Brief History and Nature of Badminton Badminton started as a children’s game in medieval England. First known as “battledore and shuttlecock,” it was later adopted as “Poona” in Pune, India during the British colonization of the country. The game was launched officially as a aborting event by the Duke of Beaufiord at the Badminton House in Gloucestershire, where it got its name.
Gloucestershire became the base of the International Badminton Federation (IBF), the world’s original governing body of the sport. Founded in 1934, it is now known as Badminton World Federation (BWF). The sport was introduced at the Barcelona Olympic in 1992. Badminton is a sport that can be played in singles or doubles. How badminton is played today is basically the same as it was during the early times. What is now the racket used to be a paddle known as “battledore.” Just like the modern racquet, the battledore was used to hit the shuttlecock, or “birdie,” over to the opponent’s side and keep it in rally.
Equipments Shuttlecock, also called “birdie,” is the projectile hit back and forth in badminton. It is composed of sixteen overlapping feathers attached to the base about 2.5cm to 2.8cm in diameter. It is harder to hit a feather shuttlecock fast, because there is more drag. Experienced badminton players usually prefer it because it gives them more control. Also, better play is needed to hit the feather shuttles. Feather shuttlecocks, however, are more brittle and less durable than plastic ones. They could be more expensive. In school gyms and amateur club, plastic shuttlecocks are more often used than feather one. These shuttlecocks do not break easily and usually are less expensive.
Racket or racquet is the instrument used to hit the shuttlecock. It is made up of light materials, has a 23 cm wide frame, and an overall length of 68 cm. The cross stringed patterned surface used for hitting the shuttlecock is 28 cm wide and 22 cm wide. The stringed area is the part with which the player hits the shuttle. It is bounded by the head. The handle is the part gripped by the player and connected to the head by the shaft. The throat, if present, connects the shaft to the head. The frame is the name given to the head, throat, shaft and handle taken together.
Court. The court is a rectangular area where badminton is played. It requires a level ground space that is level and smooth but not slippery. The recommended space for badminton is concrete or a surface imbedded with bitumen, a tar-like, non-slippery material. The court’s dimension differs according to the match to be player. For single’s matches, it is 20 ft wide and 40 ft long. The doubles matches are played on a 17 ft. by 44 ft. court.
Net. The net used in badminton is 5’1” high and 20 ft. wide it is made of fine, dark-colored cord with a mesh (thickness) of not less than 15 mm and not more than 20 mm. It must be 6.1 meters wide and stretched from post to post. The top of the net from the surface is 1.524 meters at the center of the court and 1.55 meters at the posts. Posts. The posts are placed on the side boundary lines of the court. Each have a height of 1.55 meters from the floor. They should be sufficiently firm to remain vertical and keep the net tight.
Playing the Game Badminton requires many strikes to be used in the right situations. These strokes include net returns and jumping smashes. You need subtler strokes to set the smash. For example, a net shot can force the opponent to return a shuttlecock at a raised level, which gives you an opportunity to smash. “Deception” by making “trick shots” is also important in the game. Expert players prepare for many different strokes that look identical, and use “slicing” strokes to deceive their opponents about the speed or direction of the stroke. If an opponent tries to anticipate the stroke, he may move in wrong direction and fail to change its body momentum in time to reach the shuttlecock.
Rules and regulations Service in badminton should be performed without delay. The only permitted way of serving it is to do it underhand. The whole of the head of the racket must be clearly below the server’s hand, and the shuttlecock must be below the server’s waist. Opponents cannot jump and serve as it is required to have part of their feet on the ground. The service area is marked by a center line of 13 ft. which marks the course at halfway and a short service line which is 6.5 feet from the net.
During the play, it is considered a fault when the shuttlecock hits the ceiling in case of indoor matches. The opponents are only allowed to hit the shuttlecock once. A match is won when one of the opponents reaches the 21st point in a best a three matches. In case of the tie in the 20th point, the player who advances 2 points win. Points are through rally scoring which means that
Officials of the Game Referee Umpire Service Judge Line Judge
The Benefits of Playing the Sport It lowers blood pressure, increases good cholesterol and lessens bad cholesterol. It raises the heart rate and keeps the metabolism at a healthy pace. It promotes the activity of bone forming cells and prevents bone disease like osteoporosis. It helps relieve stress and anxiety and promotes restful sleep. It encourages a positive body image. It provides an enjoyable and satisfying opportunity to develop one’s talents. It provides opportunities for control over attitude and leadership. It build relationship and social networks.
Table tennis is a sport commonly known as ping pong The objective of the game is to hit and volley the ball with the paddle to the other side of the table over the net. It may be played individually or with a partner The game started in the medieval ages and became popular in England in the 1880s."Gossima" and "whiff-whaff" - names also associated with table tennis.International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF) - is the governing body for all international table tennis associations.January 1926 in Berlin - first international tournament of Table Tennis
Equipments Table - usually made up of masonite or timber. Racket - made from laminated wood covered with rubber on one or two sides Ball - 2.7 grams in weight and 40mm in diameter.
Basic Skills 1. Grip a. Shake hand grip - holding of paddle as if you are shaking someones hand. b. Pen hold grip - used when the paddle is held just like a pen.
2. Spin a. Topspin - stroke starts below or behind the ball and brushing the ball in an upward and forward motion b. Backspin - stroke starts above or behind the ball and brushing the ball in a downward and forward motion c. Sidespin - produced by brushing the ball in a sideways motion
Rules and Regulations The game starts with a service. Matches are best of odd numbers of games. A player wins in table tennis upon scoring the 11th point. In case there had been a tie on the 10th point, the player who advances two points against his or her opponent wins.
Benefits from sport It develops very good reflexes and strengthens muscles of the player. It develops mental agility It imposes little risk or injury Strength, size and gender are not the main requirements for winning.
Good nutrition is all about eating food that are good for you. This does not always involve eating food that always agree with your taste buds. More importantly, good nutrition concerns eating food that will nourish your body and mind and give you total health. Nutrition – the act or process of nourishment or using the substances in food to maintain good health. Nutrients – the substances found in food that your body needs to function properly.
Factors of Good Nutrition Water – a very important nutrient. . A person also needs to drink 8-10 glasses of water everyday to replace the fluids that we lose in the form of urine and urinal. Food – also important to our life in order for us to survive. The food that is taken in is renewed into nutrients that the body uses for different processes.
Essential Nutrients - You need the essential nutrients for your body to function properly. Eating food that is taken in is renewed into nutrients that the body uses for different processes. Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Vitamins Minerals
Good Eating Practices Eat regularly. Eat moderately. Avoid processed or junk foods. Minimize eating fast food.
Balanced diet - means choosing a wide variety of foods and drinks from all the food groups. It also means eating certain things in moderation, namely saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, refined sugar, salt and alcohol. The goal is to take in nutrients you need for health at the recommended levels.Basic Food Groups Vegetable and fruit group - rich in Vitamins A and C, and fiber. Breads, cereals, oats, rice and pasta group - important sources of vitamin B, iron and protein. Milk, yogurt and cheese group - rich in calcium and contribute riboflavin, protein, Vitamins A and B12. Meat, poultry, fish, beans, eggs and nuts group - good sources of protein, phosphorous, iron, zinc, Vitamin B6, niacin and minerals. Nonnutritive Foods - includes fats, sweets and alcohol which provide few nutrients
The Food Guide Pyramid The Food Guide Pyramid - is a tool to make sure that you are eating healthfully. It determines the amount of food and how frequently it should be eaten.
Nutritional Guidelines for Filipinos 2000 1. Eat a variety of food daily. 2. Breastfeed infants exclusively from birth up to six months, and then give them appropriate food while continuing to breastfeed 3. Maintain childrens growth through proper diet and monitor growth regularly. 4. Consume fish, lean meat, poultry and dried beans adequately and properly. 5. Eat more vegetables, fruit and root crops 6. Eat cooked in edible or cooking oil in moderation 7. Consume milk, milk products, and other calcium-rich food such as small fish & dark green and leafy vegetables every day. 8. Avoid excessive intake of salty food. Use iodized salt. 9. Eat clean and safe food 10. Exercise regularly; do not smoke; avoid drinking alcoholic beverages
Body Image - term used to describe the way you perceive your body. It has a very important role in your development as an adolescent because it may affect your self-esteem. A positive body image is the attitude that you have when you accept and feel good about your body. This attitude gives you confidence to handle different situations in life. On the other hand, people with unhealthy body image tends to be unhappy with their physical attributes resulting then to change their bodies drastically - through surgery or even harmful dietary practices. Always remember that the best look is always your natural and healthy look. Aspiring to look like someone - or something - else is unnatural and may even lead to harmful results.
Eating Disorders - It is a disease caused by low self-esteem, emotional problems, and poor body image. Anorexia nervosa - a psychological eating disorder characterized by the persons refusal to eat and extreme loss of apetite. Bulimia nervosa - an eating disorder characterized by binge eating and purging. Binge eating means periodically eating large amounts of food at one time. A binge might happen after a long period of dieting and often consists of junk foods.
Symptoms of Anorexia andBulimia Nervosa Preference for low-fat or low-calorie foods only Lack of appetite or interest in food Preference for loose clothes to hide thinness Over exercise Dehydration and constipation Loss of hair Malnutrition Lack of confidence
For Bulimics Obsession with food Binging in private but eat regular amounts when with others Stealing food and hiding in strange places while eating Taking trips to the bathroom immediately after eating Inducing vomiting after eating Gulping food quickly while bingeing so as not to be discovered
Binge eating - a disorder when people feel as though they cannot stop themselves from eating.Obesity - a condition characterized by an excessive amount of body fat.Symptoms of Binge Eating Disordero Inability to stop eating or control what one is eatingo Rapidly eating large amounts of foodo Eating even when fullo Hiding or stockpiling food to eat later in secreto Eating normally around others, but gorging when aloneo Eating continuously throughout the day, with no planned meal time
Tips for Overcoming BingeEating Don’t skip breakfast. Avoid temptation in eating unhealthy foods Avoid strict dieting which can lead to cravings for food. Exercise. Learn to cope from stress.
Strategies in Managing EatingMethods of Eating When you eat do nothing but eat. Eat slowly and stop when full. Follow an eating schedule. Do your eating in designated areas. Leave the table after eating. Avoid second servings. Limit serving of condiments. Limit serving of non basics such as dessert, bread and soft drinks. Eat several meals of equal size rather than one big meal or two small ones.
Strategies for Eating Out Limit deep-fat fried foods. Ask for information about the content. Choose low-fat foods Choose chicken, fish or lean meat. If you eat desserts, avoid those with sauces or toppingsEating at Home Keep busy at times when you are at risk of overeating. Store food out of sight. Avoid serving food to other between meals. If you snack, choose snacks with complex carbohydrates.