Hydrosphere
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Hydrosphere

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Hydrosphere Hydrosphere Document Transcript

  • Hydrosphere The hydrosphere (from Greek ὕδωρ - hudōr, "water"[1] and σφαῖρα - sphaira, "sphere"[2] ) in physical geographydescribes the combined mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of a planet. Water cycle The water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle or the H2O cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth. The mass water on Earth remains fairly constant over time but the partitioning of the water into the major reservoirs of ice, fresh water, saline water and atmospheric water is variable depending on a wide range of climatic variables. The water moves from one reservoir to another, such as from river toocean, or from the ocean to the atmosphere, by the physical processes of evaporation, condensation, precipitation ,infiltration, runoff, and subsurface flow. In so doing, the water goes through different phases: liquid, solid (ice), and gas (vapor). Surface runoff Surface runoff is the water flow that occurs when the soil is infiltrated to full capacity and excess water from rain, meltwater, or other sources flows over the land. This is a major component of the water cycle, and the primary agent in water erosion.[1][2] Surface water Surface water is water on the surface of the planet such as in a stream, river, lake, wetland, or ocean. It can be contrasted with groundwater and atmospheric water. Non-saline surface water is replenished by precipitation and by recruitment from ground-water. It is lost through evaporation, seepage into the ground where it becomes ground-water, used by plants for transpiration, abstracted by mankind for agriculture, living, industry etc. or discharged to the sea where it becomes saline. Groundwater Groundwater is the water located beneath the earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock become completely saturated with water is called the water table. Groundwater is recharged from, and eventually flows to, the surface naturally; natural discharge often occurs at springs and seeps, and can form oases or wetlands. Groundwater is also often withdrawn for agricultural, municipal and industrial use by constructing and operating extraction wells. The study of the distribution and movement of groundwater is hydrogeology, also called groundwater hydrology. Water table The water table is the surface where the water pressure head is equal to the atmospheric pressure (where gauge pressure = 0). It may be conveniently visualized as the "surface" of the subsurface materials that are saturated with groundwater in a given vicinity. However, saturated conditions may extend above the water table as surface tension holds water in some pores below atmospheric pressure.[1] Individual points on the water table are typically measured as the
  • elevation that the water rises to in a well screened in the shallow groundwater. Aquifer An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt) from which groundwater can be extracted using a water well. The study of water flow in aquifers and the characterization of aquifers is called hydrogeology. Related terms include aquitard, which is a bed of low permeability along an aquifer,[1] and aquiclude (or aquifuge), which is a solid, impermeable area underlying or overlying an aquifer. If the impermeable area overlies the aquifer pressure could cause it to become a confined aquifer. Plankton Plankton (singular plankter) are any organisms that live in the water column and are incapable of swimming against a current.[1] They provide a crucial source of food to many large aquatic organisms, such as fish and whales. Bioremediation Bioremediation is a waste management technique that involves the use of organisms to remove or neutralize pollutants from a contaminated site.[1] Technologies can be generally classified as in situ or ex situ. In situ bioremediation involves treating the contaminated material at the site, while ex siti involves the removal of the contaminated material to be treated elsewhere. Upwelling Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water. The nutrient-rich upwelled water stimulates the growth and reproduction of primary producers such as phytoplankton. Floodplain A floodplain or flood plain is an area of land adjacent to a stream or river that stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls and experiences flooding during periods of high discharge. Relative humidity Relative humidity is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in an air- water mixture to the saturated vapor pressure of water at a prescribed temperature. The relative humidity of air depends on temperature and the pressure of the system of interest. Reference: wikipedia