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Anatomy of basal ganglia
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Anatomy of basal ganglia



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  • 1. Basal Ganglia Chris Robinson, DO Department of NeurologyLoyola University Medical Center June 2012
  • 2. Anatomic Motor Systems• 1. Prepyramidal - Supp Motor Area - Premotor Cortex• 2. Pyramidal - corticospinal, rubrospinal, vestibulospinal, reticulospinal• 3. Extrapyramidal - basal ganglia
  • 3. FUNCTIONAL DIVISIONS Lenticular Nucleus1. Striatum a. caudate nucleus b. putamen2. Pallidum a. Globus Pallidus Interna (Gpi) b. Globus Pallidus Externa (Gpe)3. Thalamus4. Subthalamic Nucleus5. Substantia Nigra
  • 4. Blood Supply
  • 5. Basic FunctionStriatum – Caudate and Putamen - receives input from motor cortical areas and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc)Pallidum - GPi and Gpe - relays output information to the ipsilateral thalamusThalamus – VA and VL nuclei - relays excititory response to motor cortexSubthalamic Nucleus - relays excitatory ouput to GPiSubstantia Nigra (pc) – dopaminergic excitation/inhibition to striatum (pr) – output to thalamus along w/ GPi
  • 6. GPi Anatomy Thalamic Fasciculus 1. Ansa Lenticularis - From GPi loops under post limb to VA/VL of thalamus 2. Lenticular Fasciculus - From GPi pass through internal capsule on top of STN to VA/VL of thalamus1. 2.
  • 7. Basal Ganglia Disclosure Statement1. The caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus act on the motor thalamus, which acts on the motor cortex2. There are no descending spinal cord tracts w/in the basal ganglia3. All circuitry is ipsilateral and projects to the same side of the brain4. Basal Ganglia circuits affect movements of the contralateral side
  • 8. Neurotransmitters1. Glutamate - excitatory2. GABA - inhibitory3. Dopamine a. D1 - Excitatory b. D2 - Inhibitory4. ACh
  • 9. Cortical Direct Pathway Glutmate GABA Inhibit the InhibitorThe Direct pathway turns UPthe motor thalamus, and inturn the motor cortex. Thusit TURNS UP motor activity!
  • 10. Cortical Indirect Pathway Glutmate GABA Inhibit the Inhibitor InhibitedThe Indirect pathway turnsDOWN the motor thalamus, andin turn the motor cortex. Thus itTURNS DOWN motor activity!
  • 11. Dopaminergic EffectDopamine EXCITES thedirect pathway, andINHIBITS the indirect D1 - excitatorypathway! D2 - inhibitoryThe overall concept ofdopamine is to increaseexcitatory output
  • 12. ACh EffectsThe overall concept ofACh is to TURN DOWNmotor activity! StriatalACh INHIBITS direct and InterneuronsEXCITES indirect pathways!
  • 13. Pathologic Lesions to Basal Ganglia1. Hypokinetic - lesion of the direct pathway - ex. Parkinson’s2. Hyperkinetic - lesion of the indirect pathway - ex. Hemiballismus, Huntingtons Chorea
  • 14. Parkinson’s Disease
  • 15. Hemiballismus =hqg2GTUq1k4
  • 16. Huntington’s
  • 17. THANK YOU