UNIT 1 : Health
UNIT 2 : The Family as a Part of
Lesson 1:Health Analysis and
Health education aims to help us obtain an
understanding of the community, its organization,
its health problems and various agencies
connected with it, so that they will realize and
perform their roles in helping their respective
communities become a safe place to live in. it
aims to produce health-educated individuals, who
will be able to make the right decisions not only to
themselves but also to their family and ultimately
A. Environmental Health
The problem of “pollution” affects the health of the people
due to the increasing population. It has been noted that
diseases like tuberculosis, typhoid and chickenpox had long
been eradicated; however, due to the problem of pollution
these diseases have reappeared affecting susceptible
persons. These diseases can be prevented through massive
education of the people regarding the ill effects of
environmental hazards on the health and wellness of the
people. Resuscitating the environment should be done by:
Cleaning the “esteros” and “canals”
Disposing of garbage properly
Safeguarding water supply against contaminants
Using fertilizers that are environment-friendly
The people will be protected from environmental diseases if we
take our responsibility of cleaning and greening our
surroundings and environment.
Promoting a healthy environment is the responsibility of every
B. Health and Sanitation
These terms refer to the improvement of the
conditions that affect health, particularly with regard to
dirt and infection. Proper use of water supply, proper
segregation and garbage disposal should be taken
We are given by “nature” the vitality and power to
overcome almost every type of illness yet there are
still so many sick people.
This is because of our foolish ways of living. So many
habits and environmental factors bring about the
weakening and destruction of our bodies.
Causes of Ailments to the Human Body:
1. The germs which are found in the air we breathe.
2. Food we eat and water we drink.
3. Bacteria and viruses which are too tiny to be seen.
4. Malnutrition or nutritional deficiency which is the
inadequate or poor nourishment of the body.
a. People who have no resources to buy food they need
and want to eat
b. Ignorance of food nutrients; not eating a balanced died
even if people can afford
c. Nutritional deficiency diseases that can be described as
abnormal in connection to eating
5.People can also develop nutritional deficiencies because
they have some diseases that interfere with food
absorption, or that cause an increased excretion, usually in
the urine, of substances needed for nutrition.
Three Main Reasons Why Our Body Needs
1. As fuel to keep us warm to supply the energy we
need to stay alive; to move about and work
2. Food supplies the necessary materials for growth
and repair worn- pit tissues
3. We need the vitamins, minerals, and other
substances that are necessary for the chemical
processes taking place inside our bodies.
C. Occupational Diseases
These are diseases used to be thought as of those diseases
contracted at the workplace; eczema has long been associated as
an occupational hazard among workers handling chemicals.
Today more diseases are related to the contamination of the
environment by chemicals, metals,. Dust particles, gases and noise.
Types of Occupational Diseases:
1. Diseases of the Skin
a. Skin damage
b. Contact eczema
c. Skin cancer
2. Leukemia, cancer of the blood
a. Workers in petroleum refining industry
b. Asbestos dust is a potent cause of asbestosis, a form of lung
c. X-rays and laboratory technicians handling radioactive samples
are more likely to suffer cancer of the blood
Lesson 2 : Air Pollution
The Metro Manila population is practically
gasping for breath because of the deteriorating
quality of air in the atmosphere. If you are living in
Metro Manila, and you commute daily to your
school, and after sometime you experience
recurring colds and intermittent coughing, then
you are a victim of the ill-effects of air pollution.
The table below shows the concentration of air
pollutants in Metro Manila as compared with the
allowable National Guidelines. This is the findings of
the study done by United Nations Environmental
Programme (UNEP) and (WHO)
The air Pollutants and Their Effects to Our Body:
1.Suspended Particulate Matter – This is emitted from
natural resources, such as ashfalls from erupting
volcanoes, dust storms, cool powdered plants, industrial
process, vehicles, domestic burning of trash and garbage
and industrial incinerators. Particulates are suspected of
contributing to the cancer load of the human population.
They clog the pores of the lungs and aggravate
respiratory ailments, such as bronchitis, asthma and
2. Carbon Monoxide – This gas is produced in the
incomplete burning of charcoal, gasoline, and other
carbonaceous fuels. It is also found in the exhaust fumes
in vehicle engines. This gas is colorless, almost odorless
and very poisonous when inhaled. It combines with the
hemoglobin, which is chemically stable. If this will
happen, the absence of hemoglobin will affect the
transportation of oxygen in the blood. This can result to
malfunctions in the brain and heart and worst – even
3.Sulfur Dioxide- When heavy fuel oil and coal are burned
to generated electricity and provide industrial power, this
gas is spewed into the air. This gas irritates the lungs thus
reduces its oxygen – handling capacity. Breathing too
much sulfur dioxide results to such ailments as
emphysema where in the tiny air sacs in the lungs are
inflated. They become distended. Their walls become thin
and eventually rupture. There is also a general loss of
elasticity of the lungs. The flow of blood in the lung is
slowed down by the destruction of the lung tissues and this
puts strain upon the heart which can lead to heart failure.
2.Nitrogen Dioxide – this gas is produced in the burning of
fuel in the vehicle engine. This causes respiratory
problems, like CO and SO2.
3.Tetraethyl Lead or TEL- The environment is
contaminated with lead as a result of the use of tetraethyl
lead in gasoline. TEL is used as an additive to gasoline to
raise its octane quality which allows the use of engine with
higher comprehension ratios, thereby reducing fuel
consumption and at the same time, increasing the property
On Air Pollution
Air pollutants rise and usually spread over a
wide area. Particles of dust, soot, and ashes in
polluted air irritate the eyes, throat and lungs. The
larger particles can clog the air sacs in the lungs,
making it hard for us to breathe. The smaller
particles that can pass into the bloodstream often
are carcinogenic. When these materials build-up
in the body, they can contribute to the
development of cancer.
Lesson 3: Water Pollution
Dirty water is the principal transition agent for at
least 80 percent of diseases. The problems on water
pollution can be greatly reduced with the cooperation
of all Filipinos. The government is on the lookout for
industrial plants violating the regulations on anti-
pollution. We, as citizens, can do a self watch by
making our environment, our home, school and
surroundings a healthy one.
Water is a prime necessity second to air. It is a
basic need for the existence of life on this planet.
Even our own bodies are composed of about three-
fourths water and no man can last more than four to
Conventional pollutants are generally due to the direct
throwing of human and animal wastes into the water. The rapid
migrations of people to the urban areas and the rapid
population increase have produced a sewage problem because
treatment facilities to produce clean water have not been in step
with the need. Untreated and partially treated sewage from the
waste water system, septic tanks and unsewered areas
discharge contribute very largely to the quantities of suspended
solids, dissolved solids, oil, metals, nutrients and bio
degradable (those materials that can be converted to simple
forms by anaerobic bacteria) organic carbon to the water
Non conventional pollutants are toxic waste from
industries and factories. Oil spills of varying degree like that of
the Guimaras can occur in the bodies of water around the
The Philippines has 384 major river systems and 59 lakes.
All the rivers in Metro Manila are biologically dead; meaning no
living things can survive in them. Seventy percent of the
pollution comes from domestic or residential commercial
sources and only thirteen percent of the industrial firms comply
with the pollution control measures prescribed by the National
A. Kinds of Water Pollution
1.Irrigation Pollution may occur in the water due to the
pollutants produced by excess nitrates present in
fertilizers and by chemicals found in herbicides,
insecticides and pesticides. If these pollutants cannot be
absorbed by the soil, they will be carried away to the
bodies of water through irrigation called agricultural run-
off; these pollutants may harm living organisms in water.
2.Oil Pollution causes the water to become polluted.
When the water is polluted, the marine birds will be
affected because oil will coat on their feathers which
affects their ability to float. This will impede their ability to
prey for their food that will result to their sudden death.
3.Radioactive waste- the prime sources are pollutants
from hospitals and research laboratories. Proper disposal
of wastes should be done to prevent contamination of
water supplies either in the ground or in bodies of water
4.Thermal Pollution causes death of fish and other aquatic
organisms that live in water. It contributes to the process of
eutrophication- the state of oxygen – depletion of water.
When the oxygen in water is depleted, the organisms that live
in water will die.
This is the discharge of heat through energy dissipation into
cooling water and subsequently into nearby waterways. The
major sources of thermal pollution are petroleum fuel, nuclear
electric- power generating facilities and cooling operations of
manufacturing industries such as foundry, metal
manufacturers chemical and petrochemical producers.
This thermal pollution is the discharge of heated water into
waterways, which causes ecological imbalance killing fishes
near the discharge source. It also decreases the ability of the
water to hold dissolved oxygen. This results to limited
reproduction and growth of water animals and plants.
5.Vessel pollution contributes to water pollution due to the
wastes discharged from ships to oceans lakes, reservoirs
Solid and Hazardous Wastes
Improper waste disposal can cause damage to the
aquatic environment and create water pollution that may
harm plants and animals living in water. It can generate
shoreline nuisance and cause sewage sludge which in
turn results in flood, destruction of structures, and
human lives, contamination of ground and surface water
supplies and diseases such as gastro-intestinal
infections, hepatitis, jaundice and other waterborne
diseases. Also the common practice of collecting
garbage and left over foods, used as feeds for pigs may
spread the parasite which produces the disease called
trichinosis. When meat contains their parasite, it is not
fir for human consumption. Meat inspection in slaughter-
houses should be done to ensure disease-free meat
before selling it to the public for consumption.
B. Solid wastes which consist primarily of trash
litter, and discarded materials have the
1.Wastes dumped in incinerators for burning can
lead to air pollution
2.They can serve as breeding grounds for rats,
rodents and other disease- carrying organisms
3.Dumping in lakes and rivers contributes to water
4.Accumulation of harmful amounts of methane
gas due to decomposition of wastes can cause fire
and destroy building structures
Effects of Water Pollution
Water pollution has a devastating effect on the delicate
balance of the ecosystem. It can destroy organisms that provide
food for large animals.
Human industrial wastes, being the largest water pollutants
contain many organisms that cause serious illness to humans,
such as hepatitis, typhoid fever, and different kinds of diarrhea.
Industrial wastes, chemicals, oils, and detergents cause illness
and poison wildlife. Chemicals, detergents, fertilizers, and
pesticides have long range ill-effects on people who eat the fish
or drink the water. Finally water shortage presents a serious
problem to communities and post a greater threat because of
C. Saving Water
Clean water is a precious resource that people take
for granted. The increasing amount of waste water
throughout the country has caused the communities
to take a close look at ways to conserve clean water.
One third of all waste comes from homes. Even after
treatment, waste water is usually dumped into rivers
D. Water Conservation:
People can conserve water in their individual
homes. Each family should do their part; utility bills can
be reduced and more fresh water can be conserved.
Some suggestions in Conserving Water:
Avoid unnecessary flushing and careless disposal of non-
water soluble items.
Water could be saved by taking brief showers, turning off
the water while lathering and using water- saving
Repair leaking faucets. Even small leaks can lose up to 400
gallons of water per day.
Turn off faucets when not in use, such as, while shaving or
Maximize the availability of the rain. Use them to water your
Avoid leaving any faucet (indoors or outdoors) on and
Lesson 4: Noise Pollution
Noise pollution can contribute to stress. Too
much load noise causes the heart to beat faster and
blood vessels to constrict.
This can also damage health. Hearing loss is the
most obvious health threat posed by noise pollution.
Exposure to unwanted noise involuntarily induces
stress. Stress can lead to a variety of physical
ailments, including heart diseases, high blood
pressure, elevated levels of blood cholesterol, ulcers,
headaches, and an inflammation of the colon called
A. The effects of stress due to noise are the
following, revealed by the studies conducted:
1.Expectant mothers living in noisy environment are
more likely to give birth to underweight babies than
women from quiet areas. Other studies have
demonstrated that stress experienced by an
expectant mother can cause the decrease of blood,
decrease of the supply of oxygen and nutrients to
the developing child.
2.Noisy surroundings at home and school can
adversely affect children‟s development and their
ability to read. High noise levels interfere with
youngsters capacity to distinguish certain sounds
such as “b” and “V” and a tendency to drop the
endings of words, thereby distorting speech.
3.The effects of working all day in a noisy environment
are frequently carried over into the domestic life,
making the worker more prone to aggravation and
frustration when he or she comes home. If the home
environment is also noisy, the worker may remain in a
constant state of tension and irritability.
4.Another less known effect of exposure to excessive
noise level is the constriction of smaller arteries, which
induces increased pulse and respiration rates. Other
effects are irritability, lower productivity, decreased
tolerance levels, increased incidence of ulcers,
migraine, headaches, fatigue allergies weak responses
due to continued exposures to high level noises.
Sound levels are measured by decibels. The danger
zone for hearing loss begins at about 85 decibels, a
level present in an express way with windows open.
B. Some ways of Protecting Your Ears from Noise
1.You should wear hearing protectors if you live or
work in a noisy area/community, this is to prevent
exposure to load noise.
2.Limit your exposure to load noise. Several brief
periods of noise are less damaging than one long
3.Be careful if you wear walkman type stereos. Turn
it on a very minimal volume since each earphone is
placed directly in your ear. When you can feel the
vibration, the volume is tuned too high.
4.Many who are conscious about other health exams
never have their hearing tested. If you are concerned
about hearing loss, find tome to visit an nearby ear
5.Keep your home quiet. Whenever you buy an
Lesson 5: Land Pollution
The problem of waste management and
disposal becomes increasingly pressing as
human population, industrial activity and material
consumption expand. In Philippines, waste
management is one of the greatest problems of
the government, especially in the highly –
urbanized areas, such as Metro Manila.
A. The residential commercial waste of towns and cites
cause litter, open dumps, leaching of water pollutants,
ocean contamination air pollution from burning wastes
and wasted resources. The wastes are not only
unsanitary, they also cause environmental health
problem, because of the germs infection coming from
large population of rodents and other pests. They also
give aesthetic problems or eyesores to the community.
Hazardous industrial wastes, although often in liquid
form, are generally treated in such a way that they must
be kept from receiving waters. These wastes must be
properly contained in special disposal areas to prevent
contamination the environment.
B. Waste Recycling
Residential – Commercial wastes can be potential
source of recycled products. You can see that discarded
materials contain larger quantities of potential usable
paper, fiber, glass, metal, plastic, organic materials for
compost and energy, recycling waste and used materials
Basic Methods of Recycling
1.Materials can be used for their original purpose
Examples are the returnable beverage bottles and
2.Residential wastes from industrial and agricultural
For example, organic wastes can be composed and
combustible wastes can be burned to produce steam or
3. Reusing industrial waste materials in the manufacture
of new products is possible.
Many entrepreneurs have become financially well-off
after opening junk shops. Old newspapers are
processed to produce new prints. Broken glasses are
melted to produce new glass. Broken and old plastic are
Lesson 1: The Family
The family is the basic unit of society. It is
the group in which people live their lives and in
which people bring up children.
A healthy family provides us with “love and
“support”. It also teaches us lessons about
building a good family relationships which we use
when we establish our own family. When people
begin their own families, they tend to model them
after the family relationships they experienced
when they were children.
A. Values, Attitudes and Beliefs in Having a Big or
In this country, the large family has traditionally
an average of four or more children. Parents derive
satisfaction from having children who will perpetuate
their names and their sources of comfort during old
age. With large families composed mostly of
children under 15 years of age, Filipino parents find
it exceedingly difficult to make both ends meet.
The rapid population growth has led to the
scarcity of essential commodities and increase in
prices. The few visible signs of progress are quickly
overtaken by massive problems, the few
advantages are rapidly offset by disadvantages.
Having a small family has many advantages. The
much- needed attention and guidance of the children
can be given by the parents. Their basic needs and
guidance of the children can be given by the parents.
Their basic needs such as food, clothing, housing and
education, can be adequately provided. The children are
healthier because nutritious food in sufficient amounts
can be given. The house has enough space to live and
move around, and the expenses for the rising cost of
living can be met.
In large families both parents are usually forced to
work and leave the children to the eldest child or to
maids. Proper guidance in bringing up the children are
generally left to the maids or sometimes to the
neighbors. There are so much financial worries which
can strain the relationship of husband and wife. Children
have reasons to quarrel because of limited food,
clothing, space, toys, privacy, and many other things.
These children are usually deprived of the attention and
B. Types of Families
Regardless of type, any family can be healthy and happy.
1.Nuclear family/Traditional family – is composed of a father,
mother, one or more children. The father typically works
outside the home while the mother stays at home to attend to
household chores and take care of the children
2.A couple family - has on the husband and wife living at
3.Extended family – includes relatives who are not part of the
nuclear family but who live in the same home. They may be
grandparents, grandchildren, aunts, uncles, or cousins. The
Filipino family is an example of an extended family.
4.A single- parent family – a family in which only parents lives
with the children. The single parent may be separated,
divorced never- married or widowed.
5.A blended family – results when separated/divorced parents
re-marry or a widower parent remarries. The parents and the
children in their previous marriages combine to form the
C. Characteristics of Healthy Families
1.Respect for Family Members – means valuing what is
important to another person.
2.Shared Responsibilities – means every member of the
family should have responsibilities appropriate to their age
and abilities. Responsibilities‟ help each family member to
feel important or valuable.
3.Good Communication – is an important factor to a
successful family relationship.
4.Emotional support – means a healthy family provides
emotional support to its members. Example – a son who did
not make it to the basketball game, a husband or wife who
seeks support when going through difficult time at work, or for
5.Ability to Manage Change – it is when a healthy family
manages change in the household.
Examples: new responsibilities must be assumed
Family rules must have to be changed
Marriage and Parenthood
A. The Family Cycle begins with the decision to marry.
However, before people make such a major life decision,
they expect to be successful. This consists of the major
events in the life of the family.
1.Marriage is a point in an individual‟s life which needs
plenty of preparation and planning. It is the culmination
of several progressive steps in human relationship which
starts from friendship, dating, courtship and marriage.
Two Elements of Marriage:
a. Personal – the two persons pledge themselves to live
as man and wife.
b. Social – since the community is vitally affected, the
contract is made under the prevailing laws and is subject
2.Marriage and maturity
Before people make such a major life decision, they
must clearly identify their “motives” for marrying if they
expect to attain a successful one. Marriage requires
emotional and social maturity. Maturity can be difficult to
define, yet it can be described as:
a. A mature person has the ability to establish and
b. A Mature person has the ability to give, as well as
c. A mature person can perceive other‟s feelings.
d. A mature person is personally stable. He has
established values by which he lives. He knows his
interests and though open to new experiences, has his
own goals and plans for achieving a particular aim.
3. Ingredients of a Happy Marriage:
Love must be strong, true, and romantic. It is an active
power in man which can break through walls that
separate him from others makes him united with them.
Elements that should always be present in all forms of love:
1.Care – an active concern for the life and growth of that
person whom he/she loves
2.Responsibility – refers to attending to the physical and other
needs of the person
3.Respect – encourages the person to grow and develop in his
or her own unique way
4.Knowledge – getting to know the person objectively
5.Giving – love is primarily giving, not receiving
Kinds of Love:
Fatherly love or paternal love
Motherly love or maternal love
Love of God/spiritual love
B. Commitment – is preparedness to a life – long
There must be commitment on the part of the
couple for the on-going growth of their relationship.
Both partners should have the capacity for lifelong
increasing fulfillment no matter what problems and
hindrances may bar the way.
C. Communication – through this, the couple fulfills
their role, as socialize and provider of intimacy and
expression of their feelings. Effective
communication generates understanding
D. Honesty There are few things engaged couples
should discuss prior to the wedding.
E. Spiritual Sensitivity
Happiness in marriage is a matter of living what
God intends marriage to be. Careful thought should
be given to the vows which is to honor the marriage
contract “Till death do us part.”
Lesson 2 : Population Program
A population program is a planned activity to
realize the goals expressed in the population
policy of a country.
A. Characteristics of a Population Program
1.Respond to real human needs.
This means that the population program must meet man‟s
basic economic needs for survival- food, shelter, clothing,
etc. man should be perceived not as demographic statistics
but as a human fighting against hunger and poverty.
2.Be rooted in values.
This means that cultural values must be a primary
consideration in structuring a population program. The
program should be in accordance with, not in clash against
the values of the target audience. However, if social change
is the need of the present society, there should be no fear to
The program must produce efficacious results. Although
these results may not be absolutely conclusive because of
the interplay of behavior and cultural values, they, at least,
will be an expression of an effective measure of commitment
leading toward the desired ends or goals.
4. Be administered in an integrated way.
Accordingly, organizational structure must be
5.Stand on the ethic and goal of self-reliance
This is clearly evident among family planning
acceptors who are left to themselves to make the
decision if and when to have a child.
6. Discharge human resources for productive
Family planning adherents will come to realize that
reduced fertility can mean quality life for family and
B. Family Planning
Why family planning for married couples, family planning is a
preparation for responsible parenthood. Responsible parenthood
promotes the general well-being of the family.
To some experts, family planning is the process by which
responsible couples determine by themselves the timing, spacing,
and number of children to be born to them.
For the father, family planning limits his responsibility because he
obliged to provide only for children whom he can afford to support.
For the mother, family planning helps maintain her health and gives
her sufficient time between pregnancies to recover from the strain of
childbirth. It gives her the freedom to have children only when she
wants them and only when she‟s ready for them.
For the country, family planning helps in furthering national
development, in increasing the share of each Filipino in the fruits of
economic progress and in meeting the grave social challenge of the
high rate of population growth.
C. Methods of Contraception
There are a number of safe, legal, and acceptable
methods available to couples who wish to limit the size
for their family. Since there is no perfect, easy,
inexpensive means, each woman/man should
understand the advantages and disadvantages of each
method and choose the one which best suits them.
In selecting a method, the following factors must be
1. Safety – the method should be free from harmful side
effects both for the person using and for the several
2. Effectiveness – it must be effective in preventing an
3. Ease of administration – if it is to be applied by the
person like the chemical or mechanical devices, it has to
be simple and easy.
4. Expense and availability – the method should not
only be cheap but readily available.
The recognized family planning methods available are:
A. Folk method
Postcoital Douche or Douching
B. Behavioral Contraceptives
Withdrawal or Coitus interrupts
C. Mechanical Contraceptives
D. Chemical Contraceptives
Vaginal Suppositories and Tablets
Contraceptive Jellies, Creams and Vaginal Foams
Lesson 3 : Population Policy
All polices of a nation that involve the welfare
of the nation‟s people are population polices.
Operationally, a population policy is a set of goals
and guidelines for changing the rate of population
growth for the vital interest of a country. It is a
conscious attempt to influence population size by
altering the rate of population growth.
A. Characteristics of a Population Policy.
1. It Should be based on the philosophy of respect to
2. It should embody the concept of family planning
which is concerned not only with the growth of
population, but also with the quality of life.
3. It should be an integral part of the country‟s
4. It should solicit the use and expertise of practioners
in the fields of education, social welfare, demography,
mass communication, and voluntary agencies.
Every year we feel the economic and social pressures
arising from rapid population growth. There are many
people who are unemployed. Public transportation can
hardly cope with the crowds during peak hour‟s of the
day. The health needs of the people could not be met
because of inadequacy and/ or absence of proper
facilities. The situation is aggravated by the insufficient
A couple is said to be fertile when the partners are capable of
reproducing. The state of fertility is usually measured by the
number of children a couples has during the woman‟s
Factors that Influence Fertility:
1.Heredity – The ability of the ovaries and testes to produce
reproductive cells that can be inherited. There are those who
cannot have children because of inherited problems and there
are those who may have twins.
2.Age – When a man produces sperms continuously in each
testicle from puberty onwards. A woman is capable of
producing egg cell from her (first menstruation) which usually
occurs between the ages of 9-14, although heredity, state of
nutrition, climate and environment may influence its early or
late appearance. After the age of 30, a woman experiences
3.Health – a healthy body is capable of having many
children. Anyone of the couple who is always sick
may affect his/her physical ability to have children.
4.Ovulation Cycle – when the husband and wife
time their copulation during the ovulation period
which usually occurs once in a menstrual cycle,
pregnancy may result.
5.Breastfeeding – a woman who breastfeeds her
baby secretes a hormone which prevents ovulation.
Delayed ovulation means a delay in pregnancy.
6.Miscarriage – This happens when there is an
abnormality in the secretion of hormones that
prepare and maintain the womb for pregnancy. The
risk of miscarriage increases after the woman
reaches the age of 30-35. The risk consists of
C. Sterility and Infertility
Sterility – is a condition when couples cannot
reproduce a child as contrasted from sterilization or
surgery which prevents conception or fertilization.
Infertility- occurs when the union of sperm and egg
fails to take place, when the fertilized egg does not
develop properly or when the embryo or fetus is
expelled from the womb, too incomplete to survive
outside the mother‟s womb.
Infertility may occur both in male and female if any
of the biological prerequisites or combination of
them – is not met
D. Some of the Causes of Conception failure in
the Male are:
1. Deficiency of sperm cells Sperms cells may be
deficient if they are abnormal in size and shape and
if semen does not contain them either because
testicles do not manufacture them if the sperm cells
are blocked in their exit.
2.Too short-lived sperm cells Sperms should retain
their ability to fertilize an egg for 48 to 72 hours
after they have been deposited in the women‟s
body. If more than 25% of the sperms are defective,
the male is like to be sterile.
3.Insufficient supply of androgens (sex hormones)
This results in poor or inadequate cervical mucus to
provide “good swimming ground” for sperms.
4.Vasectomy A surgical procedure where the
deferens are tied or cut, resulting in sterilization
5.Structure of the vas deferens A condition, causing
obstruction of blocking of the passageway of the
6.Lack of erection (impotence), This prevents
ejaculation from taking place. The condition,
however, is rare.
7.Failure of the testes to descend, a condition
If the testes fail to descend, the body temperature
is not favorable for sperm production.
8.Any infection extending to or affecting testicles
This may reduce or destroy the efficiency of the
testicles minimizing or stopping altogether the
manufacture of sperm cells.
E. The Common Causes of Conception Failure in the
1.Deficiency or poor quality of ovum – the ovary may fail
to produce a ripe egg.
2. Structure or clogging of the fallopian tubes – the
fertilized egg has to traverse the fallopian tube on its
journey to the uterus. For this reason, there should be an
unobstructed passage way.
3.Glandular imbalance resulting in inadequate cervical
mucus – this mucus provides “good swimming ground”
for the sperms.
4.Mucous membrane lining of the uterus unfavorable to
the fertilized ovum – the uterine wall has to have
favorable environment for the implantation of the
5.Salpingectomy – A surgical procedure which consists
of typing, cutting or removal of the fallopian tubes so that
F. Remedies for Sterility
There are three phases in the treatment of infertility.
1. First Phase consists of education the couple to
help them understand the problem
a. Explaining to the couple how conception occurs
and the reason why it may not occur.
b. Helping the couple to understand that failure to
conceive is caused by the male as often as the
c. Assuring the couple that infertility is not
somebody‟s fault and that it has nothing to do with
“manliness” or womanliness.
2. Second Phase – consists in the detection where
the infertility specialist finds out or discovers which
of the eight biological requirements for reproduction
or which combination of them is not met. A medical
treatment and history of both husband and wife is
3.Third Phase consists of removing whatever
obstacles to a successful pregnancy the physician
may find. The treatment may be:
Hormone or drug therapy
Lesson 4: Population Education
Since you have decided to have a baby, this
decision must be made through mutual
agreement and with high hopes and excitement
because it will affect the rest of you lives.
Fertility, Fecundity and Sterility
A. Fertility – is one of the variables affecting
population. Fertility means the actual number of
births applied to an individual or to a group. It is
measured by counting the number of children who
were born in relation to some population base.
Biological Factors are characteristics of the human
species pertaining to conception and childbearing
that may affect fecundity:
1.Heredity – fecundity can be impaired by defects in
sex organs and predisposition toward such defects
can be inherited.
2.Health – A person in good health has the highest
possible fecundity. There are diseases that
adversely affect a person‟s reproductive capacity.
3.Age – Procreation is a function primarily of young adults.
The capacity to reproduce, begins to appear at puberty,
develops gradually during adolescence and reaches a
high point at maturity.
4.Emotional surroundings – A good environment helps in
the proper development of the “fetus.” A good feeling of
happiness and self-respect should exist.
5.Ovulation cycle – A woman is capable of being
impregnated only during the time of ovulation, and is then
again infertile following the cycle.
6.Lactation – The resources of regular ovulation and thus
probably of another pregnancy is usually of regular
ovulation and thus probably of another as when a mother
7.Pregnancy Wastage – A miscarriage or stillbirth
constitutes a longer interruption in reproductive potential
than the period of pregnancy itself.
8.Uterine environment – Nourishes and protects the
B. The fertilization Process
Fertilization is the union of sperm and a mature
ovum. This occurs in the upper third portion of the
fallopian tube. The process of fertilization begins in
the man‟s testes and the woman‟s ovaries.
The Human Reproductive Process
The process of human reproduction involves two
kinds of bodies – male and female. The combination
of the male and female sexual system completes
the human reproduction process. These two
systems differ in their parts and functions
Female Reproductive System
The female reproductive system consists of the external
and internal organs. The external genitalia is the labia
majora(outer lips). These are protected with skin and
hair. The labia minora is made up of mucous membrane.
There is a small structure at the top of the labia majora
called „clitoris”. This is highly sensitive to sexual
stimulation since it is richly supplied with nerves. The
“hymen” appears as a thin perforated mucous across the
opening of the vagina. The hymen, which varies in size,
thickness and extend has no biological purpose.
The internal reproductive system is composed of all the
important female sex organs. Its functioning is greatly
influenced by hormones from the pituitary glands and the
If one ovary has been surgically removed, the remaining
ovary is expected to produce the ovum every month. The
hormones secreted by the ovaries regulate the
menstrual cycle. The estrogen hormone causes the
appearance of the secondary sex characteristic that
brings about the broadening of the hips, the slandering
Hormones Active During Menstrual Cycle
The menstrual cycle is regulated by hormones
secreted by the pituitary gland and the ovaries. At the
onset of puberty and every month thereafter, the
hypothalamus sends signals to the pituitary gland to
release the follicle stimulating hormone. The estrogen
prepares the endometrial lining of the uterus for a
potential pregnancy or for the implantation of the fertilized
ovum. The endometrium of the womb is prepared by
filling it with blood and nutrients for the nourishment of
the fertilized ovum.
The Length of the menstrual cycle varies from one
woman to another. Stress, tension or emotional problems
have been observed to cause disruption in the normal
process of ovulation and menstruation because the
hypothalamus reacts to emotions and sends out a
message to the pituitary gland. Menstruation may also
stop when a woman experiences severe stress or when
she undergoes a strenuous physical training or activity,
Menopause – may happen anytime between the
ages of 40-55 (although the onset is commonly
between the ages of 47-50). At the beginning of the
normal menopause, the menstrual periods maybe
scanty, infrequent or irregular before the final
cessation. However, in between the scanty and
irregular menstruation, an ovum may be ripened. If
the ovum is fertilized, the baby is sometimes called
menopausal baby. When the menstrual cycle has
completely stopped, menopause occurs. It marks
the end of the woman‟s ability to bear a child.
Causes of Sterility
Although the county is beset with
overpopulation problems, there are couples who
have problems of not having children. There is a
variety of factors which may cause infertility. The
reasons are equally shared by either the husband or
The male reproductive system consists of the
external and internal genital organs. The penis is the
external organ through which the urethra passes. The
urethra serves as a passage way both for urine and
semen consisting of the sperms. The urethral lining has
glands the secrete mucus to lubricate it order to facilitate
the passage of sperms.
The urethral passage splits into two tubes, the
ejaculatory duct and tube connecting to the urinary
bladder. These two tubes are surrounded by the prostate
gland. This gland prevents the release of urine and
semen to the urethra at the same time. There is another
gland that appears below the prostate gland called
Cowper‟s gland. It secretes a clear, oily, lubricated, and
alkaline fluid which flushes any trace of acidic urine in
the urethra before ejaculation to pave way for the
passage of sperms which are normally sensitive to acidic
Behind the bladder is the semifinal vesicle. Most of
the ejaculatory product is composed of semen produced
by the seminal vesicle. The vas deferens are also known
Production of Sperm
The process of producing sperm takes about
two and half months. It starts from puberty and lasts
throughout the life of man. It begins with the sperm
seeds which are already present in the somniferous
tubules during the fatal life. The sperms mature
upon the stimulation of the testorsterone and follicle-
stimulating hormone. The sperm cells are then
collected by the epididymis for further maturation. It
is in these tubes where they begin to move.
Factors in Male Sterility
1.Lack of effective sperm
The sperm count per ejaculation must be at least 10
million. Although only one is required to fertilize an
ovum, the sensitivity of the sperms may allow only a few
to reach the fallopian tube
2.Viscosity of the Semen
The extreme thickness of the semen makes its difficult
for the sperms to swim
Being overweight contributes to heat production that is
unfavorable to sperm production
The penile body failure to erect may be due to the intake
of drugs, such as depressants. It may also be due to an
Factors in Female Sterility
1.Irregular menstrual cycle caused by abnormalities in the
secretion of hormones.
2.Malformation of the ovaries which may be due to a disease
trauma resulting in their failure to ripen an ovum.
3.Abnormality in the uterus. Tumors may be present. The
fundus part which is normally titled forward may be leaning
backward (retroverted uterus)
4.Blocked fallopian tube. This is usually preceded by an
infection of the vaginal canal.
5.Tension. Any stress affects the normal secretion of
hormones that regulate the normal menstrual and ovulation
6.The mucus secreted by the cervix may be hostile to the
7.Underweight women who lack fats have no cholesterol
needed by the ovaries to manufacture hormones necessary
for reproduction process.
8.Overweight. Obesity also affects the normal secretion of
hormones that maintain regular menstruation and ovulation
Lesson 5: The Fertility Tester kit
It is a fertility tester instrument, with the size of a
purse made of durable plastic, that has a highly
powerful microscope installed to enable the user to
observe if her saliva or uterine mucus sample
By using the fertility tester kit, no artificial
contraceptives are needed. All you have to do is to
abstain from sexual intercourse during fertile period
as shown by the fertility tester kit. In fact, many
women who are aware of this fertility kit are lining up
with government health centers to avail themselves of
this fertility test.
Features of this Fertility Test:
The secretary of Health claims that it is 95% accurate.
One kit can be used for a whole community women and is
The kit does not require replacement of parts or other
accessories thus no additional costs are entailed.
The tester can be used by just wiping of the sample saliva or
uterine mucus with a wet cloth.
The Department of health is determined to support the
fertility testing of women by using this kit. It will be a big
boost to the Department of Health. If the Department of
Health decides to procure this fertility tester kits, this will
be introduces in the natural family planning clinics all
over the country. The use of this tester may end the
guessing game for most women who want to limit the
number of their offspring by using the natural family