point - HDLC, PPP • Multipoint - Frame Relay, X.25 and ATM E0 S0 S0 WAN LAN Network Datalink Physical • HDLC – Proprietary – cisco device default • PPP - Open
    39. 39. 41 HDLC Command Router(config-if)#encapsulation hdlc • Enable hdlc encapsulation • HDLC is the default encapsulation on synchronous serial interfaces
    40. 40. 42 PPP Encapsulation PPP is open standard HDLC is only for encapsulation PPP provides encapsulation and authentication PPP is made up of LCP and NCP LCP is for link control and NCP for multiple protocol support and call back Link setup and control using LCP in PPP An Overview of PPP
    41. 41. 43 Feature How It Operates Protocol Authentication PAP CHAPPerform Challenge Handshake Require a password Compression Compress data at source; reproduce data at destination Error Detection Avoid frame looping Monitor data dropped on link Multilink Load balancing across multiple links Multilink Protocol (MP) PPP LCP Configuration Options
    42. 42. 44 PPP Authentication Overview Two PPP authentication protocols: PAP and CHAP PPP Session Establishment 1 Link Establishment Phase 2 Optional Authentication Phase 3 Network-Layer Protocol Phase Dialup or Circuit-Switched Network
    43. 43. 45 • Passwords sent in clear text Selecting a PPP Authentication Protocol Remote Router (SantaCruz) Central-Site Router (HQ) Hostname: santacruz Password: boardwalk username santacruz password boardwalk PAP 2-Way Handshake “santacruz, boardwalk”“santacruz, boardwalk” Accept/RejectAccept/Reject
    44. 44. 46 Selecting a PPP Authentication Protocol (cont.) Remote Router (SantaCruz) Central-Site Router (HQ) Hostname: santacruz Password: boardwalk username santacruz password boardwalk CHAP 3-Way Handshake ChallengeChallenge ResponseResponse Accept/RejectAccept/Reject •Use “secret” known only to authenticator and peer
    45. 45. 47  Configuring PPP and Authentication Overview Service Provider Verify who you are. Router to Be Authenticated (The router that initiated the call.) ppp encapsulation hostname username / password Authenticating Router (The router that received the call.) ppp encapsulation hostname username / password ppp authentication Enabling PPP Enabling PPP Authentication Enabling PPP Enabling PPP Authentication       
    46. 46. 48 Configuring PPP Router(config-if)#encapsulation ppp • Enable PPP encapsulation
    47. 47. 49 Configuring PPP Authentication Router(config)#hostname name • Assigns a host name to your router Router(config)#username name password password • Identifies the username and password of authenticating router
    48. 48. 50 Configuring PPP Authentication (cont.) Router(config-if)#ppp authentication {chap | chap pap | pap chap | pap} • Enables PAP and/or CHAP authentication
    49. 49. 51 Configuring CHAP Example • hostname R1 • username R2 password cisco • ! • int serial 0 • ip address 10.0.1.1 255.255.255.0 • encapsulation ppp • ppp authentication CHAP • hostname R1 • username R2 password cisco • ! • int serial 0 • ip address 10.0.1.1 255.255.255.0 • encapsulation ppp • ppp authentication CHAP hostname R2 username R1 password cisco ! int serial 0 ip address 10.0.1.2 255.255.255.0 encapsulation ppp ppp authentication CHAP hostname R2 username R1 password cisco ! int serial 0 ip address 10.0.1.2 255.255.255.0 encapsulation ppp ppp authentication CHAP R1 R2PSTN/ISDN
    50. 50. 52 Verifying HDLC and PPP Encapsulation Configuration Router#show interface s0 Serial0 is up, line protocol is up Hardware is HD64570 Internet address is 10.140.1.2/24 MTU 1500 bytes, BW 1544 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec, rely 255/255, load 1/255 Encapsulation PPP, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec) LCP Open Open: IPCP, CDPCP Last input 00:00:05, output 00:00:05, output hang never Last clearing of "show interface" counters never Queueing strategy: fifo Output queue 0/40, 0 drops; input queue 0/75, 0 drops 5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec 5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec 38021 packets input, 5656110 bytes, 0 no buffer Received 23488 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles 0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort 38097 packets output, 2135697 bytes, 0 underruns 0 output errors, 0 collisions, 6045 interface resets 0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out 482 carrier transitions DCD=up DSR=up DTR=up RTS=up CTS=up
    51. 51. 53 Verifying PPP Authentication with the debug ppp authentication Command •4d20h: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Serial0, changed state to up •4d20h: Se0 PPP: Treating connection as a dedicated line •4d20h: Se0 PPP: Phase is AUTHENTICATING, by both •4d20h: Se0 CHAP: O CHALLENGE id 2 len 28 from ”left" •4d20h: Se0 CHAP: I CHALLENGE id 3 len 28 from ”right" •4d20h: Se0 CHAP: O RESPONSE id 3 len 28 from ”left" •4d20h: Se0 CHAP: I RESPONSE id 2 len 28 from ”right" •4d20h: Se0 CHAP: O SUCCESS id 2 len 4 •4d20h: Se0 CHAP: I SUCCESS id 3 len 4 •4d20h: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial0, changed state to up •4d20h: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Serial0, changed state to up •4d20h: Se0 PPP: Treating connection as a dedicated line •4d20h: Se0 PPP: Phase is AUTHENTICATING, by both •4d20h: Se0 CHAP: O CHALLENGE id 2 len 28 from ”left" •4d20h: Se0 CHAP: I CHALLENGE id 3 len 28 from ”right" •4d20h: Se0 CHAP: O RESPONSE id 3 len 28 from ”left" •4d20h: Se0 CHAP: I RESPONSE id 2 len 28 from ”right" •4d20h: Se0 CHAP: O SUCCESS id 2 len 4 •4d20h: Se0 CHAP: I SUCCESS id 3 len 4 •4d20h: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Serial0, changed state to up debug ppp authentication successful CHAP output R1 R2Service Provider debug ppp authentication
    52. 52. 54 What is ISDN? Provider network Digital PBX Small office Home office Voice, data, video Telecommuter Central site
    53. 53. 55 Why ISDN?  ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network  Telephone services -> Telecommunication services  Used for voice, data and video
    54. 54. 56 • BRI and PRI are used globally for ISDN Channel Mostly Used for B Circuit-switched data (HDLC, PPP) Capacity 64 kbps D 2B ISDN Access Options Signaling informationD 16/64 kbps 23 or 30B BRI PRI D
    55. 55. 58 Interfaces and Devices TE1 TE2 TA NT1 2W4W ISDN Ready BRI Port Analog devices: phone, Serial port After connecting to TA it becomes TE1 S/T interface U interface I S D N S w i t c h
    56. 56. 59 Interfaces and Devices Function Group – A set of functions implemented by a device or software Reference Point – The interface between two function group
    57. 57. 60 Reference Points
    58. 58. 61 LAB-ISDN E0 192.168.0.2 192.168.1.2 R2 ISDN Switch BRI 192.168.1.1 R1 E0 BRI 192.168.0.1 10.0.0.1 10.0.0.2 Router(config)#hostname R1 R1(config)#username R2 password cisco R1(config-if)#int bri 0 R1(config-if)# ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0 R1(config-if)#enacapsulation ppp R1(config-if)#PPP authentication CHAP R1(config-if)#no shut Static Routes or default route R1(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.0.0.2 R1(config)#isdn switch-type basic-net3 Access List R1(config)#dialer-list 1 protocol ip permit R1(config)#int bri 0 R1(config-if)# dialer–group 1 R1(config-if)#dialer map ip 10.0.0.2 name R2 20 R1(config-if)#no shut R1(config-if)#dialer idle-timeout 100
    59. 59. 62 ISDN DDR configuration Commands Command Description iproute Global command that configure static route or default route username name name password secret Global command that configure CHAP username and password access-list Global command that creates ACL’s to define a subset of traffic as interesting dialer-list 1 protocol IP Global command that creates a dialer list that makes all IP traffic interesting or reference to ACL for subset dialer–group 1 Interface subcommand that references dialer list to define what is interesting dialer idle-timeout 100 Interface subcommand that settles idle time out values dialer string number Interface subcommand that define dial numbers int bri 0 Global command that selects BRI interface
    60. 60. 63 Packet Switched Services  X.25 (Connection-oriented)  Reliable--X.25 has been extensively debugged and is now very stable--literally no errors in modern X.25 networks  Store & Forward--Since X.25 stores the whole frame to error check it before forwarding it on to the destination, it has an inherent delay (unlike Frame Relay) and requires large, expensive memory buffering capabilities.  Frame Relay (Connectionless)  More efficient and much faster than X.25  Used mostly to forward LAN IP packets
    61. 61. 64 Frame Relay Basics • FR is WAN layer2 protocol • FR developed in 1984, its a faster packet switching technology • In 1990 FR consortium was developed and extension added
    62. 62. 65 Terminology Frame Relay Network R2R1 End Device Interface Device Encapsulate Data FR Network DCE – Dedicated FR Switches, can be one or multiple Access Line Trunk Line Virtual Circuit – an end to end connection between interface device - PVC or SVC  Data Link connection Identifiers (DLCI) number is the identification for VC, 16-1007  Committed Information Rate or CIR - agreed-upon bandwidth  Frame Relay there are two encapsulation types: Cisco and IETF  Local Management Interface (LMI) is a signaling standard used between your router and the first Frame Relay switch i - Cisco, ANSI, and Q.933A.
    63. 63. 67 LAB - Frame Relay 192.168.1.2/24 192.168.2.2/24 R2 FR Switch S0 192.168.2.1/24 R1 E0 S0 192.168.1.1/24 192.168.3.9/29 E0 100 200 192.168.3.10/29 DCE DCE Frame Relay Switch Router#config t Router(config)#hostname FRSwitch FRSwitch(config)# frame-relay switching FRSwitch(config)# int s 1/0 FRSwitch(config-if)#enacapsulation frame-relay FRSwitch(config-if)# frame-relay intf-type DCE FRSwitch(config-if)# clock rate 64000 FRSwitch(config-if)# frame-relay route 100 int serial 1/1 200 FRSwitch(config-if)#no shut R1 Router#config t Router(config)#hostname R1 R1(config)# int s 0 R1(config-if)#ip address 192.168.3.9 255.255.255.248 R1(config-if)#enacapsulation frame-relay R1(config-if)# frame-relay intf-type DTE R1(config-if)# frame-relay interface-dlci 100 R1(config-if-dlci)# exit R1(config-if)#framerelay map ip 192.168.3.10 100 R1(config-if)#no shut
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