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The Periodic Table of
Elements
Why is the Periodic Table
important to me?
• The periodic table
is the most useful
tool to a chemist.
• You get to use it ...
Pre-Periodic Table
Chemistry…
• …was a mess!!!
• No organization of
elements.
• Imagine going to a
grocery store with no
o...
Dmitri Mendeleev
(1834-1907)
• Russian Chemist
• Published the first
version of the period
table in 1869
• Arranged elemen...
Henry Moseley (1887-1915)
• Made improvements to
Mendeleev’s Periodic
Table
• Arranged elements by
atomic number instead
o...
The Modern Periodic Table
Time for Vocabulary
• Period: A row of elements on
a periodic table. Remember
rows fly across.
•Group: a column of element...
More Vocabulary
• Metal: an element that has luster and is a good
conductor of heat and electricity.
• Nonmetal: elements ...
Representative Elements
• Groups 1-2 & 13-18
• Alkali Metals
• Alkaline Earth Metals
• The Boron Family
• The Carbon Group...
Hydrogen
• Hydrogen belongs to a
family of its own.
• Hydrogen is a diatomic,
reactive gas.
• Hydrogen was involved
in the...
The Alkali Metals
• Group 1 Elements:
-Lithium -Rubidium
-Sodium -Cesium
-Potassium -Francium
• Silvery Solids
• Low Densi...
The Alkaline Earth Metals
• The Group 2 Elements
-Beryllium -Magnesium
-Calcium -Strontium
-Barium -Radium
• Denser than A...
The Boron Family
• Group 13 Elements
-Boron -Aluminum
-Gallium -Indium
-Thallium
• All are metals except
Boron
• Aluminum ...
The Carbon Group
• Group 14 Elements
-Carbon -Silicon
-Germanium -Tin
-Lead
• Silicon is used to make
semiconductors for c...
The Nitrogen Group
• Group 15 Elements
-Nitrogen -Phosphorus
-Arsenic -Antimony
-Bismuth
• Almost 80% of the air we
breath...
The Oxygen Group
• Group 16 Elements
-Oxygen -Sulfur
-Selenium -Tellurium
-Polonium
• About 20% of the Earth’s
atmosphere ...
The Halogens
• Group 17 Elements
-Fluorine -Chlorine
-Bromine -Iodine
-Astatine
• The Halogens form salts
with the alkali ...
The Noble Gases
• Group 18 Elements
-Helium -Neon
-Argon -Krypton
-Xenon -Radon
• Helium is used to fill
balloons.
• Neon ...
Transition Elements
• Groups 3-12
• All transition
elements are metals.
• Group 11 (The Coinage
Metals)
• The Lanthanides
...
The Coinage Metals
• Group 11 Elements
-Copper -Gold
-Silver
• These elements were
often used by ancient
civilizations to ...
The Lanthanides and The
Actinides
• The Lanthanides
• Soft metals that can
be cut with a knife.
• Were once called rare
ea...
Let’s See What We Remember
• What are rows on a
periodic table called?
• What are columns on a
periodic table called?
• Na...
The End
A ComicRelief
Production
Elements
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Elements

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Transcript of "Elements"

  1. 1. The Periodic Table of Elements
  2. 2. Why is the Periodic Table important to me? • The periodic table is the most useful tool to a chemist. • You get to use it on every test. • It organizes lots of information about all the known elements.
  3. 3. Pre-Periodic Table Chemistry… • …was a mess!!! • No organization of elements. • Imagine going to a grocery store with no organization!! • Difficult to find information. • Chemistry didn’t make sense.
  4. 4. Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907) • Russian Chemist • Published the first version of the period table in 1869 • Arranged elements according to increasing atomic mass • His periodic table had gaps
  5. 5. Henry Moseley (1887-1915) • Made improvements to Mendeleev’s Periodic Table • Arranged elements by atomic number instead of mass • Realized that there were undiscovered elements
  6. 6. The Modern Periodic Table
  7. 7. Time for Vocabulary • Period: A row of elements on a periodic table. Remember rows fly across. •Group: a column of elements on a periodic table that share similar characteristic. Remember groups fall down.
  8. 8. More Vocabulary • Metal: an element that has luster and is a good conductor of heat and electricity. • Nonmetal: elements that are usually gases or brittle solids at room temperature and are poor conductors of heat and electricity. • Metalloid: an element that shares some properties with metals and some with nonmetals.
  9. 9. Representative Elements • Groups 1-2 & 13-18 • Alkali Metals • Alkaline Earth Metals • The Boron Family • The Carbon Group • The Nitrogen Group • The Oxygen Group • The Halogens • The Noble Gases
  10. 10. Hydrogen • Hydrogen belongs to a family of its own. • Hydrogen is a diatomic, reactive gas. • Hydrogen was involved in the explosion of the Hindenberg. • Hydrogen is promising as an alternative fuel source for automobiles
  11. 11. The Alkali Metals • Group 1 Elements: -Lithium -Rubidium -Sodium -Cesium -Potassium -Francium • Silvery Solids • Low Densities • Low Melting Points
  12. 12. The Alkaline Earth Metals • The Group 2 Elements -Beryllium -Magnesium -Calcium -Strontium -Barium -Radium • Denser than Alkali Metals • Higher melting points than Alkali Metals
  13. 13. The Boron Family • Group 13 Elements -Boron -Aluminum -Gallium -Indium -Thallium • All are metals except Boron • Aluminum is the most common metal in the Earth’s crust.
  14. 14. The Carbon Group • Group 14 Elements -Carbon -Silicon -Germanium -Tin -Lead • Silicon is used to make semiconductors for computers and other electronics . • Diamond and Graphite are two forms of carbon.
  15. 15. The Nitrogen Group • Group 15 Elements -Nitrogen -Phosphorus -Arsenic -Antimony -Bismuth • Almost 80% of the air we breathe is nitrogen. • Phosphorus is an essential ingredient in healthy teeth and bones.
  16. 16. The Oxygen Group • Group 16 Elements -Oxygen -Sulfur -Selenium -Tellurium -Polonium • About 20% of the Earth’s atmosphere is oxygen. • Sulfuric acid is one the most used chemicals in the world
  17. 17. The Halogens • Group 17 Elements -Fluorine -Chlorine -Bromine -Iodine -Astatine • The Halogens form salts with the alkali metals. • Fluorine is an active ingredient in toothpaste.
  18. 18. The Noble Gases • Group 18 Elements -Helium -Neon -Argon -Krypton -Xenon -Radon • Helium is used to fill balloons. • Neon signs contain noble gases.
  19. 19. Transition Elements • Groups 3-12 • All transition elements are metals. • Group 11 (The Coinage Metals) • The Lanthanides • The Actinides
  20. 20. The Coinage Metals • Group 11 Elements -Copper -Gold -Silver • These elements were often used by ancient civilizations to make coins.
  21. 21. The Lanthanides and The Actinides • The Lanthanides • Soft metals that can be cut with a knife. • Were once called rare earth metals. • Glass used in computer and TV screens contain Yttirum and Europium. • The Actinides • All actinides are radioactive. • Thorium, Proactinium and Uranium are the only actinides found naturally on earth. • Plutonium is used to fuel nuclear power plants.
  22. 22. Let’s See What We Remember • What are rows on a periodic table called? • What are columns on a periodic table called? • Name the two divisions of the periodic table? • What can we learn from an element key? • How can scientist use the periodic table?
  23. 23. The End A ComicRelief Production
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