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Taste and smell." Gustatory and Olfactory Pathways
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Taste and smell." Gustatory and Olfactory Pathways

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  • 1. Taste and SmellGustatory / Olfactory pathways Daniel Vela-Duarte, MD Department of Neurology Loyola University Medical Center July 2012
  • 2. Smell. Its a warning system to identify potentially toxic food or noxious chemicals. Contributes to various life qualities, provides awareness of many pleasurable sensations, including appreciationof certain foods and beverages and other pleasures.
  • 3. The trigeminal system also participates in chemesthesis through undifferentiated receptors in the nasal mucosa. These receptors have little discriminatory ability but a great sensitivity to all irritant stimuli.Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 4.  Olfactory impulses reach the cerebral cortex without relay through the thalamus. Olfaction is unique among sensory systems. From the prepiriform cortex fibers project to the neighboring entorhinal cortex and the medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus. The amygdaloid nuclei connect with the hypothalamus and septal nuclei.
  • 5. Clinical Manifestations ofOlfactory Lesions Quantitative abnormalities:  loss or reduction of the sense of smell (anosmia, hyposmia) or, rarely, increased olfactory acuity (hyperosmia) Qualitative abnormalities:  distortions or illusions of smell (dysosmia or parosmia) Olfactory hallucinations and delusions caused by temporal lobe disorders or psychiatric disease Higher-order loss of olfactory discrimination (olfactory agnosia)
  • 6. Clinical presentation Bilateral anosmia is a common complaint, and the patient is usually convinced that the sense of taste has been lost as well (ageusia). Parosmia may also be a troublesome symptom in middle-aged and elderly persons with a depressive illness, who may report that every article of food has an extremely unpleasant odor (cacosmia). Sensations of disagreeable taste are often associated cacogeusia).
  • 7. Differential diagnosisAdams and Victors Principles of Neurology. 9th Ed.
  • 8. Taste Older notions of a “tongue map,” which implied the existence of specific areas subserving one or another taste, are incorrect. Any one taste bud is capable of responding to a number of sapid substances, but it is always preferentially sensitive to one type of stimulus.