Digestion and absorption (further human physiology)

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This handout talks about digestion of lipids, helicobacter pylori, the absorption of digested foods and the structure and function in villus epithelium cells.

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Digestion and absorption (further human physiology)

  1. 1. Digestion of lipids:  digested by ______ because lipids are _________ in water and melt in the ____________________, forming liquid droplets. Those droplets then ____________ to form larger droplets.  Lipase is ________________ so it does not enter the lipid droplets. It _________ the lipids on the droplet surface with its ________________________. The droplets decrease in size, but some cannot be digested completely while the food is in the alimentary canal.  ________, a natural detergent from the liver, contains bile salts and breaks up (emulsifies) the coat lipid droplets, lipids and water into smaller droplets. Bile is stored in the _________________ and discharged into the ________________ to speed up the emulsification of the lipids and completely digest them.Helicobacter Pylori: o Is an _____________ bacterium => infects stomach lining o Can cause: Stomach ulcers Stomach cancer -> could be caused by excessive -> tumor in the _________ secretion of _______________, but -> reduced _____________________ more likely by H. pylori infection in gastric juice -> can cause ___________ and then -> higher percentage of infected ulceration. Its enzymes, including patients proteases, damage the stomach -> further research needed on link lining. between H. pylori and cancer -> _________ treatments cannot relieve ulcer symptoms permanently. _______________treatments eliminate the infection and cure ulcers permanently. -> most severe ulceration: when infected with strains that produce toxins causing inflammationAbsorption of digested foods  By villi of ________ in small intestine  Tight conjunctions link __________________ of adjacent cells together  prevent leaking between _________________ (outer layer of cells)
  2. 2.  control _________  _______________ passes through plasma membrane of epithelium cells  __________, ______, ___________, __________ and _________________ CANNOT be absorbed => egested in fecesStructure and function in villus epithelium cells: Microvilli  Increase SA of _______________ in ileum => increased absorption rate by ______________  Lipids and other foods absorbed by ____________________________. -> easily pass through _________________ of plasma membrane of epithelium cells  Fructose + hydrophilic food at low concentration inside body cells absorbed by __________________. -> need assistance through hydrophobic center of plasma membrane by _________________. Mitochondria  ____ production -> absorption of glucose, amino acids, mineral ions (sodium, calcium + iron) by ________________________ in plasma membrane of microvilli Pinocytic vesicles  Formed by ________________  Contain small droplet of fluid from ___________ of ileum  Membranes formed from plasma membrane -> contain ______________ for ___________________ and _________ for ________________  Digested food absorbed from them into ___________

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