Short Story vs Novel Meant to be read in one sitting Tend to be less complex Usually focus on one incident Fewer characters Tend to follow similar pattern
The Pattern Where does this come from? Aristotle’s Poetics
The Pattern Plot is “the first principle” Consists of Exposition Incentive moment or “inciting incident” Rising action Crisis Climax Denouement
The Pattern Exposition: does not further plot but is essential information for reader Inciting incident: starts cause and effect chain Rising action: continues cause and effect chain Climax: elements of story should have inevitably led here. Resolution and denouement: caused by preceding events, but don’t lead to outside incidents
The Pattern Must be “unified” No deus ex machina Aristotle didn’t like episodic plots
Some more Greek terms A complex plot is better because they have: Peripeteia: reversal of fortune Anagnorisis: turn upon surprise--change from ignorance or knowledge. This leads to Catastrophe Catharsis
The other “principles” Character Diction Theme Melody Spectacle
Conflict Person vs person Person vs society Person vs self Person vs nature Person vs fate (God)
Character Protagonist vs hero Dynamic Static Flat Round Foil
Theme Statement General but not too general Should account for all major details Avoid sweeping generalizations. No clichés Helpful to mention topic title and author in a theme statement
Narrative Point of View
First Person Advantages Disadvantageso reader more involved o Only see through eyeso narrator as character of one character =more complex story o Trust? o What are we not seeing?
Third Person Advantages Disadvantageso Fly on wall perspective o Sometimes authoro Understand intentionally limits our perspectives of view for specific multiple characters purposeo No judgment o Distancing o May appear to not have bias
(Intrusive Narrator) An omniscient narrator who, in addition to reporting events of story: Offers further comments Sometimes reflects generally upon significance of story. Common with 19th century novelists.