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  1. 1. HEALTH
  2. 2. UNIT 1 : Health Analysis Lesson 1: Lesson 2: Lesson 3: Lesson 4: Lesson 5: UNIT 2 : The Family as a Part of Growing Population Lesson 1: Lesson 2: Lesson 3: Lesson 4: Lesson 5:
  3. 3. Lesson 1:Health Analysis and Community Health  Introduction:  Health education aims to help us obtain an understanding of the community, its organization, its health problems and various agencies connected with it, so that they will realize and perform their roles in helping their respective communities become a safe place to live in. it aims to produce health-educated individuals, who will be able to make the right decisions not only to themselves but also to their family and ultimately the community.
  4. 4. A. Environmental Health The problem of “pollution” affects the health of the people due to the increasing population. It has been noted that diseases like tuberculosis, typhoid and chickenpox had long been eradicated; however, due to the problem of pollution these diseases have reappeared affecting susceptible persons. These diseases can be prevented through massive education of the people regarding the ill effects of environmental hazards on the health and wellness of the people. Resuscitating the environment should be done by:  Planting trees  Cleaning the “esteros” and “canals”  Disposing of garbage properly  Safeguarding water supply against contaminants  Using fertilizers that are environment-friendly The people will be protected from environmental diseases if we take our responsibility of cleaning and greening our surroundings and environment. Promoting a healthy environment is the responsibility of every
  5. 5. B. Health and Sanitation These terms refer to the improvement of the conditions that affect health, particularly with regard to dirt and infection. Proper use of water supply, proper segregation and garbage disposal should be taken into consideration. We are given by “nature” the vitality and power to overcome almost every type of illness yet there are still so many sick people. This is because of our foolish ways of living. So many habits and environmental factors bring about the weakening and destruction of our bodies.
  6. 6.  Causes of Ailments to the Human Body: 1. The germs which are found in the air we breathe. 2. Food we eat and water we drink. 3. Bacteria and viruses which are too tiny to be seen. 4. Malnutrition or nutritional deficiency which is the inadequate or poor nourishment of the body. a. People who have no resources to buy food they need and want to eat b. Ignorance of food nutrients; not eating a balanced died even if people can afford c. Nutritional deficiency diseases that can be described as abnormal in connection to eating 5.People can also develop nutritional deficiencies because they have some diseases that interfere with food absorption, or that cause an increased excretion, usually in the urine, of substances needed for nutrition.
  7. 7.  Three Main Reasons Why Our Body Needs Food: 1. As fuel to keep us warm to supply the energy we need to stay alive; to move about and work 2. Food supplies the necessary materials for growth and repair worn- pit tissues 3. We need the vitamins, minerals, and other substances that are necessary for the chemical processes taking place inside our bodies.
  8. 8. C. Occupational Diseases These are diseases used to be thought as of those diseases contracted at the workplace; eczema has long been associated as an occupational hazard among workers handling chemicals. Today more diseases are related to the contamination of the environment by chemicals, metals,. Dust particles, gases and noise. Types of Occupational Diseases: 1. Diseases of the Skin a. Skin damage b. Contact eczema c. Skin cancer 2. Leukemia, cancer of the blood a. Workers in petroleum refining industry b. Asbestos dust is a potent cause of asbestosis, a form of lung cancer c. X-rays and laboratory technicians handling radioactive samples are more likely to suffer cancer of the blood
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  10. 10. Lesson 2 : Air Pollution Introduction: The Metro Manila population is practically gasping for breath because of the deteriorating quality of air in the atmosphere. If you are living in Metro Manila, and you commute daily to your school, and after sometime you experience recurring colds and intermittent coughing, then you are a victim of the ill-effects of air pollution.
  11. 11.  Air Pollution The table below shows the concentration of air pollutants in Metro Manila as compared with the allowable National Guidelines. This is the findings of the study done by United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and (WHO)
  12. 12.  The air Pollutants and Their Effects to Our Body: 1.Suspended Particulate Matter – This is emitted from natural resources, such as ashfalls from erupting volcanoes, dust storms, cool powdered plants, industrial process, vehicles, domestic burning of trash and garbage and industrial incinerators. Particulates are suspected of contributing to the cancer load of the human population. They clog the pores of the lungs and aggravate respiratory ailments, such as bronchitis, asthma and emphysema. 2. Carbon Monoxide – This gas is produced in the incomplete burning of charcoal, gasoline, and other carbonaceous fuels. It is also found in the exhaust fumes in vehicle engines. This gas is colorless, almost odorless and very poisonous when inhaled. It combines with the hemoglobin, which is chemically stable. If this will happen, the absence of hemoglobin will affect the transportation of oxygen in the blood. This can result to malfunctions in the brain and heart and worst – even death.
  13. 13. 3.Sulfur Dioxide- When heavy fuel oil and coal are burned to generated electricity and provide industrial power, this gas is spewed into the air. This gas irritates the lungs thus reduces its oxygen – handling capacity. Breathing too much sulfur dioxide results to such ailments as emphysema where in the tiny air sacs in the lungs are inflated. They become distended. Their walls become thin and eventually rupture. There is also a general loss of elasticity of the lungs. The flow of blood in the lung is slowed down by the destruction of the lung tissues and this puts strain upon the heart which can lead to heart failure. 2.Nitrogen Dioxide – this gas is produced in the burning of fuel in the vehicle engine. This causes respiratory problems, like CO and SO2. 3.Tetraethyl Lead or TEL- The environment is contaminated with lead as a result of the use of tetraethyl lead in gasoline. TEL is used as an additive to gasoline to raise its octane quality which allows the use of engine with higher comprehension ratios, thereby reducing fuel consumption and at the same time, increasing the property
  14. 14. On Air Pollution  Air pollutants rise and usually spread over a wide area. Particles of dust, soot, and ashes in polluted air irritate the eyes, throat and lungs. The larger particles can clog the air sacs in the lungs, making it hard for us to breathe. The smaller particles that can pass into the bloodstream often are carcinogenic. When these materials build-up in the body, they can contribute to the development of cancer.
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  16. 16. Lesson 3: Water Pollution  Introduction: Dirty water is the principal transition agent for at least 80 percent of diseases. The problems on water pollution can be greatly reduced with the cooperation of all Filipinos. The government is on the lookout for industrial plants violating the regulations on anti- pollution. We, as citizens, can do a self watch by making our environment, our home, school and surroundings a healthy one. Water is a prime necessity second to air. It is a basic need for the existence of life on this planet. Even our own bodies are composed of about three- fourths water and no man can last more than four to
  17. 17. Conventional pollutants are generally due to the direct throwing of human and animal wastes into the water. The rapid migrations of people to the urban areas and the rapid population increase have produced a sewage problem because treatment facilities to produce clean water have not been in step with the need. Untreated and partially treated sewage from the waste water system, septic tanks and unsewered areas discharge contribute very largely to the quantities of suspended solids, dissolved solids, oil, metals, nutrients and bio degradable (those materials that can be converted to simple forms by anaerobic bacteria) organic carbon to the water environment. Non conventional pollutants are toxic waste from industries and factories. Oil spills of varying degree like that of the Guimaras can occur in the bodies of water around the world. The Philippines has 384 major river systems and 59 lakes. All the rivers in Metro Manila are biologically dead; meaning no living things can survive in them. Seventy percent of the pollution comes from domestic or residential commercial sources and only thirteen percent of the industrial firms comply with the pollution control measures prescribed by the National
  18. 18. A. Kinds of Water Pollution 1.Irrigation Pollution may occur in the water due to the pollutants produced by excess nitrates present in fertilizers and by chemicals found in herbicides, insecticides and pesticides. If these pollutants cannot be absorbed by the soil, they will be carried away to the bodies of water through irrigation called agricultural run- off; these pollutants may harm living organisms in water. 2.Oil Pollution causes the water to become polluted. When the water is polluted, the marine birds will be affected because oil will coat on their feathers which affects their ability to float. This will impede their ability to prey for their food that will result to their sudden death. 3.Radioactive waste- the prime sources are pollutants from hospitals and research laboratories. Proper disposal of wastes should be done to prevent contamination of water supplies either in the ground or in bodies of water
  19. 19. 4.Thermal Pollution causes death of fish and other aquatic organisms that live in water. It contributes to the process of eutrophication- the state of oxygen – depletion of water. When the oxygen in water is depleted, the organisms that live in water will die. This is the discharge of heat through energy dissipation into cooling water and subsequently into nearby waterways. The major sources of thermal pollution are petroleum fuel, nuclear electric- power generating facilities and cooling operations of manufacturing industries such as foundry, metal manufacturers chemical and petrochemical producers. This thermal pollution is the discharge of heated water into waterways, which causes ecological imbalance killing fishes near the discharge source. It also decreases the ability of the water to hold dissolved oxygen. This results to limited reproduction and growth of water animals and plants. 5.Vessel pollution contributes to water pollution due to the wastes discharged from ships to oceans lakes, reservoirs
  20. 20.  Solid and Hazardous Wastes Improper waste disposal can cause damage to the aquatic environment and create water pollution that may harm plants and animals living in water. It can generate shoreline nuisance and cause sewage sludge which in turn results in flood, destruction of structures, and human lives, contamination of ground and surface water supplies and diseases such as gastro-intestinal infections, hepatitis, jaundice and other waterborne diseases. Also the common practice of collecting garbage and left over foods, used as feeds for pigs may spread the parasite which produces the disease called trichinosis. When meat contains their parasite, it is not fir for human consumption. Meat inspection in slaughter- houses should be done to ensure disease-free meat before selling it to the public for consumption.
  21. 21. B. Solid wastes which consist primarily of trash litter, and discarded materials have the following effects: 1.Wastes dumped in incinerators for burning can lead to air pollution 2.They can serve as breeding grounds for rats, rodents and other disease- carrying organisms 3.Dumping in lakes and rivers contributes to water pollution 4.Accumulation of harmful amounts of methane gas due to decomposition of wastes can cause fire and destroy building structures
  22. 22. Effects of Water Pollution Water pollution has a devastating effect on the delicate balance of the ecosystem. It can destroy organisms that provide food for large animals. Human industrial wastes, being the largest water pollutants contain many organisms that cause serious illness to humans, such as hepatitis, typhoid fever, and different kinds of diarrhea. Industrial wastes, chemicals, oils, and detergents cause illness and poison wildlife. Chemicals, detergents, fertilizers, and pesticides have long range ill-effects on people who eat the fish or drink the water. Finally water shortage presents a serious problem to communities and post a greater threat because of pollution. C. Saving Water  Clean water is a precious resource that people take for granted. The increasing amount of waste water throughout the country has caused the communities to take a close look at ways to conserve clean water. One third of all waste comes from homes. Even after treatment, waste water is usually dumped into rivers
  23. 23. D. Water Conservation: People can conserve water in their individual homes. Each family should do their part; utility bills can be reduced and more fresh water can be conserved. Some suggestions in Conserving Water:  Avoid unnecessary flushing and careless disposal of non- water soluble items.  Water could be saved by taking brief showers, turning off the water while lathering and using water- saving showerhead accessories.  Repair leaking faucets. Even small leaks can lose up to 400 gallons of water per day.  Turn off faucets when not in use, such as, while shaving or brushing teeth.  Maximize the availability of the rain. Use them to water your plants.  Avoid leaving any faucet (indoors or outdoors) on and unattended
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  25. 25. Lesson 4: Noise Pollution  Introduction: Noise pollution can contribute to stress. Too much load noise causes the heart to beat faster and blood vessels to constrict. This can also damage health. Hearing loss is the most obvious health threat posed by noise pollution. Exposure to unwanted noise involuntarily induces stress. Stress can lead to a variety of physical ailments, including heart diseases, high blood pressure, elevated levels of blood cholesterol, ulcers, headaches, and an inflammation of the colon called “colitis”.
  26. 26. A. The effects of stress due to noise are the following, revealed by the studies conducted: 1.Expectant mothers living in noisy environment are more likely to give birth to underweight babies than women from quiet areas. Other studies have demonstrated that stress experienced by an expectant mother can cause the decrease of blood, decrease of the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the developing child. 2.Noisy surroundings at home and school can adversely affect children‟s development and their ability to read. High noise levels interfere with youngsters capacity to distinguish certain sounds such as “b” and “V” and a tendency to drop the endings of words, thereby distorting speech.
  27. 27. 3.The effects of working all day in a noisy environment are frequently carried over into the domestic life, making the worker more prone to aggravation and frustration when he or she comes home. If the home environment is also noisy, the worker may remain in a constant state of tension and irritability. 4.Another less known effect of exposure to excessive noise level is the constriction of smaller arteries, which induces increased pulse and respiration rates. Other effects are irritability, lower productivity, decreased tolerance levels, increased incidence of ulcers, migraine, headaches, fatigue allergies weak responses due to continued exposures to high level noises.  Sound levels are measured by decibels. The danger zone for hearing loss begins at about 85 decibels, a level present in an express way with windows open.
  28. 28. B. Some ways of Protecting Your Ears from Noise Pollution 1.You should wear hearing protectors if you live or work in a noisy area/community, this is to prevent exposure to load noise. 2.Limit your exposure to load noise. Several brief periods of noise are less damaging than one long exposure. 3.Be careful if you wear walkman type stereos. Turn it on a very minimal volume since each earphone is placed directly in your ear. When you can feel the vibration, the volume is tuned too high. 4.Many who are conscious about other health exams never have their hearing tested. If you are concerned about hearing loss, find tome to visit an nearby ear specialist. 5.Keep your home quiet. Whenever you buy an
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  30. 30. Lesson 5: Land Pollution  Introduction: The problem of waste management and disposal becomes increasingly pressing as human population, industrial activity and material consumption expand. In Philippines, waste management is one of the greatest problems of the government, especially in the highly – urbanized areas, such as Metro Manila.
  31. 31. A. The residential commercial waste of towns and cites cause litter, open dumps, leaching of water pollutants, ocean contamination air pollution from burning wastes and wasted resources. The wastes are not only unsanitary, they also cause environmental health problem, because of the germs infection coming from large population of rodents and other pests. They also give aesthetic problems or eyesores to the community. Hazardous industrial wastes, although often in liquid form, are generally treated in such a way that they must be kept from receiving waters. These wastes must be properly contained in special disposal areas to prevent contamination the environment. B. Waste Recycling Residential – Commercial wastes can be potential source of recycled products. You can see that discarded materials contain larger quantities of potential usable paper, fiber, glass, metal, plastic, organic materials for compost and energy, recycling waste and used materials
  32. 32. Basic Methods of Recycling 1.Materials can be used for their original purpose Examples are the returnable beverage bottles and containers 2.Residential wastes from industrial and agricultural process. For example, organic wastes can be composed and combustible wastes can be burned to produce steam or electricity. 3. Reusing industrial waste materials in the manufacture of new products is possible. Many entrepreneurs have become financially well-off after opening junk shops. Old newspapers are processed to produce new prints. Broken glasses are melted to produce new glass. Broken and old plastic are
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  34. 34. Lesson 1: The Family  Introduction: The family is the basic unit of society. It is the group in which people live their lives and in which people bring up children. A healthy family provides us with “love and “support”. It also teaches us lessons about building a good family relationships which we use when we establish our own family. When people begin their own families, they tend to model them after the family relationships they experienced when they were children.
  35. 35. A. Values, Attitudes and Beliefs in Having a Big or Small Family In this country, the large family has traditionally an average of four or more children. Parents derive satisfaction from having children who will perpetuate their names and their sources of comfort during old age. With large families composed mostly of children under 15 years of age, Filipino parents find it exceedingly difficult to make both ends meet. The rapid population growth has led to the scarcity of essential commodities and increase in prices. The few visible signs of progress are quickly overtaken by massive problems, the few advantages are rapidly offset by disadvantages.
  36. 36. Having a small family has many advantages. The much- needed attention and guidance of the children can be given by the parents. Their basic needs and guidance of the children can be given by the parents. Their basic needs such as food, clothing, housing and education, can be adequately provided. The children are healthier because nutritious food in sufficient amounts can be given. The house has enough space to live and move around, and the expenses for the rising cost of living can be met. In large families both parents are usually forced to work and leave the children to the eldest child or to maids. Proper guidance in bringing up the children are generally left to the maids or sometimes to the neighbors. There are so much financial worries which can strain the relationship of husband and wife. Children have reasons to quarrel because of limited food, clothing, space, toys, privacy, and many other things. These children are usually deprived of the attention and
  37. 37. B. Types of Families Regardless of type, any family can be healthy and happy. 1.Nuclear family/Traditional family – is composed of a father, mother, one or more children. The father typically works outside the home while the mother stays at home to attend to household chores and take care of the children 2.A couple family - has on the husband and wife living at home. 3.Extended family – includes relatives who are not part of the nuclear family but who live in the same home. They may be grandparents, grandchildren, aunts, uncles, or cousins. The Filipino family is an example of an extended family. 4.A single- parent family – a family in which only parents lives with the children. The single parent may be separated, divorced never- married or widowed. 5.A blended family – results when separated/divorced parents re-marry or a widower parent remarries. The parents and the children in their previous marriages combine to form the blended family.
  38. 38. C. Characteristics of Healthy Families 1.Respect for Family Members – means valuing what is important to another person. 2.Shared Responsibilities – means every member of the family should have responsibilities appropriate to their age and abilities. Responsibilities‟ help each family member to feel important or valuable. 3.Good Communication – is an important factor to a successful family relationship. 4.Emotional support – means a healthy family provides emotional support to its members. Example – a son who did not make it to the basketball game, a husband or wife who seeks support when going through difficult time at work, or for financial assistance. 5.Ability to Manage Change – it is when a healthy family manages change in the household. Examples: new responsibilities must be assumed Family rules must have to be changed
  39. 39. Marriage and Parenthood A. The Family Cycle begins with the decision to marry. However, before people make such a major life decision, they expect to be successful. This consists of the major events in the life of the family. 1.Marriage is a point in an individual‟s life which needs plenty of preparation and planning. It is the culmination of several progressive steps in human relationship which starts from friendship, dating, courtship and marriage. Two Elements of Marriage: a. Personal – the two persons pledge themselves to live as man and wife. b. Social – since the community is vitally affected, the contract is made under the prevailing laws and is subject to them
  40. 40. 2.Marriage and maturity Before people make such a major life decision, they must clearly identify their “motives” for marrying if they expect to attain a successful one. Marriage requires emotional and social maturity. Maturity can be difficult to define, yet it can be described as: a. A mature person has the ability to establish and maintain relationships. b. A Mature person has the ability to give, as well as receive. c. A mature person can perceive other‟s feelings. d. A mature person is personally stable. He has established values by which he lives. He knows his interests and though open to new experiences, has his own goals and plans for achieving a particular aim. 3. Ingredients of a Happy Marriage: Love must be strong, true, and romantic. It is an active power in man which can break through walls that separate him from others makes him united with them.
  41. 41. Elements that should always be present in all forms of love: 1.Care – an active concern for the life and growth of that person whom he/she loves 2.Responsibility – refers to attending to the physical and other needs of the person 3.Respect – encourages the person to grow and develop in his or her own unique way 4.Knowledge – getting to know the person objectively 5.Giving – love is primarily giving, not receiving Kinds of Love:  Fatherly love or paternal love  Motherly love or maternal love  Brotherly love  Sisterly love  Erotic love  Self-love  Love of God/spiritual love
  42. 42. B. Commitment – is preparedness to a life – long relationship There must be commitment on the part of the couple for the on-going growth of their relationship. Both partners should have the capacity for lifelong increasing fulfillment no matter what problems and hindrances may bar the way. C. Communication – through this, the couple fulfills their role, as socialize and provider of intimacy and expression of their feelings. Effective communication generates understanding D. Honesty There are few things engaged couples should discuss prior to the wedding.
  43. 43. These include:  Health problems  Financial standing  Criminal records  Illegitimate child E. Spiritual Sensitivity Happiness in marriage is a matter of living what God intends marriage to be. Careful thought should be given to the vows which is to honor the marriage contract “Till death do us part.”
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  45. 45. Lesson 2 : Population Program  Introduction: A population program is a planned activity to realize the goals expressed in the population policy of a country.
  46. 46. A. Characteristics of a Population Program 1.Respond to real human needs. This means that the population program must meet man‟s basic economic needs for survival- food, shelter, clothing, etc. man should be perceived not as demographic statistics but as a human fighting against hunger and poverty. 2.Be rooted in values. This means that cultural values must be a primary consideration in structuring a population program. The program should be in accordance with, not in clash against the values of the target audience. However, if social change is the need of the present society, there should be no fear to challenge tradition. 3.Generate results The program must produce efficacious results. Although these results may not be absolutely conclusive because of the interplay of behavior and cultural values, they, at least, will be an expression of an effective measure of commitment leading toward the desired ends or goals.
  47. 47. 4. Be administered in an integrated way. Accordingly, organizational structure must be considered. 5.Stand on the ethic and goal of self-reliance This is clearly evident among family planning acceptors who are left to themselves to make the decision if and when to have a child. 6. Discharge human resources for productive economic endeavors. Family planning adherents will come to realize that reduced fertility can mean quality life for family and people.
  48. 48. B. Family Planning Why family planning for married couples, family planning is a preparation for responsible parenthood. Responsible parenthood promotes the general well-being of the family.  To some experts, family planning is the process by which responsible couples determine by themselves the timing, spacing, and number of children to be born to them.  For the father, family planning limits his responsibility because he obliged to provide only for children whom he can afford to support.  For the mother, family planning helps maintain her health and gives her sufficient time between pregnancies to recover from the strain of childbirth. It gives her the freedom to have children only when she wants them and only when she‟s ready for them.  For the country, family planning helps in furthering national development, in increasing the share of each Filipino in the fruits of economic progress and in meeting the grave social challenge of the high rate of population growth.
  49. 49. C. Methods of Contraception There are a number of safe, legal, and acceptable methods available to couples who wish to limit the size for their family. Since there is no perfect, easy, inexpensive means, each woman/man should understand the advantages and disadvantages of each method and choose the one which best suits them. In selecting a method, the following factors must be carefully considered. 1. Safety – the method should be free from harmful side effects both for the person using and for the several partners. 2. Effectiveness – it must be effective in preventing an unwanted pregnancy. 3. Ease of administration – if it is to be applied by the person like the chemical or mechanical devices, it has to be simple and easy. 4. Expense and availability – the method should not only be cheap but readily available.
  50. 50.  The recognized family planning methods available are: A. Folk method  Postcoital Douche or Douching  Prolonged Lactation B. Behavioral Contraceptives  Rhythm Method  Ovulation Method  Withdrawal or Coitus interrupts C. Mechanical Contraceptives  Condom  Diaphragm  Cervical Caps  IUD D. Chemical Contraceptives  Vaginal Suppositories and Tablets  Contraceptive Jellies, Creams and Vaginal Foams E. Pills F. Sterilization  Vasectomy  Tubal Ligation
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  52. 52. Lesson 3 : Population Policy  Introduction: All polices of a nation that involve the welfare of the nation‟s people are population polices. Operationally, a population policy is a set of goals and guidelines for changing the rate of population growth for the vital interest of a country. It is a conscious attempt to influence population size by altering the rate of population growth.
  53. 53. A. Characteristics of a Population Policy. 1. It Should be based on the philosophy of respect to human life. 2. It should embody the concept of family planning which is concerned not only with the growth of population, but also with the quality of life. 3. It should be an integral part of the country‟s development plan. 4. It should solicit the use and expertise of practioners in the fields of education, social welfare, demography, mass communication, and voluntary agencies. Every year we feel the economic and social pressures arising from rapid population growth. There are many people who are unemployed. Public transportation can hardly cope with the crowds during peak hour‟s of the day. The health needs of the people could not be met because of inadequacy and/ or absence of proper facilities. The situation is aggravated by the insufficient
  54. 54. B. Fertility A couple is said to be fertile when the partners are capable of reproducing. The state of fertility is usually measured by the number of children a couples has during the woman‟s reproductive stage. Factors that Influence Fertility: 1.Heredity – The ability of the ovaries and testes to produce reproductive cells that can be inherited. There are those who cannot have children because of inherited problems and there are those who may have twins. 2.Age – When a man produces sperms continuously in each testicle from puberty onwards. A woman is capable of producing egg cell from her (first menstruation) which usually occurs between the ages of 9-14, although heredity, state of nutrition, climate and environment may influence its early or late appearance. After the age of 30, a woman experiences
  55. 55. 3.Health – a healthy body is capable of having many children. Anyone of the couple who is always sick may affect his/her physical ability to have children. 4.Ovulation Cycle – when the husband and wife time their copulation during the ovulation period which usually occurs once in a menstrual cycle, pregnancy may result. 5.Breastfeeding – a woman who breastfeeds her baby secretes a hormone which prevents ovulation. Delayed ovulation means a delay in pregnancy. 6.Miscarriage – This happens when there is an abnormality in the secretion of hormones that prepare and maintain the womb for pregnancy. The risk of miscarriage increases after the woman reaches the age of 30-35. The risk consists of
  56. 56. C. Sterility and Infertility Sterility – is a condition when couples cannot reproduce a child as contrasted from sterilization or surgery which prevents conception or fertilization. Infertility- occurs when the union of sperm and egg fails to take place, when the fertilized egg does not develop properly or when the embryo or fetus is expelled from the womb, too incomplete to survive outside the mother‟s womb. Infertility may occur both in male and female if any of the biological prerequisites or combination of them – is not met
  57. 57. D. Some of the Causes of Conception failure in the Male are: 1. Deficiency of sperm cells Sperms cells may be deficient if they are abnormal in size and shape and if semen does not contain them either because testicles do not manufacture them if the sperm cells are blocked in their exit. 2.Too short-lived sperm cells Sperms should retain their ability to fertilize an egg for 48 to 72 hours after they have been deposited in the women‟s body. If more than 25% of the sperms are defective, the male is like to be sterile. 3.Insufficient supply of androgens (sex hormones) This results in poor or inadequate cervical mucus to provide “good swimming ground” for sperms. 4.Vasectomy A surgical procedure where the deferens are tied or cut, resulting in sterilization
  58. 58. 5.Structure of the vas deferens A condition, causing obstruction of blocking of the passageway of the sperm. 6.Lack of erection (impotence), This prevents ejaculation from taking place. The condition, however, is rare. 7.Failure of the testes to descend, a condition called crytorchidism. If the testes fail to descend, the body temperature is not favorable for sperm production. 8.Any infection extending to or affecting testicles This may reduce or destroy the efficiency of the testicles minimizing or stopping altogether the manufacture of sperm cells.
  59. 59. E. The Common Causes of Conception Failure in the Female: 1.Deficiency or poor quality of ovum – the ovary may fail to produce a ripe egg. 2. Structure or clogging of the fallopian tubes – the fertilized egg has to traverse the fallopian tube on its journey to the uterus. For this reason, there should be an unobstructed passage way. 3.Glandular imbalance resulting in inadequate cervical mucus – this mucus provides “good swimming ground” for the sperms. 4.Mucous membrane lining of the uterus unfavorable to the fertilized ovum – the uterine wall has to have favorable environment for the implantation of the fertilized ovum. 5.Salpingectomy – A surgical procedure which consists of typing, cutting or removal of the fallopian tubes so that
  60. 60. F. Remedies for Sterility There are three phases in the treatment of infertility. 1. First Phase consists of education the couple to help them understand the problem a. Explaining to the couple how conception occurs and the reason why it may not occur. b. Helping the couple to understand that failure to conceive is caused by the male as often as the female. c. Assuring the couple that infertility is not somebody‟s fault and that it has nothing to do with “manliness” or womanliness.
  61. 61. 2. Second Phase – consists in the detection where the infertility specialist finds out or discovers which of the eight biological requirements for reproduction or which combination of them is not met. A medical treatment and history of both husband and wife is needed. 3.Third Phase consists of removing whatever obstacles to a successful pregnancy the physician may find. The treatment may be:  Surgery  Hormone or drug therapy  X-ray therapy
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  63. 63. Lesson 4: Population Education  Introduction: Since you have decided to have a baby, this decision must be made through mutual agreement and with high hopes and excitement because it will affect the rest of you lives.
  64. 64. Fertility, Fecundity and Sterility A. Fertility – is one of the variables affecting population. Fertility means the actual number of births applied to an individual or to a group. It is measured by counting the number of children who were born in relation to some population base. Biological Factors are characteristics of the human species pertaining to conception and childbearing that may affect fecundity: 1.Heredity – fecundity can be impaired by defects in sex organs and predisposition toward such defects can be inherited. 2.Health – A person in good health has the highest possible fecundity. There are diseases that adversely affect a person‟s reproductive capacity.
  65. 65. 3.Age – Procreation is a function primarily of young adults. The capacity to reproduce, begins to appear at puberty, develops gradually during adolescence and reaches a high point at maturity. 4.Emotional surroundings – A good environment helps in the proper development of the “fetus.” A good feeling of happiness and self-respect should exist. 5.Ovulation cycle – A woman is capable of being impregnated only during the time of ovulation, and is then again infertile following the cycle. 6.Lactation – The resources of regular ovulation and thus probably of another pregnancy is usually of regular ovulation and thus probably of another as when a mother breastfeeds. 7.Pregnancy Wastage – A miscarriage or stillbirth constitutes a longer interruption in reproductive potential than the period of pregnancy itself. 8.Uterine environment – Nourishes and protects the
  66. 66. B. The fertilization Process  Fertilization is the union of sperm and a mature ovum. This occurs in the upper third portion of the fallopian tube. The process of fertilization begins in the man‟s testes and the woman‟s ovaries.
  67. 67. The Human Reproductive Process The process of human reproduction involves two kinds of bodies – male and female. The combination of the male and female sexual system completes the human reproduction process. These two systems differ in their parts and functions
  68. 68.  Female Reproductive System The female reproductive system consists of the external and internal organs. The external genitalia is the labia majora(outer lips). These are protected with skin and hair. The labia minora is made up of mucous membrane. There is a small structure at the top of the labia majora called „clitoris”. This is highly sensitive to sexual stimulation since it is richly supplied with nerves. The “hymen” appears as a thin perforated mucous across the opening of the vagina. The hymen, which varies in size, thickness and extend has no biological purpose. The internal reproductive system is composed of all the important female sex organs. Its functioning is greatly influenced by hormones from the pituitary glands and the ovaries. If one ovary has been surgically removed, the remaining ovary is expected to produce the ovum every month. The hormones secreted by the ovaries regulate the menstrual cycle. The estrogen hormone causes the appearance of the secondary sex characteristic that brings about the broadening of the hips, the slandering
  69. 69. Hormones Active During Menstrual Cycle The menstrual cycle is regulated by hormones secreted by the pituitary gland and the ovaries. At the onset of puberty and every month thereafter, the hypothalamus sends signals to the pituitary gland to release the follicle stimulating hormone. The estrogen prepares the endometrial lining of the uterus for a potential pregnancy or for the implantation of the fertilized ovum. The endometrium of the womb is prepared by filling it with blood and nutrients for the nourishment of the fertilized ovum. The Length of the menstrual cycle varies from one woman to another. Stress, tension or emotional problems have been observed to cause disruption in the normal process of ovulation and menstruation because the hypothalamus reacts to emotions and sends out a message to the pituitary gland. Menstruation may also stop when a woman experiences severe stress or when she undergoes a strenuous physical training or activity,
  70. 70.  Menopause – may happen anytime between the ages of 40-55 (although the onset is commonly between the ages of 47-50). At the beginning of the normal menopause, the menstrual periods maybe scanty, infrequent or irregular before the final cessation. However, in between the scanty and irregular menstruation, an ovum may be ripened. If the ovum is fertilized, the baby is sometimes called menopausal baby. When the menstrual cycle has completely stopped, menopause occurs. It marks the end of the woman‟s ability to bear a child.
  71. 71.  Causes of Sterility Although the county is beset with overpopulation problems, there are couples who have problems of not having children. There is a variety of factors which may cause infertility. The reasons are equally shared by either the husband or the wife.
  72. 72. The male reproductive system consists of the external and internal genital organs. The penis is the external organ through which the urethra passes. The urethra serves as a passage way both for urine and semen consisting of the sperms. The urethral lining has glands the secrete mucus to lubricate it order to facilitate the passage of sperms. The urethral passage splits into two tubes, the ejaculatory duct and tube connecting to the urinary bladder. These two tubes are surrounded by the prostate gland. This gland prevents the release of urine and semen to the urethra at the same time. There is another gland that appears below the prostate gland called Cowper‟s gland. It secretes a clear, oily, lubricated, and alkaline fluid which flushes any trace of acidic urine in the urethra before ejaculation to pave way for the passage of sperms which are normally sensitive to acidic environment. Behind the bladder is the semifinal vesicle. Most of the ejaculatory product is composed of semen produced by the seminal vesicle. The vas deferens are also known
  73. 73.  Production of Sperm The process of producing sperm takes about two and half months. It starts from puberty and lasts throughout the life of man. It begins with the sperm seeds which are already present in the somniferous tubules during the fatal life. The sperms mature upon the stimulation of the testorsterone and follicle- stimulating hormone. The sperm cells are then collected by the epididymis for further maturation. It is in these tubes where they begin to move.
  74. 74.  Factors in Male Sterility 1.Lack of effective sperm The sperm count per ejaculation must be at least 10 million. Although only one is required to fertilize an ovum, the sensitivity of the sperms may allow only a few to reach the fallopian tube 2.Viscosity of the Semen The extreme thickness of the semen makes its difficult for the sperms to swim 3.Obesity Being overweight contributes to heat production that is unfavorable to sperm production 4.Impotency The penile body failure to erect may be due to the intake of drugs, such as depressants. It may also be due to an emotional problem
  75. 75.  Factors in Female Sterility 1.Irregular menstrual cycle caused by abnormalities in the secretion of hormones. 2.Malformation of the ovaries which may be due to a disease trauma resulting in their failure to ripen an ovum. 3.Abnormality in the uterus. Tumors may be present. The fundus part which is normally titled forward may be leaning backward (retroverted uterus) 4.Blocked fallopian tube. This is usually preceded by an infection of the vaginal canal. 5.Tension. Any stress affects the normal secretion of hormones that regulate the normal menstrual and ovulation cycle 6.The mucus secreted by the cervix may be hostile to the sperm. 7.Underweight women who lack fats have no cholesterol needed by the ovaries to manufacture hormones necessary for reproduction process. 8.Overweight. Obesity also affects the normal secretion of hormones that maintain regular menstruation and ovulation cycles.
  76. 76. Lesson 5: The Fertility Tester kit  Introduction: It is a fertility tester instrument, with the size of a purse made of durable plastic, that has a highly powerful microscope installed to enable the user to observe if her saliva or uterine mucus sample crystallizes. By using the fertility tester kit, no artificial contraceptives are needed. All you have to do is to abstain from sexual intercourse during fertile period as shown by the fertility tester kit. In fact, many women who are aware of this fertility kit are lining up with government health centers to avail themselves of this fertility test.
  77. 77. Features of this Fertility Test:  The secretary of Health claims that it is 95% accurate.  One kit can be used for a whole community women and is reusable  The kit does not require replacement of parts or other accessories thus no additional costs are entailed.  The tester can be used by just wiping of the sample saliva or uterine mucus with a wet cloth. The Department of health is determined to support the fertility testing of women by using this kit. It will be a big boost to the Department of Health. If the Department of Health decides to procure this fertility tester kits, this will be introduces in the natural family planning clinics all over the country. The use of this tester may end the guessing game for most women who want to limit the number of their offspring by using the natural family planning method.
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