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PANPACIFIC UNIVERSITY NORTH PHILIPPINES
COLLEGE OF TEACHER EDUCATION
Urdaneta City, Pangasinan
JAN RAMEL A. TUMBAGA, M.P.H., M.S. ECB
Reference: Tortora, G.J. and Derrickson, B. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology (13th
Instruction: Answer the question(s) given for every section (for oral recitation).
A. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
1. Regulates body temperature
2. Stores blood
3. Protects body from external environment
4. Detects cutaneous sensations
5. Excretes and absorbs substances
6. Synthesizes vitamin D
Ram reassures his father that the tattoo he received at the tattoo parlor will eventually
disappear. He knows this because he has learned in biology class that skin cells are shed every
four weeks. Is Ram correct?
B. SKELETAL SYSTEM
Bone tissue makes up about 18% of the weight of the human body.
3. Assistance in Movement
4. Mineral Homeostasis (storage and release)
5. Blood Cell Production
6. Triglyceride Storage
While playing basketball, nine-year-old John fell and broke his left arm. The arm was placed in a
cast and appeared to heal normally. As an adult, John was puzzled because it seemed that his
right arm is longer than his left arm. He measured both arms and he was correct - his right arm
is longer! How would you explain to John what happened?
C. MUSCULAR SYSTEM
1. Producing motions
2. Stabilizing body positions
3. Storing and moving substances within the body
4. Generating heat (thermogenesis)
Weight lifter Corman has been practicing many hours a day, and his muscles have gotten
noticeably bigger. He tells you that his muscle cells are “multiplying like crazy and making him
get stronger and stronger.” Do you believe his explanation? Why or why not?
While taking the bus to the supermarket, eleven-year-old Joseph informs his mother that he has
to “go to the bathroom” (urinate). His mother tells him he must “hold it” until they arrive at the
store. What muscles must remain contracted in order for him to prevent urination?
D. NERVOUS SYSTEM
1. Sensory function
- Sensory receptors detect internal stimuli, such as an increase in blood pressure, or
external stimuli (for example, a raindrop landing on your arm). This sensory
information is then carried into the brain and spinal cord through cranial and spinal
2. Integrative function
- The nervous system processes sensory information by analyzing it and making
decisions for appropriate responses - an activity known as integration.
3. Motor function
- Once sensory information is integrated, the nervous system may elicit an appropriate
motor response by activating effectors (muscles and glands) through cranial and
spinal nerves. Stimulation of the effectors causes muscles to contract and glands to
As a torture procedure for his enemies, mad scientist Dr. Raymond Claro is trying to develop a
drug that will enhance the effects of substance P. What cellular mechanisms could he enlist to
design such a drug?
Mariciele has recently had a viral infection and now she cannot move the muscles on the right
side of her face. In addition, she is experiencing a loss of taste and a dry mouth, and she cannot
close her right eye. What cranial nerve has been affected by the viral infection?
E. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
1. Help regulate:
- Chemical composition and volume of internal environment (interstitial fluid)
- Metabolism and energy balance
- Contraction of smooth and cardiac muscle fibers
- Glandular secretions
- Some immune system activities
2. Control growth and development
3. Regulate operation of reproductive systems
4. Help establish circadian rhythms
1. Amanda hates her new student ID photo. Her hair looks dry, the extra weight that she’s
gained shows, and her neck looks fat. In fact, there’s an odd butterfly-shaped swelling
across the front of her neck, under her chin. Amanda’s also been feeling very tired and
mentally “dull” lately, but she figures all new Biology students feel that way. Should she
visit the clinic or just wear turtlenecks?
2. Amanda (from question 1 above) goes to the clinic and blood is drawn. The results show
that her T4 levels are low and her TSH levels are low. Later she is given a TSH
stimulation test in which TSH is injected and the T4 levels are monitored. After TSH
injection, her T4 levels rise. Does Amanda have problems with her pituitary or with her
thyroid gland? How did you come to your conclusion?
F. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
Shilpa has recently been on broad-spectrum antibiotics for a recurrent urinary bladder infection.
While slicing vegetables, she cut herself and had difficulty stopping the bleeding. How could the
antibiotics have played a role in her bleeding?
Gerald recently visited the dentist to have his teeth cleaned and checked. During the cleaning
process, Gerald had some bleeding from his gums. A couple of days later, Gerald developed a
fever, rapid heartbeat, sweating, and chills. He visited his family physician, who detected a slight
heart murmur. Gerald was given antibiotics and continued to have his heart monitored. How was
Gerald’s dental visit related to his illness?
1. Kim Sung was told that her baby was born with a hole in the upper chambers of his heart.
Is this something Kim Sung should worry about?
2. Michael was brought into the emergency room suffering from a gunshot wound. He is
bleeding profusely and exhibits the following: systolic blood pressure is 40 mmHg; weak
pulse of 200 beats per minute; cool, pale, and clammy skin. Michael is not producing
urine but is asking for water. He is confused and disoriented. What is his diagnosis and
what, specifically, is causing these symptoms?
Maureen’s job entails standing on a concrete floor for 10-hour days on an assembly line. Lately
she has noticed swelling in her ankles at the end of the day and some tenderness in her calves.
What do you suspect is Maureen’s problem and how could she help counteract the problem?
G. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
1. Drains excess interstitial fluid. Lymphatic vessels drain excess interstitial fluid from tissue
spaces and return it to the blood.
2. Transports dietary lipids. Lymphatic vessels transport lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins (A,
D, E, and K) absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract.
3. Carries out immune responses. Lymphatic tissue initiates highly specific responses
directed against particular microbes or abnormal cells.
1. Esperanza watched as her mother got her “flu shot.” “Why do you need a shot if you’re
not sick?” she asked. “So I won’t get sick,” answered her mom. Explain how the influenza
vaccination prevents illness.
2. Diego’s little sister has the mumps. Diego can’t remember if he has had mumps or not,
but he is feeling slightly feverish. How could Diego’s doctor determine if he is getting sick
with mumps or if he has previously had mumps?
Further reading and research:
c) Urinary, and
d) Reproductive System.