Opening PrayerLoving heavenly Father we come to you this hour asking for your blessing and help as we are gathered together. We pray for guidance in the matters at hand and ask that you would clearly show us how to conduct our work with a spirit of joy and enthusiasm. Give us the desire to find ways to excel in our work. Help us to work together and encourage each other to excellence. We ask that we would challenge each other to reach higher and farther to be the best we can be. We ask this in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ. Amen
Chapter OverviewStudy Questions:1.The Nature of Leadership2. Leadership Traits and Behaviors3. Contingency Approaches to Leadership4.Issues in Leadership Development
Study Question 1The Nature of Leadership• Leadership and power• Leadership and vision• Leadership as service
Nature of Leadership•“Great leaders are almost always great simplifiers,who can cut through argument, debate and doubt, tooffer a solution everybody can understand.” - Colin Powell
Leadership is the process ofinspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasks.
Leading- to inspire effort •Communicate the vision •Build enthusiasm •Motivate commitment, hard work Controlling- to ensurePlanning- to set direction results Organizing- to create structures
LEADERSHIP AND POWERPower is the ability to get someone else to do something you want done or to make things happen the way you want.
LEADERSHIP AND POWER1. Position Power Reward Power is the capacity to offer something of value as a means of influencing other people. Coercive Power is the capacity to punish or withhold positive outcomes as a means of influencing other people. Legitimate Power is the capacity to influence other people by virtue of specialized knowledge.
LEADERSHIP AND POWER2. Personal Power Expert power is the capacity to influence other people because of specialized knowledge. Referent Power is the capacity to influence other people because of their desire to identify personally with you.
Sources of Power Used by Leaders Power of the POSITION: Power of the PERSON:Based on things managers can offer to Based on how managers are viewed by others. others.
LEADERSHIP AND VISIONVision is a clear sense of the future.Visionary leadership brings to thesituation a clear sense of the futureand an understanding of how to getthere.
LEADERSHIP AS SERVICEServant Leadership is follower-centered and committed to helpingothers in their work.Empowerment enables others togain and use decision-making power.
Study Question 2Leadership Traits and Behavior• Leadership traits• Leadership behaviors• Classic leadership styles
LEADERSHIP TRAITS• A comprehensive review by Shelley Kirkpatrick and Edwin Locke identifies personal traits of many successful leader.
LEADERSHIP TRAITS• Drive-They have high energy, display initiative, and are tenacious• Self-confidence- They have trust themselves and have confidence in their abilities.• Creativity- They are very creative and original in their thinking.• Cognitive ability- They have the intelligence to integrate and interpret information.
LEADERSHIP TRAITS• Job relevant knowledge- They know their industry and its technical foundations• Motivation- They enjoy influencing others to achieve shared goals• Flexibility- They adapt to fit the need of followers and the demands of situations• Honesty and Integrity- They are trustworthy; they are honest, predictable, and dependable.
LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORSLeadership style is the recurring pattern of behaviors exhibited by a leader.
LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS2 Dimensions of leadership style• Concern for the task to be accomplished• Concern for the people doing work
LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS• A leader high in concern for the task- plans and defines the work to be done assigns taks responsibilities, sets clear works standards, urges task completion and monitors performance results.• A leader high in concern for people- acts warm and supportive toward followers, maintains good social relations with them, respects their feelings, is sensitive to their need and shows trust in them
CLASSIC LEADERSHIP STYLES• A leader with an autocratic style- acts in a unilateral command and control fashion• A leader with a human relation style- emphasizes people over task.• A leader with a laissez-faire style- displays the “do the best you can and don’t bother me” attitude.• A leader with a democratic style- emphasizes both tasks and people
Study Question 3Contingency Approaches to Leadership• Fiedler’s contingency model• Hersey-Blanchard situational model• Path goal theory• Leader-member exchange theory• Leader-participation model
Three Consecutive VariablesQuality of leader-member (good or poor)- Measures the degree to which the group supports the leaderTask structure (high or low)- Measures the extent to which task goals, procedures, and guidelines are clearly spelled out.Position power (strong or weak)- Measures degree to which the position gives the leader power to reward and punish subordinates
high Participating Selling Shares Ideas Explain decisions Follows able, unwilling, Followers unable, willing, insecure confident Relationship behavior Delegating Telling- Support required Turn over decisions Give instructions Followers able, willing, Following unable, unwilling, confident insecure low low high Task Behavior Guidance required
Path-Goal LeadershipDirection leadership- letting subordinates know what is expectedSupportive leadership- doing things to make work more pleasantAchievement-oriented leadership- setting challenging goalsParticipative leadership- involving subordinates in decision making
Substitutes for Leadership- Are factors in the work setting that direct work efforts without the involvement of a leader
Leader-Participation ModelAuthority decision- is made by the leader and then communicated to the groupConsultative decision- is made by a leader after receiving information, advice, or opinions from group membersGroup decision- is made by group members themselves
Leader Who has information and Followers expertise?No Acceptance and commitment Yes critical for implementation? Time pressure for decision LowHigh making?
Study Question 4Issues in Leadership Management•Transformational leadership•Emotional Intelligence and leadership•Gender and leadership•Moral leadership•Drucker’s “old-fashioned” leadership
Charismatic Leaders Persons whose visions and strong personalities have an extra ordinary impact on others. Develop special leader-follower relationships and inspire followers in extraordinary way.
Transformational LeadershipTransformational LeaderIs inspirational and arousesextraordinary effort and performanceRaises aspirations and shifts people andorganizational systems into new, high-performance patterns
I Have A Dream “Stop complaining and Do something productive.” “If you can’t fly then run, if you can’t run then walk, if you can’t walk then crawl, but whatever youMartin Luther King, do you have to keep moving Jr. forward.”
Special qualities of a transformational leader:•Vision-having ideas and a clear sense ofdirection.•Charisma-using the power of personalreference and emotion to arouse others’enthusiasm, faith, loyalty, pride and trust inthemselves.•Integrity-being honest and credible
• Symbolism-identifying “heroes” and holding spontaneous and planned ceremonies• Empowerment-helping others develop by removing performance obstacles, sharing responsibilities, and delegating truly challenging work.• Intellectual Stimulation-gaining the involvement of others
Transactional Leader• Uses tasks, rewards, and structures to influence and direct the efforts of others• Uses contingent rewards to motivate followers.• Identifies what must be done to accomplish the desired results.• Uses corrective action only when goals not met.
Emotional IntelligenceIt is the ability to manage our emotions in social relationships.
Gender and leadershipAre there genderdifferences in leadership?•First, Social Scienceresearch largely supportsthe gender similaritieshypothesis: that is malesand females are very similarto one another in terms ofpsychological properties.
• Second, research leaves no doubt that both women and men can be equally effective as leaders.• But, Perceptions of gender similarities do exist.• Men and women are sometimes perceived differently as leaders, and that these perceptions fit traditional stereotypes.• Women “take care” while men “take charge”
Interactive Leadership• Leaders are strong communicators and act democratic and participative with followers.• they display many qualities in common with transformational leadership
Moral Leadership• This is leadership by ethical standards that clearly meet the test of being “good” and “correct”.• It begins with personal integrity.• Integrity in leadership is honesty, credibility, and consistency in putting values into action.
Gandhi, George Washington,and Eleanor Roosevelt aregreat leaders that followagendas true to the wishes oftheir followers.
Authentic Leadership• Activates positive psychological states to achieve self-awareness and positive self- regulation.• An Authentic leader has high level of self- awareness and clearly understands his or her personal values
Drucker’s “old-fashioned” leadership• Define and communicate a clear vision.• Accept leadership as responsibility, not rank.
• Surround yourself with talented people.• Don’t blame others when things go wrong.• Keep your integrity; earn the trust of others.• Don’t be clever, be consistent.