Building Construction Analysis Report


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Building Construction Analysis Report

  1. 1. Building Construction (ARC 1523) Project 1 : Integrated Construction Detailing and Drawings LECTURER: MR. BRUCE LEE LOO GIAP SHENG KIEW WEE KEE DANIEL YAP CHUNG KIAT NG YOU SHENG CHRISTIODY TEO KEAN HUI HO LEON
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENT Page 1 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Introduction of site 2.0 Site and Safety 2-4 2.1 Plants and Machinery 5-6 3.0 External Work 7-12 3.1 Setting out and Earth work 4.0 Foundation 4.1 Foundation type and construction process (from site visit) 4.2 Foundation type and construction process (from reference) 5.0 Superstructure (from site visit and reference) 5.1 Beam and Column 20-23 5.2 Slab 24-26 5.3 Wall 27-34 5.4 Staircase 35-39 6.0 Opening 6.1 Window 40-42 6.2 Door 43-47 7.0 Roof 48-53 7.1 Roof type and construction process (from site visit) 7.2 Roof type and construction process (from reference) 8.0 Summary 54 9.0 Reference 55-56 13-19 TABLE OF CONTENT
  3. 3. 1.1 Introduction To The Site SITE A SITE A Location : Lot 37340, Bandar Mahkota Cheras, Mukim Cheras, Daerah Hulu Langat, Selangor Darul Ehsan. Date of Approval : 1st October 2011 Owner : Mr. Loo Kok Jiang & Ms. Low Lee Siang Architect : Architectonic Design Contractor : Advance Contech Sdn. Bhd. House Type : 3 Storey Bungalow SITE B2 Location : Bandar Mahkota Cheras, Mukim Cheras, Daerah Hulu Langat, Selangor Darul Ehsan. House Type : 3 Storey Terrace House SITE B INTRODUCTION TO THE SITE 1
  4. 4. 2.0 Site and safety Safety signs that commonly found in construction site. Dress code • Closed toe shoes only. Work boots are preferred but thick-soled tennis shoes are allowed. • Due to the nature of the construction work involved, long pants are preferred. However, shorts are permitted, but cannot be shorter than mid-thigh. No overly baggy pants should be worn. • Shirts are required at all times. No tank tops, tube tops, spaghetti string tops, or halter tops are allowed. All undergarments must be covered. • Protective glasses are provided by Habitat, and are available for all construction site volunteers/workers. A worker must wear protective glasses any time he or she is operating a power tool or when instructed by a Habitat construction site crew chief or safety officer. • Dust mask are provided by Habitat, and are available for all construction site volunteers/workers installing insulation, sanding, or when instructed by a Habitat construction site crew chief or safety officer. • Ear plugs are provided by Habitat, and are available for all construction site volunteers/workers using a power tool or when instructed by a Habitat construction site crew chief or safety officer SITE AND SAFETY Prepared By: TEO KEAN HUI 2
  5. 5. 2.0 Site and safety Safety nets Worker safety series Safety nets must be used by every construction which is more than one floor to prevent thing falling down and hit people below it. Scaffolding must be used for every construction site for many purposes such as plastering, painting and so on. It must be equip properly and strong enough to prevent collapse. Personal fall arrest systems must be used on every worker that work on the high ground so that he/she can be saved from falling to the ground. Ladder must be checked and ensure that is save before using it to avoid anything that is unpleasant happened. Besides, ladders are required to place at the place that needed so that workers can use it all the time when they need it. Scaffolding First aid kits are important for every construction site and it must be placed in spot that easily seen so that everyone can find and use it when needed. Fire extinguisher must be place in each corner of construction site in case any fire or burning happened can be put out. Water storage tanks that store clean water is important as a source of drinking water for worker. Portable toilet must be installed in construction site so that business can be done in a proper place for everyone in construction site. Ladder Fire extinguisher Water storage tank Personal fall arrest system Portable toilet SITE AND SAFETY Prepared By: TEO KEAN HUI 3
  6. 6. 2.0 Site and safety Electrical equipment An electrical equipment must be used according to propel instruction and sequences. All the workers are advice to go for training and instruction should be done by a qualified person but not “do-it-yourself”. Workers are advice to operate any electrical with the presence of instructor until the instructor satisfies with worker’s way of operating electrical equipment in proper way.  Clean the electrical equipment daily and it should be checked for defective switches, cords, plugs, and proper grounding to avoid any accident happen.  Any electrical equipment that has problem must be report to the Site Safety Officer so that it can be repair or replace.  To avoid from electric shock,  A proper and licenced plug must be used on all the electrical equipment.  Extension wire that used must not have frayed insulation and should not simply wrap it with tapes but to change it or repair it by qualified person.  All the lights used in construction site must equip with the nonconductive guard. Attitude  Think before you do your work or task.  Ask a Construction Crew Chief or Safety Officer for assistance if you are uncertain about how to do a task or how to operate a power tool.  Concentrate on your task and eliminate distractions.  Know the location of the first-aid kit and how to get emergency help.  Inspect all tools on a daily basis including power tools, hand tools, ladders, and scaffolding.  Advise a Construction Crew Chief or Safety Officer immediately of any unsafe condition or hazard.  The worker get the right to rest to rest 30 minutes for each 3 hours. SITE AND SAFETY Prepared By: TEO KEAN HUI 4
  7. 7. 2.1 Plants and machinery Backhoe loader, digger, JCB A big bucket on the front and a small bucker at the back. Commonly used in urban engineering and small construction projects. Light transportation of building materials. Digging holes, landscaping, breaking asphalt, and paving roads. The buckets attach on it can be remove and replace with another machine to perform other task such as pneumatic. Truck, tipper Mainly function as vehicle that carries sand and stones for construction site. In Malaysia, the called it “lori hantu”. The bucket behind it can be change to become other useful vehicle in construction site such as transit mixer and many more. Telescoping boom truck mounted mobile crane Cable-controlled crane mounted on crawlers or rubber-tired carriers. There are also hydraulic-powered crane with a telescoping boom mounted on truck-type carriers or as selfpropelled models. Mainly used as a machine to carry different types of load such as steel bars, concrete by using concrete pouring bucket with little or no setup or assembly. Transit Mixers A machine that that used to combines cement, aggregate and water to form concrete in big amount. Vehicle that carries a big revolving drum to mix the components. Normally concrete are pour into concrete pouring bucket from transit mixer to use. Gets cement mixing materials from cement plants. Plate compactor Used to compact soil or road surface. Only for small scale project. Compacted soil can free from shifts and settles that cause by the exposure to water, freezing and thawing cycles thus pressure from above due to vehicles or foot traffic that can lead to unstable and uneven surface. PLANTS AND MACHINERY Prepared By: TEO KEAN HUI 5
  8. 8. 2.1 Plants and machinery Concrete mixer A machine that that used to combines cement, aggregate and water to form concrete in small amount. Uses a revolving drum to mix the components Concrete pouring bucket Work together with Telescoping boom truck mounted mobile crane to carry concrete from transit mixer. Operate manually by worker. Pneumatic Pavement Breakers A tool that used commonly to break down solid such as stones, harden concrete and bricks. Uses the vibrating system to break down the particle of solid things. Power generator Function as a machine to generate power for other machine that not so big by using fuel. Bar bending machine This machine used to shape steel bar for reinforcement of the building’s parts such as piles and wall. Normally uses power generator to operate. Light lifting machine Used to carry limited amount of load in construction site. Operate physically and manually. Loader Digging holes, landscaping, breaking asphalt, and paving roads. Commonly used in urban engineering. Only one bucket at the front. PLANTS AND MACHINERY Prepared By: TEO KEAN HUI 6
  9. 9. 3.1 Fencing Galvanized Chain-Link Fence (used in construction) Introduction to Chain-Link Fence A chain-link fence (also referred to as wire netting, wire-mesh fence, chain-wire fence, cyclone fence, hurricane fence, or diamond-mesh fence) is a type of woven fence usually made from galvanized or LLDPE-coated steel wire. The wires run vertically and are bent into a zig-zag pattern so that each "zig" hooks with the wire immediately on one side and each "zag" with the wire immediately on the other. This forms the characteristic diamond pattern seen in this type of fence. Types of Link Knuckle - Knuckle Knuckle - Barbed Barbed - Barbed The wire is knuckled at both ends & is abbrievated as KK The wire is knuckled at the bottom & twisted into a barbed selvedge at the top & is abbrievated as KB The wire is twisted into a barbed selvedge at both ends & is abbrievated as BB EXTERNAL WORK Prepared By: KIEW WEE KEE 7
  10. 10. 3.1 Fencing Galvanized Chain-Link Fence (used in construction) Top Rail Fence Tie Tension Band Rail End Band Terminal Post Cap Gate Fork Latch Chain-Link Fence & Gate (Parts & Lists) Terminal Post Line Post Bottom Tension Wire Gate Post Hinge Gate Frame Hinge Examples of Chain-Link Fence at Construction Site EXTERNAL WORK Prepared By: KIEW WEE KEE 8
  11. 11. 3.2 Setting Out Setting Out Building Outline (Process) 1. Set out the building line 2. Set out the base (frontage line) Centre of the road Centre of the road Kerb Peg Kerb Peg B Building Line A Building Line D Frontage Line 4. Set out the second right angle to the frontage line 3. Set out the first right angle to the frontage line B Second peg set the distance of the width of the building to determine the frontage line Distance determined by the authority Boundary Frontage Line Frontage Line B A First corner peg set to the distance "D" from the boundary Boundary 5. Set out the final (Back) line B A Frontage Line A 90° 90° Squared Line Squared Line Distance set from peg C to ped D is to be the same as for A - B; this will ensure that the lines are parallel C G E Peg set well outside the proposed building's position C H F D Peg set well outside the proposed building's position C D Peg set well outside the proposed building's position EXTERNAL WORK Prepared By: KIEW WEE KEE 9
  12. 12. 3.2 Setting Out Setting Trenches & Profiles Profiles must be positioned well away from the proposed excavations to allow an adequate working space. Wall Foundation & Trench Profile Boards Cords between Profiles Profile Boards Positioning of Profiles Typical Trenches Layout Trench width markd with a line/ dots of dry lime powder for hand excavation Centre line of trench marked with dry lime powder for machin e excavationusing trench width bucket This is particularly important when the excavation is to be carried out by means of a mechanical digger. 150 X 38 Crossboard Concrete Strip Foundation 50 X 50 Posts Painted Band When the building has been set outand proved by checking the diagonals, profiles can be erected to enable the corner points to be easily located after the trenches had been excavated: Saw Cuts Typical Profile Boards  The profile is marked with the wall position by saw cut or nail. EXTERNAL WORK Prepared By: KIEW WEE KEE 10
  13. 13. 3.2 Setting Out Setting Profiles Level Level is transferred from datum to corner peg Corner profile set to the required finished floor level  When setting up profiles, it is essential that they are as level as possible.  This ensures that lines cross very closely at intersections  Avoids inaccuracies when re-measuring walls and diagonals before commencing the brickwork.  The profi le can be levelled using an optical or laser level, and is most conveniently levelled to the DPC level of the proposed building. Temporary datum mark is protected with concrete Boning Rods Boning Rod Function: Line of Sight Site Datum 1 3  A simple device used to quickly position levelling pegs.  Consists of two pieces of timber nailed together at right angles 2  Used to transfer levels between two known points.  Speed up the transference of levels.  Eye sight is used instead of a spirit level. Fixed Level Line of Excevation/ Depth Required Fixed Level EXTERNAL WORK Prepared By: KIEW WEE KEE 11
  14. 14. 3.3 Earthwork Types of Earthworks Earthworks can be calssified based on the tyoe of excavated material: Removal of the exposed layer of the earth’s surface, including vegetation. Since the topsoil, or mantle soil, supports growth of trees and other vegetation, this layer contains more moisture than that underneath. Removal of a formation that cannot be excavated without drilling and blasting. Any boulder larger than 1⁄2 yd3 generally is classified as rock. Rock Excavation: Topsoil Excavation: Removal of material that contains an excessive amount of water and undesirable soil. Its consistency is determined by the percentage of water contained. Because of lack of stability under load, muck seldom can be used in an embankment. Removal of the layer of soil immediately under the topsoil and on top of rock. Used to construct embankments and foundations, earth usually is easy to move with scrapers or other types of earthmoving equipment. Earth Excavation: Muck Excavation: EXTERNAL WORK Prepared By: KIEW WEE KEE 12
  15. 15. 4.1 Introduction to Foundation Foundation is the lowest part of the building. The first function is to support the building and anchor the superstructure above and transmit its loads safely into the earth. Foundation system must anchor the superstructure to prevent the wind- induced sliding, uplift and overturning withstands the sudden ground movements of an earthquake then resist the pressure imposed by the surrounding soil mass and ground water. Proper designed construct foundation As the building is constructed, some settlement is to be expected as the load on the foundation increases and causes a reduction in the volume of soil voids containing air or water Anchorage to resist sliding, uplift and overturning Foundation Differential settlement Substructure FOUNDATION Prepared By: CHRISTIODY 13
  16. 16. 4.1 Types of Foundation systems Foundation have a lot of combination of bearing walls, columns and piers to transmit building loads directly to the earth. There are some structural elements can form various types of substructures, such as, basement wholly , crawl spaces, concrete slabs on grade and a grid of independent. Two types of foundation systems are Shallow foundation and deep foundation. Basement wholly Crawl spaces Shallow Foundation Concrete slabs on grade A grid of independent Shallow Foundation Deep Foundation FOUNDATION Prepared By: CHRISTIODY 14
  17. 17. 4.2 Foundation Site Process 1 2 4 3 1. Back holder excavating the soil to create the mold for foundation. 2. The foundation mold has been applied and ready for pouring cement. 3. Add the steel bar inside the mold that going to pour by cement to stronger the foundation. 4. Cement Mixer car start pouring cement and the worker help to spruce up the cement so that the cement is poured by cement mixer car does not spill out of the mold. 5. 5 Concrete Foundation wall. FOUNDATION Prepared By: CHRISTIODY 15
  18. 18. 4.3 Foundation General Process (Underpinning and Footings) Temporary support while an existing foundation is repaired Raft Foundation Underpinning means the process of rebuilding the foundation of an existing building . Grid of Ribs Support/alternative to extend new foundation Alternative to extend a new foundation wall and placing new footing FOUNDATION Prepared By: CHRISTIODY 16
  19. 19. 4.3 Foundation General Process (Footings) Verticcal reinforcement Lateral reinforcement Steel dowels Isolated Footings Continuous Footing Column Footings Reinforced Concrete Column A variety of proprietary bases are available Steel base plate A cantilever Footings Combined Footings Steel Column Wood Post FOUNDATION Prepared By: CHRISTIODY 17
  20. 20. 4.3 Foundation General Process ( Foundation walls ) Foundation wall Foundation wall Concrete Foundation Wall Concrete Masonry Foundation FOUNDATION Prepared By: CHRISTIODY 18
  21. 21. 4.3 Foundation General process ( Foundation on sloping Ground and Pole foundation) Poles Spaced wood beams (solid) Foundation on sloping Ground can cause overlapping soil stress and ground surface should not encroach on bearing prism of soil rock Pole Foundation means an elevate timber structures above the ground plane, require minimal excavation and preserve the natural features and existing drainage patterns of site. FOUNDATION Prepared By: CHRISTIODY 19
  22. 22. 5.1 Column & Beam Types of Column • In ancient, there are three types of columns been used to construct the support of the building in Greek and Roman. They are Doric, Ionic, Corinthian. • Nowadays, to construct columns, there are few materials been used such as reinforced concrete, steel bar and etc. Materials Used to Construct Column and Beam on Site • Reinforced concrete- cement and steel bar Column • A supporting pillar consisting of a base, a shaft and a capital. • A structural element that transmits, through compression , the weight of the structure above to other structure below. Beam • A structural element that is capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting bending. • Columns are frequently used to support beams or arches on which the upper parts of walls or ceilings. SUPERSTRUCTURE Prepared By: DANIEL YAP CHUNG KIAT 20
  23. 23. 5.1 Column & Beam Step to Construct Column Diagram 1.1 : Diagram shows that the steel bar was tied to the foundation’s rebar to construct columns. Wooden panel Diagram 1.2 : Wooden panels were set up around the steel bars. Diagram 1.3 : 1. Wooden panels were set up to form the shape of the columns. 2. Cement is poured into the set –up wooden panels to form columns. 3. Remove the wooden panels after the cement form concrete shape and it takes time around two weeks. 4. Concrete columns were completely dry up in 28 days in normal weather without raining. Rebar Diagram 1.2 Diagram 1.1 Cement 000 1 2 3 4 Diagram 1.3 SUPERSTRUCTURE Prepared By: DANIEL YAP CHUNG KIAT 21
  24. 24. 5.1 Column & Beam Step to Construct Column Diagram 1.4 : 1. Wooden panels are set-up as the formwork to construct the reinforced concrete beam. 2. Cement is poured into the formwork to form concrete beam. 3. Wooden formwork are removed after 28 days when it dry. Cement 1 2 3 Diagram 1.4 Pictures shown on the left are the beams of the site we visited. SUPERSTRUCTURE Prepared By: DANIEL YAP CHUNG KIAT 22
  25. 25. 5.1 Column & Beam Advantage of Reinforced Concrete Column: • It has a relatively high compressive strength; Advantage and Disadvantage of Reinforced Concrete Column • It has better resistance to fire than steel; • It has a long service life with low maintenance cost; In some types of structures, such as dams, piers, and footings, it is the most economical structural material; • It can be cast to take the shape required, making it widely used in precast structural components. It yields rigid members with minimum apparent deflection. Disadvantage of Reinforced Concrete Column: • It has a low tensile strength of about one-tenth of its compressive strength; • It needs mixing, casting, and curing, all of which affect the final strength of concrete; Pictures shot during site visit • The cost of the forms used to cast of concrete placed in the forms; • It has a low compressive strength as compared to steel (the ratio is about 1:10, depending on materials), which leads to large sections in columns of multistory buildings; • Cracks develop in concrete due to shrinkage and the application of live loads. Other Basic Structural of Column and Beam 1. I Beam 2. Steel C Channel 3. Hollow section 1. 2 3. SUPERSTRUCTURE Prepared By: DANIEL YAP CHUNG KIAT 23
  26. 26. 5.2 Slab Concrete Ground Slab Slab Concrete Slab • A common structural element of modern buildings. Horizontal slabs of steel reinforced concrete, are most often used to construct floors and ceilings , while thinner slabs are also used for exterior paving. Gravel Materials Used to Construct Slab on Site • Reinforced concrete- cement and steel bar Two way Concrete Ceiling Slab SUPERSTRUCTURE Prepared By: DANIEL YAP CHUNG KIAT 24
  27. 27. 5.2 Slab Step to Construct Column Diagram 1.5 : 1. Wooden panels were set Cement up to form the shape of the slab. Besides that, the rebar is placed on the Rebar gravel to withstand more force. 2. Cement is poured into the wooden formwork to form reinforced concrete slab. Wooden panel 3. Remove the wooden 2 1 panels after the cement form slab shape and it takes time around two weeks. 4. Reinforced concrete slab Wooden panel 3 is totally dried up around 28 days. 4 SUPERSTRUCTURE Prepared By: DANIEL YAP CHUNG KIAT 25
  28. 28. 5.2 Slab Advantage of Reinforced Concrete : • Reduced project time & Improved Cash Flow • Shorter start to finish time Reason of concrete crack: Shrinkage, Rapid Drying of the concrete, Improper strength concrete poured on the job. Prevent slab from crack : Know the allowable water for the mix the contractor is pouring- or be very sure you have chosen a reputable contractor who will make sure the proper mix is poured. It is more expensive to do it right- it simply takes more manpower to pour stiffer mixes. SUPERSTRUCTURE Prepared By: DANIEL YAP CHUNG KIAT 26
  29. 29. 5.3 Wall Constructing a concrete brick wall:Brickwork bond used on site: Stretcher bond (Running bond) Types of bricks used on site:Clay brick and Cement sand brick Features: Most common bond  Easy to build  Produces very little waste  Use for interior setting because of its thin wall Step 1: Foundation Pour a concrete foundation if you do not have an existing slab, brick ledge, or footing to work on. Concrete footing A wall is a vertical structure, usually solid, that defines and sometimes protects an area. Most commonly, a wall delineates a building and supports its superstructure, separates space in buildings into sections, or protects or delineates a space in the open air. Soil Wood board (formwork) Aggregate s Perspective view SUPERSTRUCTURE Prepared By: LOO GIAP SHENG 27
  30. 30. 5.3 Wall Step 2: Measure the brick get the length of your wall Start by putting a brick down at each end of where you want the wall to go. Measure the size of your brick because bricks come in variety of sizes; long, short, wide, skinny, etc. 9 5/8” Step 4: Consistency Spirit level 3/8” Keep the height of all bricks the same by using a spirit level or carpenter’s level. Check them once in a while to be safe. 10” For example if your brick is 9 5/8 inches long, then you may want to mark 10 inches intervals for each brick. The remaining 3/8 inch gap you can fill them with mortar. Step 5: Next level brick Always start at each end then fill in the middle till you get to your destined height. Remember to adjust your hook line every level you goes. Step 3: Set up the line Hook a line at both ends so it lines up with the very top of the two bricks. Then fill up the middle. Half size brick Full size brick Set up the line Fill the middle SUPERSTRUCTURE Prepared By: LOO GIAP SHENG 28
  31. 31. 5.3 Wall Step 6: Wiring and piping Constructing a drywall partition wall After constructing the brick till the top, you have to get all kinds of piping ready depending on what you need: wire, air conditioner, water and etc. Then, you need to craft a cylindrical-like space on the wall vertically or horizontally depending on your piping system. Then, you can start setting up your pipes. Advantages: Easy and fast installation  Fire resistant (contains gypsum)  Superior in terms of insulation  Environmental-friendly Cylindrical-like space for pipes Step 1: Mark and record Determine where you want to place your partition wall and on the spot, put a mark on the ceiling. From the mark, drop a plumb bob and mark the floor. Repeat it on the other side where the partition wall going to end. Step 7: Laying the mortar Before you start to lay the mortar, construct a small flat-topped pyramid with mortar at every corner and side end (make sure they are all same height). This method is use to make sure the mortar is laid perpendicularly. After the flat-topped pyramid mortar has dried, you can now finish off by laying the rest mortar on the wall. Flat-topped pyramid mortar Plumb bob SUPERSTRUCTURE Prepared By: LOO GIAP SHENG 29
  32. 32. 5.3 Wall Step 2: Measure and cut Step 3: Assembling the pieces Prepare studwork timber to make the frame of the partition wall. Using measuring tape, measure and dimension the size of the wall you want it to be. Note that the distance between every stud has to be in 16 inches because:- Lay the cut studwork timber on the floor first then proceed by joining them together. Drive two 16d nails into each edge at 45 degree angle. This method is to make sure the studworks are firmly attached.  The standard dimension of heat and sound insulations are 16 inches as it could fit exactly into it.  By the time it comes to time, you might want to put things outside the plasterboards such as baseboard, crown mold, cabinets and etc. It is good to know where the studs are for nailing and screwing purposes. Nail at 45 degree Cut the studwork timbers using a saw into the dimension (according to the size of your wall) shown below:Top plate Step 4: Screw the plasterboards Studs Cut the plasterboard of that size of the outer frame. Screw the plasterboard in, at only one side of the frame. Noggings Maximum 1350 mm 16 ” Base plate SUPERSTRUCTURE Prepared By: LOO GIAP SHENG 30
  33. 33. 5.3 Wall Pre-cast wall Step 5: Install insulations Leave the other side of the wall empty so that you can place the insulation in. Make sure you install the right type of insulation depending on what you need: heat, sound, or both. Measure and cut the insulation into the right size so that it fits exactly. Heat/sound insulation Advantages: Rapid construction  Good quality control  Minimal wastage Disadvantages: Limited building design flexibility  Skilled workmanship is required on the site  Connections are difficult Step 1: Plotting the wall element Mark the outline of the wall with the dimensions you want. Step 6: Finish the plasterboards After inserting all the insulations you want, cover them with plasterboards. Again, cut the plasterboard of that size of the outer frame and screw the plasterboard in. Step 2: Moulding and placing electric/water installations Place the electric and water pipes on the mark (depending on what you need). SUPERSTRUCTURE Prepared By: LOO GIAP SHENG 31
  34. 34. 5.3 Wall Step 3: Inserting reinforcement (ironing) Step 5: Vibration and rotation (double wall formation) Insert iron bars within the outline of the wall. After the mortar has dried, rotate the dried mortar and stack it with another prepared wall. Step 4: Concrete filling Step 6: Storing the walls Pour mortar onto the iron bar. Hook the wall off to a side as it is available to be cast to construction SUPERSTRUCTURE Prepared By: LOO GIAP SHENG 32
  35. 35. 5.3 Wall Reinforced concrete wall Step 3: Removing forms Features: Higher relative strength  Used in skyscrapers and bridges  Have expansion joints to prevent cracking in response to changes of temperature Step 1: Setting steel and inspection After the mortar has completely dried, remove the formwork. Set up the skeletal structure with steel bars. Step 2: Formwork and mortar Glass block wall Advantages:-     Transmit light in both direction Distorting image to create privacy Resistance in heat, sound and impact Cost effectiveness (minimal maintenance) Set up the formwork and pour mortar into the formwork. SUPERSTRUCTURE Prepared By: LOO GIAP SHENG 33
  36. 36. 5.3 Wall Step 1: Determine the number of blocks Measure and plan your project as glass block cannot be cut. Do not forget the thickness of mortar joints. Step 3: First row Step 5: Complete wall Lay a bed of mortar and start placing the glass blocks. The spaces between the end of the block will be filled with expansion strip instead of mortar due to climate changes. Continue laying the glass blocks until the top. Remember to add panel anchors in every two rows to increase its endurance. Expansion strip Step 2: Prepare mortar Mix an amount of glass mortar depending on your usage. Step 4: Second row Repeat step 3. After filling the second row, place panel anchors on the glass blocks and screw them into the side wall of both ends. Panel anchors SUPERSTRUCTURE Prepared By: LOO GIAP SHENG 34
  37. 37. 5.4 Staircase Stairs is a construction designed to bridge a large vertical distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distances, called steps. Stairs may be straight, round, or may consist of two or more straight pieces connected at angles. Staircase terminology SUPERSTRUCTURE Prepared By: LOO GIAP SHENG 35
  38. 38. 5.4 Staircase Constructing a stairs Step 2: Determine the foundation’s dimension Step 1: Calculate the stairs’ dimension The dimensions of the staircase’s foundation are the total length of run and total width of staircase as you have measured in step 1. Standard measurement of:  Rise (7 inches)  Tread (11 inches) Measure the height of one floor to the other. (to get the total number of rise) Divide the height with 7.25 inches to see how many steps you will need. Measure the horizontal distance the staircase will span (total run) and measure the width of staircase from left to right (total staircase width). Total rise Vertical face Total run Step 3: Build the form Rise Use either plywood or framing lumber to build the form. Cut the side forms according to the tread and riser calculations. Run SUPERSTRUCTURE Prepared By: LOO GIAP SHENG 36
  39. 39. 5.4 Staircase Step 4: Prepare the concrete Step 6: Add finishing touches Wood float You might need a portable cement mixer to produce sufficient and well-mixed mortar. Step 5: Pour the mortar Use a simple wood float to clean and smooth the surface of the mortars. Step 7: Leave and wait Filled with mortar Start at the bottom; pour one step at a time. Make sure the mortars are spread evenly. Use a spade to remove the trapped air bubbles. Spray the stairs with curing compound and cover it with burlap. After a week, you can remove the form lumber. SUPERSTRUCTURE Prepared By: LOO GIAP SHENG 37
  40. 40. 5.4 Staircase Constructing timber staircase Step 1: Calculate rise and run Find the total length of your rise and run. Also, measure the width of your staircase. Divide your total rise by 7 inches then you will get your number of steps. Step 3: Install treads and risers The volume of the stairs Cut the risers to the length and fasten them to the stringers. Cut the risers and treads to overhang the outer stringer by 1 ¼”. Leaving 1 ¼” space is for nailing purposes. Step 2: Cutting stringers Mark the tread notches using a framing square fitted with stair gauges. Cut the notches using a circular saw. Screw each stringer to the deck-frame blocking, which was spaced 16 in. on centre. With the stringers in place, check that each step is level, and use a block plane to shave down high spots Stringers SUPERSTRUCTURE Prepared By: LOO GIAP SHENG 38
  41. 41. 5.4 Staircase Types of staircase Straight staircase Circular staircase Dog-legged or half landing staircase Spiral staircase Quarter landing staircase Winder staircase SUPERSTRUCTURE Prepared By: LOO GIAP SHENG 39
  42. 42. 6.1 Window Window Introduction There are varies types and sizes of windows, the choices of windows not only affect the physical look of a building, but also the natural lighting, ventilation, potential view and interior spaces’ spatial quality of a building. Throughout the site visits, I found out there are several types of windows used in the construction project which provide a good spatial quality. Basic Window Elements Window frame In our visited site, the window frame used is all metal window frames . Window Operation in our visited site Casing trim/ Architrave Head Rough opening Sash and Glazing Jamb Exterior casing Not necessary used, normally is drip cap or head casing. Fixed window 0% ventilation Sliding window 50% ventilation Sill OPENING Prepared By: HO LEON 40
  43. 43. Sub frame system 6.1 Window Ride up block Installation methods of aluminium window frame Aluminium plate Aluminium plate 1. 2. 3. Cast-in window System Sub frame System Lug System 1. Position the sub frame using aluminium plate and ride up blocks. Cast-in window System Sub frame Ride up block Wood stiffener 2. Check the alignment of the plumb and the sub frame Window frame setting on the precast wall panel casting mould. Throughout the fabrication and construction process, the window frame must be protected. Joint with wall Anchor head 3. Anchor the sub frame to the rough opening. Millet Protection tape 4. Seal the anchor heads and the joints with the wall with protection tape on the frame. 5. Placing main frame on to the sub frame. Millet is use to knock the finishing trim. OPENING Prepared By: HO LEON 41
  44. 44. 6.1 Window Lug system This is the window frame installation method used in the site we visited. This installation method straight away use main frame but no sub frame. Metal straps Aluminium frame Metal straps Aluminium frame Some use broken ceramic tiles to position Mortar plastering after setting the frame. 1. Clean and wet the rough opening. 3. Lastly, check the alignment of the frame with the wall and prepare to anchor the straps and start plastering. 2. Use straps and V-shaped timber wedge to position the frame. Level peg V-shaped timber wedge Plaster finished level OPENING Prepared By: HO LEON 42
  45. 45. 6.2 Door Door Introduction Doors and doorways always provide access from the outside into the interior of a building as well as passage between interior space. Exterior doors provide weathertight seal and maintain the thermal insulation value. Whereas interior doors should offer visual and acoustical privacy to the owner. Basic Doorframe Elements Head Stop Act a stop when the door closes. Door types In the construction we visited, the client had demanded to use both wood doors and metal doors. Rough opening A wall opening to fit a doorframe. Jamb Casing/ Architrave A trim which provide finishing to the joint between door frame and rough opening Door hardware Threshold Sill of doorway. Providing weather protection and covers joints of two flooring materials. It can be replaced by door mat OPENING Prepared By: HO LEON 43
  46. 46. 6.2 Door Basic Panel Door Design In terms of door operation, the construction we visited had planned to Head use three types of it. Which are the swinging, surface sliding and bypass sliding and the folding Swinging Surface sliding doors. Top rail Frame Bypass sliding Folding The client of this construction project demanded wood panel door with sash to be the entrance door. Wood panel door with sash is one of the design of wood rail and stile doors. Frieze rail Panel Lock rail Style Possible design of the wood panel door with sash to be used. Bottom rail OPENING Prepared By: HO LEON 44
  47. 47. 6.2 Door Rebated and lift-up door system Installation methods of Wooden Door frame It provide a gap between door and frame. It cause a better acoustic effect. Make user easier to uplift door panel with the use of lift up hinges. There are three methods I had researched on the wooden doorframe installation. Which are: Lift up hinge 1. 2. 3. Traditional System Rebated and lift-up door system Sub frame System Door panel Traditional System Main frame The installation of doorframe was done before the plastering the wall or installing the wall tiles. Sub frame Door frame may shrink, damaged or stained due to movement, tension, moisture condition and temperature during plastering. Architrave Rebated and lift-up door System Sub frame system This is the method they used during the installation of wooden door frame during our site visit. Door panel Door panel Wall Main frame Main frame Wall Sub frame Architrave Traditional System Sub frame System Architrave OPENING Prepared By: HO LEON 45
  48. 48. 6.2 Door Sub frame system process Plumb bob To ensure the doorframe is straight Measuring tape 2. Measure the sub frame too make sure the dimension to be more accurate. 3. Ensure proper alignment between sub frame and the setting out line. 1. Verify and confirm the door location and the dimension of the rough opening. Metal Straps 4. After aligned the frame, position the frame using metal straps. 5. Grout the gap between the sub frame and the rough opening 6. Measure the dimension of sub frame in order to install the main doorframe. OPENING Prepared By: HO LEON 46
  49. 49. 6.2 Door Silicon To resist water Mortise Lock Lever Handles 7. Apply bonding agent on the main frame and the sub frame. Apply silicon on the edges of the frame too. 8. Install the main frame to the sub frame using wave nails. 10. Clean the unwanted material around the architrave area. Mark down the angle and the distance alignment between the architrave and the main door frame. Cylinder Lock 9. Install the door panel, hinges and the door hardwares which use in our visited site. 11. Saw the marked architrave and apply bonding agent. 12. Lastly, hit the nail slant to achieve stable structure. OPENING Prepared By: HO LEON 47
  50. 50. 7.0 Roof Roofing Introduction A roof is the covering on the uppermost part of a building. A roof protects the building and its contents from the effects of weather and the invasion of animals. In most countries, the roof protects primarily against rain, heat, sunlight, wind, cold and snow. Introduction to Butterfly Roof A roof shape which has two surfaces that rise from the center to the eaves with a valley in the center; resembles the wings of a butterfly. The butterfly roof design is not only meant for the good looks but also have some advantages, the interiors of the house feels very airy and fresh. It also allows more sunlight to enter the house due to increased height of walls. Besides, it forms a v shaped valley so the roof is capable of storing rainfall. However, leakage problem makes the butterfly design less comfortable, it requires a little bit extra maintenance than other roofing, which is the main reason why butterfly roof is less popular. ROOF Prepared By: NG YOU SHENG 48
  51. 51. 7.1 Butterfly Roof and Shed Roof (on site) Modern Construction Method Step by step 2 1 Roof Truss: Sloping Top Chord Roof Framing These metal trusses are pre-fabricated in a factory and delivered to site ready for fixing, much simpler than traditional roofing carried out entirely on site. The purpose of a roof frame is to provide a structure that spans the walls of the building and supports the roof covering. The slope of pitch is to allow rain water to run off and be drained away from the dwelling. The roof frame also assists in bracing the structure from wind forces from various directions. 3 4 Install Acoustic Insulation Panel on top of Roof Framing Roofing insulators that prevent heat flux through the roof, they are set below water proof roofing materials. Flashing: Install Corrugated Galvanised Steel Roofing on top of Insulation Panel pieces of sheet metal usually lead, attached around the joints and angles of a roof to protect against leakage ROOF Prepared By: NG YOU SHENG 49
  53. 53. 7.2 Steel Framing and Terms of Roof Truss Steel Framing Ret The roof trusses are made of C-channel steel bars These steel bars then form roof trusses in the factory, and the roof trusses were brought to the site, during installation, they were connected using steel gussets. Leg Web C Channel Steel Steel Gusset Webs Roofing Top Chord Web Tie Roof Truss Roof Batten Pitch Pitching Point Fascia Pitching Point Nail Plates A truss is a frame that supports loads by efficiently transferring its forces to end supports. Ceiling Overhang Cantilever Ceiling Batten Cantilever Web Bottom Chord Bottom Chord Tie Overhang Normal Span Overall Length Terms of Roof Truss Members ROOF Prepared By: NG YOU SHENG 51
  54. 54. 7.2 Types of Roofs The gambrel roof is the variation of a gable roof. It has a steep slope on two sides , a second slope begins partway up and continues to the top. This type of roof is commonly used on barns. The gable roof has two sloping sides that meet at the top to form a gable at each end. It is the most common type of roof. GABLE ROOF GAMBREL ROOF The gable roof has two sloping sides that meet at the top to form a gable at each end. It is the most common type of roof. The hip roof slopes at all sides, results in an even overhang all around the building. It is a very strong roof and is commonly found in regions where have severe storms. This roof is very popular due to its low maintenance needed. HIP ROOF MANSARD ROOF ROOF Prepared By: NG YOU SHENG 52
  55. 55. 7.2 Types of Roofs A-Frame Roof is normally used in countries which have snowfalls, the steep slope allows the snow slides to the ground instead of remaining on top. A-Frame house have limited space and are usually built as vacation cottages. Curved roof is known for their aesthetic appeal. Other than that, it may allow for greater indoor areas or extra floors where height restrictions are a concern. In addition, a curved roof may also help to reduce resistance to wind. CURVED PANEL ROOF A-FRAME ROOF The flat roof is not perfectly flat, the rafters are laid at a slight angle to allow rain water to flow. Sheathing and roofing are applied to the top of the rafters. Shed roof, also called a lean-to roof, the shed roof is often used for an addition to an existing building. A shed roof is similar to a flat roof but has more pitch. SHED ROOF FLAT ROOF ROOF Prepared By: NG YOU SHENG 53
  56. 56. 8.0 Summary Although both site A and site B are three-storeys building, but we found that the construction process of site B is much efficient. In our opinion, site B uses more advanced machines and the land area is operated by developer. From our observation, the workers in site B are more skilled and attentive compared to site A. The superstructure of site B can be pre-casted because it required less design flexibility. SITE A (Bungalow house) SITE B (Shop houses) 54
  57. 57. 9.0 References 1. Ching, F.D.K., 2008. Building Construction Illustrated. Fourth Edition. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Willey & Sons, Inc. 2. Allen, E. and Iano, J., 2009. Fundamentals of Building Construction Materials and Methods. Fifth Edition. Hobeken, New Jersey: John Willey & Sons, Inc. 3. Varghese, P.C., 2007. Building Construction. New Delhi: Asoke K. Ghosh, PHI Learning Private Limited. 4. Anonymous, n.y.. Design. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 16 October 2013]. 5. Anonymous, n.y.. Installation. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 16 October 2013]. 6. Anonymous, n.y.. Installation. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 16 October 2013]. 7. Civil Engineering: Advantages and Disadvantages of Reinforced Concrete. (n.d.). Retrieved from 8. Ching, F. K. (2010). Building Construction Illustrated. John Wiley & Sons. 9. Retrieved from 10. Construction stages of precast wall [Video file]. (n.d.). Retrieved from 11. How to build concrete stairs the easy way [Video file]. (n.d.). Retrieved from 12. How to Create and Install a Glass Block Wall : How-To : DIY Network. (n.d.). Retrieved from 13. How to Build Stairs - Easy Steps Building Stairs - Popular Mechanics. (n.d.). Retrieved from to-plans/woodworking/4224738 55
  58. 58. 9.0 References 14. How To Build A Brick Wall - Channel4 - 4Homes. (n.d.). Retrieved from 15. How to Quickly Build Small Partition Dry Wall ( Wood Framing ) Inside for Your House. (n.d.). Retrieved from 16. Homemag, NY Mag,, Sheetmoss (2010, July). staircase terminology. Retrieved from 17. Types of Excavation ~ Engineers Daily. (n.d.). Retrieved from 18. Chain Link Fence Index - Chain link fence materials and supplies, free fenceinstallation manuals, calculators, and tips. Our chain link fence index features links tofence fittings, fabric and mesh, free fence installation manuals and material calculator. (n.d.). Retrieved from 19. Excavation in Construction from Construction (n.d.). Retrieved from 56