QKS520 (PW) Session 1


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  • provides the fertile soil from which positive decisions and changes can develop.
  • QKS520 (PW) Session 1

    1. 1. KS Project Work <br />Session 1<br />Part 1 - PW Rationale & Curriculum framework<br />Part 2 – Facilitating & Monitoring group learning<br />1<br />
    2. 2. Course Introduction<br />Course schedule<br /> - pre-practicum: session 1<br /> - practicum: combined classes (sessions 2 – 5)<br /> - post-practicum: sessions 6 – 7<br />Blackboard matters: course information & lecture notes (to be downloaded before lessons); E-portfolio template<br />Course assessment: <br /> -E- portfolio entries (20%) – reflections on PW lesson observations<br /> - written assignment (80%) – school-based case study<br /> - SUBMISSION DEADLINE: 11 MAY 2010<br />2<br />
    3. 3. Objectives <br />3<br />
    4. 4. PART 1 – RATIONALE & CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK<br />4<br />
    5. 5. Do you agree?<br />5<br />
    6. 6. Background<br />6<br />
    7. 7. Main Roles of TSLN<br />7<br />
    8. 8. Objectives of TSLN<br />8<br />
    9. 9. Key Strategies of TSLN<br />9<br />
    10. 10. Think Time [10 min]<br />10<br />
    11. 11. How relevant is PW today?<br />“First, our children will need to learn better ways to handle information. The struggle now is not with having insufficient information - but the converse, having too much and having to make sense of voluminous inputs.<br /> The premium is therefore no longer on collecting facts but on critical analysis - knowing what questions to ask, what information you need and the value of different sources of information. <br />Students cannot be just mere passive conduits of information. They will need to be able to connect between different interfaces and domains. They will need to approach problems with an inter-disciplinary lens and integrate the sciences and humanities to solve problems.<br />We have to teach our students to go beyond simply acquiring knowledge, towards exploiting it to improve lives. How do you teach this?”<br />11<br /> (Ng Eng Hen on C2015, 2008)<br />
    12. 12. The PW curriculum<br />12<br />
    13. 13. PW Learning Outcomes<br />13<br />
    14. 14. 30-week PW Timeline<br />14<br />
    15. 15. Assessment<br />15<br />
    16. 16. Assessment deliverables<br />16<br />
    17. 17. Written report<br />To assess knowledge application & written communication<br />2,500 – 3,000 words<br />Group submission<br />Constitutes 40% of overall marks<br />17<br />
    18. 18. Oral presentation<br />To make an oral presentation of part of the project and show ability to respond to questions from a target audience<br />Individual assessment – for each student to demonstrate ability to communicate findings effectively<br />Group assessment – for group organization and coherence<br />Constitutes a total (individual + group) of 40% of overall marks<br />18<br />
    19. 19. Group project file (GPF)<br />To track PW process through documentation of preliminary ideas, evaluation of literature, insights and reflections.<br />Individual submission.<br />Constitutes 20% of overall marks<br />19<br />
    20. 20. Project Task<br />20<br />
    21. 21. Example of project task<br />21<br />
    22. 22. Group Activity 1 [20 min]<br />22<br />
    23. 23. Part 2 – Facilitating & Monitoring Group Learning<br />INSTRUCTION & FACILITATION<br />23<br />
    24. 24. Objectives<br />24<br />
    25. 25. Key facilitation techniques<br />25<br />
    26. 26. C.E.P. Teamwork Essentials<br />26<br />
    27. 27. S.P.A.C.E. Approach to Effective Communication<br />
    28. 28. 1. Sense underlying emotion<br />
    29. 29. 2. Paraphrase<br />
    30. 30.
    31. 31. 3. Ask non-threatening questions <br />
    32. 32. Traits of Strategic Questions<br />
    33. 33. Examples of Powerful Questions <br />
    34. 34. Examples of Powerful Questions <br />
    35. 35. Adler’s Fundamental Question(Solution-focused Therapy)<br />
    36. 36. De Shazer’sMiracle Question (Solution-focused Therapy)<br />
    37. 37. The Miracle Question<br />
    38. 38. 4. Connect<br />
    39. 39. 5. Empathise<br />
    40. 40. Children Full of life<br />When people really listen… they live in your heart forever.<br />
    41. 41. 1 Information sharing<br />This is usually done at the beginning of the PW session, where the teacher-facilitator states the objectives of the lesson, explains the procedures involved and gives instructions on the tasks at hand.<br />The teacher facilitator should:<br />Obtain and organize information sources and resources relevant to the lesson, e.g. forms, presentation slides, exemplar tasks<br />41<br />
    42. 42. Information sharing<br />Present information in an accessible and easily understood form.<br />Pace the information sharing – chunking when necessary rather than lecturing endlessly.<br />Supply guiding notes or handouts where appropriate.<br /> Provide opportunities for participants to research on and share information with one another<br />42<br />
    43. 43. 2 Active Listening<br />Moving from group to group & listening to the conversations taking place<br />Paying attention to the words being said, the language, tone and volume of voice<br />Taking note of the body language, facial expressions, gestures<br />Assessing the purpose of the words, e.g. to share, to confront, to disrupt<br />Note the group’s response to each member’s contributions or yours. Do they understand? Are they engaged?<br />Evaluate the power dynamics and interactions within the groups. Any dominant characters? Passive members? Group bullies? Free-riders?<br />43<br />
    44. 44. Responding & giving feedback<br />Show that you are actively listening by maintaining eye contact with the person speaking, while remaining alert to what the other group members.<br />Show interest in the conversation by making verbal cues such as ‘umh, ah, ok’<br />When appropriate, encourage students to think and come out with their own solutions rather than giving them the answers right away, e.g. follow their queries by another probing question.<br />44<br />
    45. 45. Think time 1 [15 min] <br />Ah Beng (frowning, arms folded, slumped in the chair): Mr Tan, why do we have to do PW in class? Waste of time…we can just do it on our own…go McDonald’s and talk. Moreover, we are hungry…haven’t had our break yet.<br />In your group, discuss how you would respond to Ah Beng’s comments, taking into consideration what you learned about active listening. <br />Role play Mr Tan as he responds to Ah Beng.<br />45<br />
    46. 46. 3 Perceptive questioning<br />The main reason for asking questions in PW facilitation is to encourage the students to reflect on and find answers/solutions to their own questions/problems. <br />Teacher-facilitators may ask different types of questions to encourage thinking and learning.<br />46<br />
    47. 47. Types of perceptive questions<br />Open questions – to encourage students to explore ideas in greater depth, rather than simply giving ‘yes’ and ‘no’ answers, e.g. I wonder why? How can it be done? <br />Clarifying questions – to ensure understanding, e.g. If I got it right, you are saying that… <br />Hypothetical questions – to present a potential situation that invites students’ thinking, e.g. Imagine that computers did not exist. How different would your life be?<br />47<br />
    48. 48. 4 Summarizing/paraphrasing<br />This involves ‘repeating back’ the main points that have been discussed to reinforce learning.<br />Allows students to reflect on what has been said.<br />Clarification and deepening of understanding.<br />Linking themes or main points that have been raised.<br />Identify and consolidate learning.<br />48<br />
    49. 49. 5 Challenging<br />Challenging is not a confrontation or disagreement, but rather an intervention used sensitively to promote student-centered learning.<br />Objectives: <br /> - To address discrepancies or inaccuracies.<br /> - To encourage students to consider the outcomes (positive or negative) of what they intend to do.<br /> - To help students be realistic about what they can achieve.<br /> - To introduce students to new perspectives and possibilities.<br /> - To intervene if ground rules have been broken.<br />49<br />
    50. 50. Techniques for effective challenging<br />Discrepancies or inaccuracies – rather than bluntly refuting or dismissing students’ suggestions, lead them to further their investigations, e.g. instead of ‘you are wrong’, ask ‘is that really so?’ or ‘let’s have a look and see what information we can find on this’.<br />50<br />
    51. 51. Techniques for effective challenging<br />Consequences – encourage reflection on the consequences of students’ course of action or plan, rather than bluntly criticizing their method, e.g. ‘how will your team progress if you don’t do your share of the work?’<br />51<br />
    52. 52. Techniques for effective challenging<br />Encouraging realism – use questions to tactfully prompt students to reconsider aspects of the project that you consider preposterous, e.g. ‘But if you interview 1000 people, how much time will you need?’<br />52<br />
    53. 53. Techniques for effective challenging<br />Ground rules – establishing ground rules at the start of PW is important in facilitation. If rules are broken, remind students, e.g. ‘what did I say about late submissions?’<br />53<br />
    54. 54. 6 Immediacy<br />This involves responding to situations arising during the PW session and dealing with them there and then. Examples:<br />When students appear unfocused, bored, disengaged or distracted – rather than continuing with the activity, request for an explanation, e.g. ‘Is there something bothering you?’ <br />54<br />
    55. 55. Techniques for effective challenging<br />Immediacy (cont’d)<br />When there is a strong emotional undertone, e.g. anger amongst group members after a dispute, ‘You don’t seem very happy today – I wonder why?’<br />Recognizing effort or ability – dispense praises immediately when the occasion arises, e.g. ‘that was a great idea – I’m impressed!’<br />55<br />
    56. 56. Group activity 1 [60 min] Carousel role-play<br />In this role-play activity, each member of the group is to put into practice the six Key Facilitation Techniques (KFT). Proceed as follows:<br />Form groups of 6.<br />Allocate a number, from 1 to 6, to each member of the group.<br />Each group is provided with a project title and six cards each labelled with one of the six KFTs. <br />Distribute one card to each member of the group.<br />56<br />
    57. 57. Group activity (cont’d)<br />Member 1 in the group takes the role of the teacher-facilitator.<br />Member 2 takes the role of the time-keeper.<br />The rest of the members are the students engaged in brainstorming on their project.<br />Member 1 is to role-play the KFT on his/her card for a duration of 2 min. while Member 2 keeps time.<br />57<br />
    58. 58. Group activity (cont’d)<br />After 2 min, Member 2 then role-plays his/her KFT for another 2 min while Member 3 keeps time.<br /> Repeat this process until Member 6 has had a chance at the role-play.<br /> Each group member now passes his/her KFT to the person on the right.<br /> Repeat steps 5 to 11 until each member has had the chance to practice all 6 KFTs.<br />58<br />
    59. 59. Project titles<br />Classroom teaching: Bridging the gaps between 20th C practices and 21st C needs.<br />Resolving the problem of the school bullies.<br />How to transform parents from worst enemies to closest allies?<br />Exploring the relevance and application of old learning theories to new learning contexts.<br />The nuts and bolts of establishing Professional Learning Communities (PLCs).<br />59<br />
    60. 60. Cognitive coaching(from Centre for Cognitive Coaching)<br />Cognitive coaching is a coaching model that focuses on reflective practice and self-directed learning.<br />Evaluation and appraisal is carried by the person being coached, not by the coach.<br />Tools used in cognitive coaching: rapport, reflective questioning, response behaviors, pacing and leading.<br />Techniques used: paraphrasing, mirroring, pausing, active listening.<br />Skills to be developed: planning, reflecting, problem-solving, and decision-making.<br />60<br />
    61. 61. Cognitive coaching conversations<br />Three conversations are used:<br />Planning conversation <br />Reflecting conversation<br />Problem solving conversation<br />61<br />
    62. 62. Coaching cycle<br />62<br />
    63. 63. Planning Conversation(adapted from Costa and Garmston, 2002)<br />63<br />
    64. 64. Reflecting Conversation(adapted from Costa and Garmston, 2002)<br />64<br />
    65. 65. Reflecting Conversation<br />65<br />
    66. 66. Problem solving Conversation(adapted from Costa and Garmston, 2002)<br />66<br />RESOURCES <br />
    67. 67. Problem-solving conversation<br />Pacing<br />Pacing means matching the state of mind of the individual by :<br />Empathy<br />Content - Reflecting the content of the message<br />Goal - Stating the goal of the individual<br />Pathway – transition towards Leading<br />Leading<br />Elements of leading:<br />Orient from existing to desired state<br />Get consensus on overarching outcome<br />Reframe the situation<br />Repace<br />67<br />
    68. 68. References <br />Costa, A. L., & Garmston, R. J. (2002). Cognitive Coaching, a foundation for renaissance schools. Norwood, MA.: Christopher-Gordon Publishers, Inc.<br />68<br />