A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. It produces sound by plucking a string
when a key is pressed.
The Appalachian dulcimer (or mountain dulcimer) is a fretted string instrument of the zither family, typically
with three or four strings. Its origins are in the Appalachian region of the United States. The body extends the
length of the fingerboard, and its fretting is generally diatonic.
The lyre (Greek: λύπα) is a string instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and later. The word
comes from the Greek "λύπα" (lyra)
and the earliest reference to the word is the Mycenaean Greek ru-ra-ta-e,
meaning "lyrists", written in Linear B syllabic script.
Lute can refer generally to any string instrument having the strings running in a plane parallel to the sound table
(in the Hornbostel–Sachs system), more specifically to any plucked string instrument with a neck (either fretted
or unfretted) and a deep round back, or more specifically to an instrument from the family of European lutes.
Tube with six fingerholes; mouth piece of bamboo with cut out reed; mouth shield made of coconut shell; bell
made of leaf (probably bamboo) and blue plastic ribbon.
A musical instrument used in Panay consisting of a tube with a pipe. It is played by placing water in the tube
and blowing the pipe. The presence of water produces a whistling sound.
The pasiyok of Visayan is a bamboo flute. The bamboo whistle flute has one hole placed at the top to blow the
whistle flute. There are no finger holes to make different sounds with.
Diw-diw-as A musical instrument of the Tinguians in Abra. It is a pan-pipe of five or seven pieces of bamboo
reeds of different lengths tied side by side.
Lantoy is a flute that may be blown by mouth or nose.
A vertical flute with 6 fingerholes on top and one hole under used in samar
A nose flute used by the kalingas it is played using one nose trill and the other nose trill is covered with soft
The tambuli is a musical instrument mainly utilized in the Phillipines. It was constructed from carabao horns.
The tongali is a four holed nose flute (one hole in the back) from northern Philippines and played by the
Kalinga and other peoples of Luzon. The tongali is one of the few nose flutes in the world that is still actively
taught, thanks to the work of Jose Maceda at the University of the Philippines and the ongoing effects of the
music department of UP Quezon.
The palendag, also called Pulalu (Manobo and Mansaka), Palandag (Bagobo),Pulala (Bukidnon) and
Lumundeg (Banuwaen) is a type of Philippine bamboo flute, the largest one used by the Maguindanaon, a
smaller type of this instrument is called the Hulakteb (Bukidnon).
The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is
an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening.
The horn (also known as the corno and French horn) is a brass instrument made of more than 20 feet
of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell.
The zither is a musical string instrument, most commonly found in Slovenia, Austria, Hungary, northwestern
Croatia, the southern regions of Germany, alpine Europe and East Asian cultures, including China.
The sousaphone is a brass instrument, related to the tuba and hélicon. It is widely employed in marching band
and tanjidor. Designed so that it fits around the body of the musician and is supported by the left shoulder, the
sousaphone may be readily played while being carried. The instrument is named after American bandmaster and
composer John Philip Sousa, who popularized its use in his band.
The horn (also known as the corno and French horn) is a brass instrument made of more than 20 feet
of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell. A musician who plays the horn is called a horn player
(or less frequently, a hornist). In informal use, "horn" may also refer to nearly any wind instrument with a flared
exit for the sound.
English horn, French cor anglais, German Englischhorn, orchestral woodwind instrument, a large oboe pitched
a fifth below the ordinary oboe, with a bulbous bell and, at the top end, a bent metal crook on which the double
reed is placed. It is pitched in F, being written a fifth higher than it sounds. Its compass is from the E below
middle C to the second E above. The name first appeared in Vienna about 1760; ―cor‖ refers to the curved or
hornlike shape it then had, but the origin of ―anglais‖ (―English‖) remains a mystery.
The contrabassoon, also known as the double bassoon or bass bassoon, is a larger version of the bassoon,
sounding an octave lower. Its technique is similar to its smaller cousin, with a few notable differences.
(also referred to as the sax) is a conical-bore woodwind musical instrument. Saxophones are
usually made of brass and played with a single-reed mouthpiece similar to that of the clarinet.
The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. Like all brass instruments, sound is produced when
the player’s vibrating lips (embouchure) cause the air column inside the instrument to vibrate.
The tuba is the largest and lowest-pitched brass instrument. Sound is produced by vibrating or "buzzing" the
lips into a large cupped mouthpiece.
A trumpet is a musical instrument. It is the highest register in the brass family. Trumpets are among the oldest
dating back to at least 1500 BC. They are played by blowing air through closed lips,
producing a "buzzing" sound that starts a standing wave vibration in the air column inside the instrument. Since
the late 15th century they have primarily been constructed of brass tubing, usually bent twice into a rounded
The oboe /ˈoʊboʊ/ is a soprano-ranged, double reed musical instrument of the woodwind family made from a
wooden tube roughly 65 cm (25-1/2 inches)long, with metal keys, a conical bore and flared bell. Sound is
produced by blowing into the reed and vibrating a column of air. The distinctive oboe tone is versatile, and has
been described as "bright".
is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass
and tenor clefs, and occasionally the treble. Appearing in its modern form in the 19th century, the bassoon
figures prominently in orchestral, concert band and chamber music literature. The bassoon is a non-transposing
instrument known for its distinctive tone color, wide range, variety of character and agility. Listeners often
compare its warm, dark, reedy timbre to that of a male baritone voice. Someone who plays the bassoon is called
The clarinet is a type of woodwind instrument that has a single-reed mouthpiece, a straight cylindrical tube
with an approximately cylindrical bore, and a flaring bell. A person who plays the clarinet is called a clarinetist
The cornet is a brass instrument very similar to the trumpet, distinguished by its conical bore, compact shape,
and mellower tone quality. The most common cornet is a transposing instrument in B♭. It is not related to the
renaissance and early baroque cornett.
(Italian for small, but named Ottavino in Italy)
is a half-size flute, and a member of the
woodwind family of musical instruments. The piccolo has most of the same fingerings as its larger sibling, the
standard transverse flute,
but the sound it produces is an octave higher than written. This gave rise to the name
"ottavino," the name by which the instrument is referred to in the scores of Italian composers.
Buktot- a word in the filipino language generally meaning a humpbacked person. The instrument resonator,
usually a coconut shell, resembles a hunchback! Th buktot is a Visayan Guitar
Traditional Filipino instrument that is used to make percussion sounds that resemble those of maracas. The
instrument has a long, thin wooden handle, and, when it is played, it is struck with another long, slim piece of
wood to produce the distinctive sound.
Karaga Guitar is made of bamboo.The strings are slit from the bamboo itself.Instead of hole,the split and tied
back on both ends,leaving a slit as resonator.
The kutiyapi, or kudyapi, is a Philippine two-stringed, fretted boat-lute. It is the only stringed instrument
among the Maguindanao people, and one of several among other groups such as the Maranao and Manobo. It is
four to six feet long with nine frets made of hardened beeswax. The instrument is carved out of solid soft wood
such as from the jackfruit tree.
Is a guitar made from bamboo. A segment of bamboo is cut to include its two node. Its two cords are slit from
the bamboo itself and raised by a bridge to produce tension. It is played by picking the cords with the fingers or
striking with a stick.
A bow with a single hemp string picked with a small stick
It is a stringed instrument. It is the bamboo bow of the Apayaos found among the Negritos of Tayabas.
The Hanunoo use the guitar to play harmonic chords and interludes between verses sung in one or two tones.
The Hanunoo use several kinds of flute. The transverse flute has five stops (unlike the Buhid's palawta which
has six), and is tuned diatonically. The pituh is a flute which is diatonically tuned, has finger-holes, but no
The guitar is a string instrument of the chordophone family constructed from wood and strung with either
nylon or steel strings. The modern guitar was preceded by the lute, vihuela, four-course renaissance guitar and
five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument.
The violin is a string instrument, usually with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. It is the smallest, highest-
pitched member of the violin family of string instruments, which also includes the viola, cello and doublebass.
The double bass, also called the string bass, upright bass, bass fiddle, bass violin, doghouse bass,
contrabass, bass viol, stand-up bass, bull fiddle or simply bass, is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed string
instrument of the violin family in the modern symphony orchestra, with strings usually tuned to E1, A1, D2 and
G2 (see standard tuning). The double bass is a standard member of the string section of the orchestra
smaller string ensembles
in Western classical music. In addition, it is used in other genres such as jazz, 1950s-
style blues and rock and roll, rockabilly/psychobilly, traditional country music, bluegrass, tango and many types
of folk music.
The cello (/ˈtʃɛloʊ/ CHEL-oh; plural cellos or celli) is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in
perfect fifths. It is a member of the violin family of musical instruments, which also includes the violin, viola
and double bass.
The viola (/viˈoʊlə/ or /vaɪˈoʊlə/)
is a bowed string instrument. It is slightly larger than a violin in size and
has a deeper sound. Since the 18th century it has been the middle voice of the violin family, between the violin
(which is tuned a perfect fifth above it) and the cello (which is tuned an octave below it).
The harp is a multi-string instrument which has the plane of its strings positioned perpendicularly to the
soundboard. Organologically, it is in the general category of chordophones (stringed instruments) and has its
own sub category (the harps). All harps have a neck, resonator and strings. Some, known as frame harps, also
have a pillar; those without the pillar are referred to as open harps.
The banjo is a four-, five- or (occasionally) six-stringed instrument with a thin membrane stretched over a
frame or cavity as a resonator. The membrane is typically a piece of animal skin or plastic, and the frame is
typically circular. Simpler forms of the instrument were fashioned by Africans in Colonial America, adapted
from several African instruments of similar design.
The ukulele (/ˈjuːkəˈleɪliː/, yoo-ka-LAY-lee, from Hawaiian: ʻukulele [ˈʔukuˈlɛlɛ], OO-KOO-le-le)
sometimes abbreviated to uke, is a member of the guitar family of instruments; it generally employs four nylon
or gut strings or four courses of strings.
The bandurria is a plectrum chordophone from Spain, similar to the cittern and the mandolin, primarily used in
Spanish folk music. It bears a close resemblance to the Portuguese guitar.
Gabbang, also known as bamboo xylophone, is a musical instrument made of bamboo widely used in the
This is a percussion instrument native to the Philipines. It's kind of like a guitar except that there is no hole and
it's made entirely of wood. To play it they hit it with their hands or with a beater.
The bamboo buzzer is known variously as the balingbing or bunkaka (Kalinga) and batiwtiw (Central
Philippines). The bamboo buzzer is a bamboo tube which is open or split at one end. The sound is produced by
striking the split end against the palm of the hand. This instrument is also used to drive away evil spirits.
Kulintang is a modern term for an ancient instrumental form of music composed on a row of small,
horizontally-laid gongs that function melodically, accompanied by larger, suspended gongs and drums. As part
of the larger gong-chime culture of Southeast Asia, kulintang music ensembles have been playing for many
centuries in regions of the Eastern Malay Archipelago—the Southern Philippines, Eastern Indonesia, Eastern
Malaysia, Brunei and Timor,
although this article has a focus on the Philippine Kulintang traditions of the
Maranao and Maguindanao peoples in particular.
A gangsa is a type of metallophone which is used mainly in Balinese and Javanese Gamelan music. In Balinese
gong kebyar styles, there are two types of gangsa typically used: the smaller, higher pitched kantilan and the
larger pemade. Each instrument consists of several tuned metal bars (either iron or bronze) each placed over an
Ludag is mean lay down or recline . this use instrument by the apayaos.It is cone like in shape.
Is One of the most ancient percussion instruments among the tagalogs.It is played by strikingone piece against
the other.Thosewho speak tagalog and visayan dialect will easily understand the meaning of the word
kalutang,where KA means company,as in kasama (tagalog word) and LUTA (visayan word)means
separated.The two syllables together produce kalutang,which means two separated wood sounded together to
produce a musicalsoun or rhythm.
The dabakan is a single-headed
Philippine drum, primarily used as a supportive instrument in the kulintang
ensemble. Among the five main kulintang instruments, it is the only non-gong element of the Maguindanao
The gandingan is a Philippine set of four large, hanging gongs used by the Maguindanao as part of their
kulintang ensemble. When integrated into the ensemble, it functions as a secondary melodic instrument after the
main melodic instrument, the kulintang. When played solo, the gandingan allows fellow Maguindanao to
communicate with each other, allowing them to send messages or warnings via long distances. This ability to
imitate tones of the Maguindanao language using this instrument has given the gandingan connotation: the
Cymbals are a common percussion instrument. Cymbals consist of thin, normally round plates of various
alloys; see cymbal making for a discussion of their manufacture. The majority of cymbals are of indefinite
pitch, although small disc-shaped cymbals based on ancient designs sound a definite note (see: crotales).
Cymbals are used in many ensembles ranging from the orchestra, percussion ensembles, jazz bands, heavy
metal bands, and marching groups. Drum kits usually incorporate at least a crash, ride or crash/ride, and a pair
of hi-hat cymbals.
The triangle is an idiophone type of musical instrument in the percussion family. It is a bar of metal, usually
steel but sometimes other metals like beryllium copper, bent into a triangle shape. The instrument is usually
held by a loop of some form of thread or wire at the top curve. It was first made around the 16th century.
The xylophone (from the Greek words ξύλον—xylon, "wood"
+ φωνή—phonē, "sound, voice",
"wooden sound") is a musical instrument in the percussion family that consists of wooden bars struck by
mallets. Each bar is an idiophone tuned to a pitch of a musical scale, whether pentatonic or heptatonic in the
case of many African and Asian instruments, diatonic in many western children's instruments, or chromatic for
Bongos (Spanish: bongó) are an Afro-Cuban percussion instrument. The drums are of different size: the larger
drum is called in Spanish the hembra (female) and the smaller the macho (male). They are membranophones, or
instruments that create sound by a vibration of a stretched membrane.
Castanets are a percussion instrument (idiophone), used in Kalo, Moorish,
Ottoman, ancient Roman, Italian,
Spanish, Sephardic, Swiss, and Portuguese music. The instrument consists of a pair of concave shells joined on
one edge by a string. They are held in the hand and used to produce clicks for rhythmic accents or a ripping or
rattling sound consisting of a rapid series of clicks. They are traditionally made of hardwood (chestnut; Spanish:
although fibreglass is becoming increasingly popular.
A tom-tom drum (not to be confused with a tam-tam) is a cylindrical drum with no snare.
Although "tom-tom" is the British term for a child's toy drum, the name came originally from the Anglo-Indian
the tom-tom itself comes from Asian or Native American cultures. The tom-tom drum is also a
traditional means of communication. The tom-tom drum was added to the drum kit in the early part of the 20th
The snare drum or side drum is a widely used unpitched percussion instrument. It is often used in orchestras,
marching bands and concert bands, drum corps and many other applications.
A glockenspiel (German pronunciation: [ˈɡlɔkənˈʃpiːl], glocken:bells and spiel:play) is a percussion
instrument composed of a set of tuned keys arranged in the fashion of the keyboard of a piano. In this way, it is
similar to the xylophone; however, the xylophone's bars are made of wood, while the glockenspiel's are metal
plates or tubes, thus making it a metallophone. The glockenspiel, moreover, is usually smaller and higher in
The tambourine is a musical instrument in the percussion family consisting of a frame, often of wood or
plastic, with pairs of small metal jingles, called "zils". Classically the term tambourine denotes an instrument
with a drumhead, though some variants may not have a head at all. Tambourines are often used with regular
percussion sets. They can be mounted, but position is largely down to preference.
Chime (bell instrument)
A carillon-like instrument with fewer than 23 bells is called a chime.
Rattle (percussion instrument)
A rattle is a type of percussion instrument which produces a sound when shaken. Rattles are described in the
Hornbostel–Sachs system as Shaken Idiophones or Rattles (112.1).
Clapper (musical instrument)
A clapper is a basic form of percussion instrument. It consists of two long solid pieces that are clapped together
producing sound. A straightforward instrument to produce and play, they exist in many forms in many different
cultures around the world. Clappers can take a number of forms and be made of a wide variety of material.
Wood is most common, but metal and ivory have also been used.
Wooden sand block instruments from a teachers supply store to use with her kids music group. Unfortunately,
at $5 a pop she did not have a budget to get blocks for every child she works with.
A gong is an East and South East Asian musical percussion instrument that takes the form of a flat metal disc
which is hit with a mallet. Gongs are broadly of three types. Suspended gongs are more or less flat, circular
discs of metal suspended vertically by means of a cord passed through holes near to the top rim.
A bell (old Saxon: bellan, to bawl or bellow) is a simple sound-making device. The bell is a percussion
instrument and an idiophone. Its form is usually a hollow, cup-shaped acoustic resonator, which vibrates upon
being struck. The striking implement can be a tongue suspended within the bell, known as a clapper, a separate
mallet or hammer, or in small bells a small loose sphere enclosed within the body of the bell.
A small double-headed drum carried at the side with snares that produce a rattling effect.
A bass drum is a large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch.
Timpani, or kettledrums, are musical instruments in the percussion family. A type of drum, they consist of a
skin called a head stretched over a large bowl traditionally made of copper.
Contrabass (derived from Italian: contrabbasso) refers to a musical instrument of very low pitch; generally
those pitched one octave below instruments of the bass register. While the term most commonly refers to the
double bass (which is the bass instrument in the orchestral string family, tuned lower than the cello), many
other instruments in the contrabass register exist.
Bass violin is the modern term for various 16th and 17th-century bass instruments of the violin (i.e. "viola da
braccio") family. They were the direct ancestor of the modern cello.
Bass violins were usually somewhat
larger than the modern cello, but tuned the same or sometimes just one step lower than it.
The clavichord is a European stringed keyboard instrument known from the late Medieval, through the
Renaissance, Baroque and Classical eras. Historically, it was widely used as a practice instrument and as an aid
to composition, not being loud enough for larger performances. The clavichord produces sound by striking
brass or iron strings with small metal blades called tangents.
The piano is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. Widely used in classical and jazz music for
solo performances, ensemble use, chamber music and accompaniment, the piano is also popular as a tool for
composing and rehearsal. Although not portable and often expensive, the piano's versatility and ubiquity have
made it one of the world's most familiar musical instruments.
Single-tension is one of several ways to apply the necessary tension to drum heads. Single-tension systems
largely replaced the ancient rope-tension methods in the late 19th Century and are still used today in lower-
priced drums for student use.