Taste and SmellGustatory / Olfactory pathways Daniel Vela-Duarte, MD Department of Neurology Loyola University Medical Cen...
Smell.   Its a warning system to identify    potentially toxic food or noxious    chemicals.   Contributes to various li...
The trigeminal system also participates in chemesthesis through       undifferentiated receptors in the nasal mucosa. Thes...
   Olfactory impulses reach    the cerebral cortex without    relay through the thalamus.   Olfaction is unique among   ...
Clinical Manifestations ofOlfactory Lesions   Quantitative abnormalities:      loss or reduction of the sense of smell  ...
Clinical presentation   Bilateral anosmia is a common complaint, and    the patient is usually convinced that the sense o...
Differential diagnosisAdams and Victors Principles of Neurology. 9th Ed.
Taste Older notions of a “tongue map,” which implied the existence of specific areas subserving one or another taste, are...
Taste and smell." Gustatory and Olfactory Pathways
Taste and smell." Gustatory and Olfactory Pathways
Taste and smell." Gustatory and Olfactory Pathways
Taste and smell." Gustatory and Olfactory Pathways
Taste and smell." Gustatory and Olfactory Pathways
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Taste and smell." Gustatory and Olfactory Pathways

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Taste and smell." Gustatory and Olfactory Pathways

  1. 1. Taste and SmellGustatory / Olfactory pathways Daniel Vela-Duarte, MD Department of Neurology Loyola University Medical Center July 2012
  2. 2. Smell. Its a warning system to identify potentially toxic food or noxious chemicals. Contributes to various life qualities, provides awareness of many pleasurable sensations, including appreciationof certain foods and beverages and other pleasures.
  3. 3. The trigeminal system also participates in chemesthesis through undifferentiated receptors in the nasal mucosa. These receptors have little discriminatory ability but a great sensitivity to all irritant stimuli.Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  4. 4.  Olfactory impulses reach the cerebral cortex without relay through the thalamus. Olfaction is unique among sensory systems. From the prepiriform cortex fibers project to the neighboring entorhinal cortex and the medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus. The amygdaloid nuclei connect with the hypothalamus and septal nuclei.
  5. 5. Clinical Manifestations ofOlfactory Lesions Quantitative abnormalities:  loss or reduction of the sense of smell (anosmia, hyposmia) or, rarely, increased olfactory acuity (hyperosmia) Qualitative abnormalities:  distortions or illusions of smell (dysosmia or parosmia) Olfactory hallucinations and delusions caused by temporal lobe disorders or psychiatric disease Higher-order loss of olfactory discrimination (olfactory agnosia)
  6. 6. Clinical presentation Bilateral anosmia is a common complaint, and the patient is usually convinced that the sense of taste has been lost as well (ageusia). Parosmia may also be a troublesome symptom in middle-aged and elderly persons with a depressive illness, who may report that every article of food has an extremely unpleasant odor (cacosmia). Sensations of disagreeable taste are often associated cacogeusia).
  7. 7. Differential diagnosisAdams and Victors Principles of Neurology. 9th Ed.
  8. 8. Taste Older notions of a “tongue map,” which implied the existence of specific areas subserving one or another taste, are incorrect. Any one taste bud is capable of responding to a number of sapid substances, but it is always preferentially sensitive to one type of stimulus.

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