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  • Objectives:At the end of the Lesson the students should be able to:1. Determine how people collect information to developed science.2. Distinguish the differences from ancient science and modern sciences.3. Determine how science improve our lifestyle and way of living.4. Distinguish facts from superstitious beliefValues Integration:1. Realized the value of learning science and its development through time.
  • Motivation:Imagine a world without science.Materials:Video clips of cave manPictures of ancient and modern world.
  • Motivation:Imagine a world without science.Materials:Video clips of cave manPictures of ancient and modern world.
  • Motivation:Imagine a world without science.Materials:Video clips of cave manPictures of ancient and modern world.
  • Motivation:Imagine a world without science.Materials:Video clips of cave manPictures of ancient and modern world.
  • Motivation:Imagine a world without science.Materials:Video clips of cave manPictures of ancient and modern world.
  • Motivation:Imagine a world without science.Materials:Video clips of cave manPictures of ancient and modern world.
  • Motivation:Imagine a world without science.Materials:Video clips of cave manPictures of ancient and modern world.
  • Introduction:The period roughly between 1500 and 1700 during which the foundations of modern science were laid down in Western Europe. Before this period, nothing like science in the modern sense.
  • Explain the concept of the following myth.
  • Explain the following modern concept.1.The world is spherical in shape.2. It was discovered by Copernicus that the center of the Solar System is the Sun. It was supported by the studies of Galileo Galilee3. A Living dragon is known as the Comodo dragon. It is a reptile that emit gases that can produce fire.4. According the theory of evolution of Charles Darwin ---- Man came from apes. Like any organism in the planet we are also a product of evolution.The teacher is encourage to site more significant scientific theories.
  • Explain the following modern concept.
  • The concept of Aristotle:Aristotle, one of the greatest ancient Greek philosophers, was the first to provide a systematic exposition of biology, psychology, physics, and literary theory. Aristotle emphasized the importance of reason and logic.Throughout the Middle Ages, formal attempts to understand the physical world were developed, chiefly in the arts and medical faculties of the medieval universities. This natural philosophy, as it was known, derived almost entirely from the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle. Most of the brilliant legacy of ancient Greek thought had been lost to Western Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century. When this legacy began to be recovered from Byzantine and Islamic sources where it had to some extent been preserved, it was the works of Aristotle that had the most immediate impact and began to dominate Western philosophical thought (see Western Philosophy). The learning in the two most powerful faculties of the medieval university system, the faculties of divinity and of law, was based on ancient writings: the Bible and Roman Law, as codified by Byzantine emperor Justinian I in the Corpus JurisCivilis(534; Body of Civil Law). The arts and medical faculties tended to follow suit, with the result that study focused not on the natural world itself, nor on the techniques of practical healing, but instead on the writings of Aristotle and Galen, who was the equivalent medical authority in ancient times. Concentration on the study of texts meant that there was little or no practical study or experimentation within the university curricula.This tendency to avoid practical subjects was reinforced by Aristotle's own teachings on how natural philosophy should be conducted and on the correct way of determining the truth of things. He rejected the use of mathematics in natural philosophy, for example, because he insisted that natural philosophy should explain phenomena in terms of physical causes. Mathematics, being entirely abstract, could not contribute to this kind of physical explanation. Even those branches of the mathematical sciences that seemed to come close to explaining the physical world, such as astronomy and optics, were disparaged as “mixed sciences” that tried to combine the principles of one science, geometry, with those of another, physics, in order to explain the behavior of heavenly bodies or rays of light. But the results, according to Aristotle, could not properly explain anything.Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
  • The concept of Aristotle:Aristotle, one of the greatest ancient Greek philosophers, was the first to provide a systematic exposition of biology, psychology, physics, and literary theory. Aristotle emphasized the importance of reason and logic.Throughout the Middle Ages, formal attempts to understand the physical world were developed, chiefly in the arts and medical faculties of the medieval universities. This natural philosophy, as it was known, derived almost entirely from the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle. Most of the brilliant legacy of ancient Greek thought had been lost to Western Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century. When this legacy began to be recovered from Byzantine and Islamic sources where it had to some extent been preserved, it was the works of Aristotle that had the most immediate impact and began to dominate Western philosophical thought (see Western Philosophy). The learning in the two most powerful faculties of the medieval university system, the faculties of divinity and of law, was based on ancient writings: the Bible and Roman Law, as codified by Byzantine emperor Justinian I in the Corpus JurisCivilis(534; Body of Civil Law). The arts and medical faculties tended to follow suit, with the result that study focused not on the natural world itself, nor on the techniques of practical healing, but instead on the writings of Aristotle and Galen, who was the equivalent medical authority in ancient times. Concentration on the study of texts meant that there was little or no practical study or experimentation within the university curricula.This tendency to avoid practical subjects was reinforced by Aristotle's own teachings on how natural philosophy should be conducted and on the correct way of determining the truth of things. He rejected the use of mathematics in natural philosophy, for example, because he insisted that natural philosophy should explain phenomena in terms of physical causes. Mathematics, being entirely abstract, could not contribute to this kind of physical explanation. Even those branches of the mathematical sciences that seemed to come close to explaining the physical world, such as astronomy and optics, were disparaged as “mixed sciences” that tried to combine the principles of one science, geometry, with those of another, physics, in order to explain the behavior of heavenly bodies or rays of light. But the results, according to Aristotle, could not properly explain anything.Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
  • Galen, a Greek physician who lived during the 2nd century ad, believed that mental disorders resulted from an imbalance of the four bodily humors: black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm. His studies dominated European medical theory and practice for 1400 years.Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.The arts and medical faculties tended to follow suit, with the result that study focused not on the natural world itself, nor on the techniques of practical healing, but instead on the writings of Aristotle and Galen, who was the equivalent medical authority in ancient times. Concentration on the study of texts meant that there was little or no practical study or experimentation within the university curricula.Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
  • Galen, a Greek physician who lived during the 2nd century ad, believed that mental disorders resulted from an imbalance of the four bodily humors: black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm. His studies dominated European medical theory and practice for 1400 years.Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.The arts and medical faculties tended to follow suit, with the result that study focused not on the natural world itself, nor on the techniques of practical healing, but instead on the writings of Aristotle and Galen, who was the equivalent medical authority in ancient times. Concentration on the study of texts meant that there was little or no practical study or experimentation within the university curricula.Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
  • This tendency to avoid practical subjects was reinforced by Aristotle's own teachings on how natural philosophy should be conducted and on the correct way of determining the truth of things. He rejected the use of mathematics in natural philosophy, for example, because he insisted that natural philosophy should explain phenomena in terms of physical causes. Mathematics, being entirely abstract, could not contribute to this kind of physical explanation. Even those branches of the mathematical sciences that seemed to come close to explaining the physical world, such as astronomy and optics, were disparaged as “mixed sciences” that tried to combine the principles of one science, geometry, with those of another, physics, in order to explain the behavior of heavenly bodies or rays of light. But the results, according to Aristotle, could not properly explain anything.Galen Although geometry and arithmetic were taught in the university system they were always regarded as inferior to natural philosophy and could not be used, therefore, to promote more practical approaches to the understanding of nature. Within the universities, even the study of plants and animals tended to be text-based. Students learned their knowledge of flora, for example, from the compilations of herbal and medicinal plants by the Greek physician PedaniusDioscorides, leaving more localized and practical knowledge to lay experts in herbal lore outside the university system. Similarly, alchemy and other empirical (based on experimentation and observation) aspects of the natural magic tradition were pursued almost entirely outside the university system.Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
  • *Alchemy, ancient art practiced especially in the Middle Ages, devoted chiefly to discovering a substance that would transmute the more common metals into gold or silver and to finding a means of indefinitely prolonging human life. Although its purposes and techniques were dubious and often illusory, alchemy was in many ways the predecessor of modern science, especially the science of chemistry.*Similarly, alchemy and other empirical (based on experimentation and observation) aspects of the natural magic tradition were pursued almost entirely outside the university system.Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
  • *This fragmentation of studies concerned with the workings of nature was reinforced throughout the Middle Ages by the Roman Catholic Church. After some initial problems with non-Christian aspects of Aristotelian teaching, the Church embraced such teaching as a handmaiden to the so-called “queen of the sciences,” theology. The Church considered Aristotelian natural philosophy to provide support to religious doctrines, but other naturalist pursuits were considered to be subversive. The Church tended to be suspicious of natural magic, for example, even though natural magic was simply concerned with the demonstrable properties of material bodies (such as the ability of magnets to attract iron or the ability of certain plants or their extracts to cure diseases). One way or another, therefore, the powerful combination of Aristotelian teachings with Church doctrines tended to exclude direct study and analysis of nature.
  • * Renaissance Period-*The Renaissance was the period when the experimental method, still characteristic of science today, began to be developed and came increasingly to be used for understanding all aspects of the physical world. Previously, the natural world had been thought to be comprehensible based on thoughtful consideration alone. The experimental method holds that understanding comes through hands-on trial and error under controlled conditions. The experimental method was not in itself new—it had been a common aspect of the natural magic tradition from ancient times. For example, all the experimental techniques used by the English physicist William Gilbert, author of what is generally acknowledged to be the earliest example of an experimental study of a natural phenomenon, De Magnete (1600; Of Magnets, Magnetic Bodies, and the Great Magnet of the Earth, 1890), were first developed by PetrusPeregrinus, a renowned medieval magus (magician).Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
  • * William Gilbert (1544-1603), English physicist and physician, known primarily for his original experiments in the nature of electricity and magnetism. He was born in Colchester and educated at Saint John's College, University of Cambridge. He began to practice medicine in London in 1573 and in 1601 was appointed physician to Elizabeth I, queen of England.Gilbert found that many substances had the power to attract light objects when rubbed, and he applied the term electric to the force these substances exert after being rubbed. He was the first to use the terms electric force, electric attraction, and magnetic pole. Perhaps Gilbert's most important contribution was the experimental demonstration of the magnetic nature of the earth. The unit of magnetomotive force, the gilbert, was named after him. He was also the first exponent in England of the Copernican system of celestial mechanics, and he postulated that fixed stars were not all at the same distance from the earth. His most important work was Of Magnets, Magnetic Bodies, and the Great Magnet of the Earth (1600; trans. 1890), probably the first great scientific work written in England.Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
  • * Belgian anatomist and physician Andreas Vesalius helped establish the foundations of modern anatomy in the 16th century by dissecting human cadavers and publishing his results. He served as physician to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and his son, Philip II, king of Spain. This portrait is by Dutch-born English painter Peter Lely.Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
  • * Belgian anatomist and physician Andreas Vesalius helped establish the foundations of modern anatomy in the 16th century by dissecting human cadavers and publishing his results. He served as physician to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and his son, Philip II, king of Spain. This portrait is by Dutch-born English painter Peter Lely.Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
  • * During the Renaissance, Belgian physician Andreas Vesalius experimented with the dissection of human cadavers in order to learn more about human anatomy. The spirit of curiosity and experimentation that characterized the Renaissance created a fertile climate for the development of science. Advances were made in many fields including navigation, astronomy, mathematics and medicine. *Experimentation was a major aspect of the natural magic tradition and was ready for appropriation by Renaissance natural philosophers who recognized its potential. The experimental methodology used in magic became more acceptable to Renaissance scholars thanks to the rediscovery of ancient magical writings
  • Religious opposition to magic had less force after the discovery of various writings allegedly written by Hermes Trismegistus, Zoroaster, Orpheus, and other mythical or legendary characters. We now know these texts were written in the early centuries of the Christian Era and deliberately attributed to such legendary authors, but Renaissance scholars believed they were genuinely ancient documents. This gave the texts great authority and led to increased respect for magical approaches. *Hermes Trismegistus, Greek name for the ancient Egyptian god Thoth. Hermes Trismegistus means “the Thrice Great Hermes.” He is the supposed author of the Hermetica. This body of writings expounds the Hellenistic mystical philosophy of Hermetism, in which the sun is regarded as the visible manifestation of God.*Zoroaster,This detail from a 2nd-century wall painting at Dura Europus in Syria depicts Zoroaster, a religious poet regarded as the prophet and founder of Zoroastrianism. The mural was painted more than 1,000 years after Zoroaster lived.*Orpheus The legendary ancient Greek hero Orpheus was a musician whose singing and playing of the lyre was so beautiful that not only humans but also animals and even inanimate objects were moved by the power of his music. He is shown playing his lyre for an audience of animals in this 3rd-century mosaic from Tarsus in Turkey.
  • Another important aspect of the new focus on experimentation and observation (empiricism) was the invention of new observational instruments. The Italian astronomer Galileo, for example, used the telescope—first developed for commercial purposes—to make astonishing astronomical observations. His exciting success stimulated the development of a whole range of instruments for studying nature, such as the microscope, thermometer, and barometer.*Italian physicist and astronomer Galileo maintained that the earth revolved around the sun, disputing the belief held by the Roman Catholic church that the earth was the center of the universe. He refused to obey orders from Rome to cease discussions of his theories and was sentenced to life imprisonment. It was not until 1984 that a papal commission acknowledged that the church was wrong.
  • *Galileo’s Telescopes Italian astronomer Galileo made major discoveries about celestial objects in our solar system with newly-invented telescopes in the early 17th century. His discoveries helped turn cosmology into a science based on observation, rather than philosophy. These telescopes are now in the MuseodellaScienza in Florence, Italy.
  • The scientific revolution has also been characterized as the period of the “mathematization of the world picture.” Quantitative information and mathematical analysis of the physical world began to be seen to offer more reliable knowledge than the more qualitative and philosophical analyses that had been typical of traditional natural philosophy. The mathematical sciences had their own long history, but thanks to Aristotle's strictures they had always been kept separate from natural philosophy and regarded as inferior to it. Aristotle's authority weakened throughout the Renaissance, however, as the rediscovery of the writings of other ancient Greek philosophers with views widely divergent from those of Aristotle, such as Plato, Epicurus, and the Stoics, made it plain that he was by no means the only ancient.As skepticism became credible in light of the remarkable exposures of the failings of traditional intellectual positions, mathematics became an increasingly powerful force. Mathematicians claimed to deal with absolute knowledge, capable of undeniable proof and so immune from skeptical criticisms. The full story of the rise in status of mathematics is complex and crowded. Notable contributors included Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus, who claimed that, for no other reason than that the mathematics indicated it, Earth must revolve around the Sun, and German astronomer Johannes Kepler, who reinforced this idea with astronomical measurements vastly more precise than any that had previously been made. Copernicus’s moving Earth demanded a new theory of how moving bodies behave. This theory of motion was effectively initiated as a new mathematical science by Galileo and reached its pinnacle a few decades later in the work of Isaac Newton.
  • Nicolaus Copernicus Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus revolutionized science by postulating that the Earth and other planets revolve about a stationary Sun. Copernicus drew inspiration from classical sources, but embodied the spirit of curiosity and experimentation that characterized the Renaissance approach to science.
  • Johannes KeplerThe contributions of German mathematician and astronomer Johannes Kepler,dramatically increased scientists’ understanding of planetary motion; Isaac Newton drew upon Kepler’s work in formulating his theory of gravitation. Kepler also made detailed studies of a supernova.
  • Isaac NewtonIsaac Newton’s work represents one of the greatest contributions to science ever made by an individual. Most notably, Newton derived the law of universal gravitation, invented the branch of mathematics called calculus, and performed experiments investigating the nature of light and colors.
  • Experimentalism and mathematization were both stimulated by an increasing concern that knowledge of nature should be practically useful, bringing distinct benefits to its practitioners, its patrons, or even to people in general. Apart from supporting dubious medical ideas, the only use to which natural philosophy had been put throughout the Middle Ages was for bolstering religion. During the scientific revolution the practical usefulness of knowledge, an assumption previously confined to the magical and the mathematical traditions, was extended to natural philosophy. To a large extent this new emphasis was a result of the demands of new patrons, chiefly wealthy princes, who sought some practical benefit from their financial support for the study of nature. The requirement that knowledge be practically useful was also in keeping, however, with the claims of the Renaissance humanists that the vita activa (active life) was—contrary to the teachings of the Church—morally superior to the vita contemplativa (contemplative life) of the monk because of the benefits an active life could bring to others. The major spokesman for this new focus in natural philosophy was Francis Bacon, one-time Lord Chancellor of England. Bacon promoted his highly influential vision of a reformed empirical knowledge of nature that he believed would result in immense benefits to mankind.Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
  • Albert EinsteinAlbert Einstein is considered one of the greatest and most popular scientists of all time. Three papers he published in 1905 were pivotal in the development of physics and, to a large degree, Western thought. These papers discussed the quantum nature of light, provided a description of molecular motion, and introduced the special theory of relativity. Einstein was famous for continually reexamining traditional scientific assumptions and coming to straightforward, elegant conclusions no one else had reached. He is less famous for his social involvement, although he was a staunch supporter of both pacifism and Zionism. Here, Einstein discusses Gandhi and commends nonviolence.Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
  • Albert EinsteinAlbert Einstein is considered one of the greatest and most popular scientists of all time. Three papers he published in 1905 were pivotal in the development of physics and, to a large degree, Western thought. These papers discussed the quantum nature of light, provided a description of molecular motion, and introduced the special theory of relativity. Einstein was famous for continually reexamining traditional scientific assumptions and coming to straightforward, elegant conclusions no one else had reached. He is less famous for his social involvement, although he was a staunch supporter of both pacifism and Zionism. Here, Einstein discusses Gandhi and commends nonviolence.Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
  • Answer:F 1. Albert Einstein invented the microscope. T 2. Science is always based on facts.F 3. It is a bad luck for us to keep a turtle as a pet. F 4. The Earth is the center of the Solar System. T 5. Charles Darwin formulates the Theory of Evolution.T 6. Science is a systematized body of knowledge.T 7. Mathematics is a Science.F 8. Superstations were based on facts.F 9. It is not necessary to continue a walking if a black cat cross your way.F 10. Isaac Newton is a well know Greek Philosopher.
  • Answer:F 1. Albert Einstein invented the microscope. T 2. Science is always based on facts.F 3. It is a bad luck for us to keep a turtle as a pet. F 4. The Earth is the center of the Solar System. T 5. Charles Darwin formulates the Theory of Evolution.T 6. Science is a systematized body of knowledge.T 7. Mathematics is a Science.F 8. Superstations were based on facts.F 9. It is not necessary to continue a walking if a black cat cross your way.F 10. Isaac Newton is a well know Greek Philosopher.

Transcript

  • 1. The Development of Science from Ancient to ModernScience Breakthrough I
  • 2. Imagine a world without science? • Imagine a world without system. • Imagine a world without collection of knowledge • Imagine a man who knows nothing….
  • 3. Imagine a world without science?
  • 4. Imagine a world without science?
  • 5. Imagine a world without science?
  • 6. Imagine a world without science?
  • 7. Imagine a world without science?
  • 8. Imagine a world without science?
  • 9. The Scientific Revolution• The period roughly between 1500 and 1700 during which the foundations of modern science were laid down in Western Europe. Before this period, nothing like science in the modern sense.
  • 10. The Myth Vs. Science MYTHS• The world is flat.• The center of the universe is Earth.• Dragons are monsters.• The race of man came from Eve and Adam.
  • 11. The Myth Vs. ScienceFACTS• The world is round.• The center of the Solar System is the Sun.• Dragons are reptiles and they are not big.• Man came from apes.
  • 12. Superstitious Vs. FactsSuperstitious Belief Traditional belief, rituals, and customs that is being followed or applied without any scientific bases.Facts Any information gathered from scientific experimentation, result of any observed phenomenon or event.
  • 13. The Scientific Revolution• Aristotle Aristotle, one of the greatest ancient Greek philosophers, was the first to provide a systematic exposition of biology, psychology, physi cs, and literary theory. Aristotle emphasized the importance of reason and logic.
  • 14. The Scientific Revolution• Aristotle “mixed sciences” It tried to combine the principles of one science, geometry, with those of another, physics, in order to explain the behavior of heavenly bodies or rays of light. But the results, according to Aristotle, could not properly explain anything.
  • 15. The Scientific Revolution• Galen Galen, a Greek physician who lived during the 2nd century AD, believed that mental disorders resulted from an imbalance of the four bodily humors: black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm. His studies dominated European medical theory and practice for 1400
  • 16. The Scientific Revolution• Galen The arts and medical faculties tended to follow suit, with the result that study focused not on the natural world itself, nor on the techniques of practical healing, but instead on the writings of Aristotle and Galen, who was the equivalent medical authority in ancient times. Concentration on the study of texts meant that there was little or no practical study or experimentation within the university curricula.
  • 17. The Scientific Revolution• Pedanius Pedanius Dioscorides (40?-90? AD), Greek physician, born in Dioscorides Anazarbus, in Cilicia (now in Turkey). He served in the Roman armies of Nero and studied plants for their medicinal properties. He wrote De Materia Medica (On Medical Matters), the first authoritative and superstition-free text on botany and pharmacology.He more localized and uses practical knowledge to layexperts in herbal lore outside the university system.
  • 18. The Scientific Revolution• The alchemy Alchemy, ancient art practiced especially in the Middle Ages, devoted chiefly to discovering a substance that would transmute the more common metals into gold or silver and to finding a means of indefinitely prolonging human life. Although its purposes and techniques were dubious and often illusory, alchemy was in many ways the predecessor of modern science, especially the science of chemistry.
  • 19. The Scientific Revolution• The stand of Roman Catholic Church “ queen of the sciences,”The Church consideredAristotelian naturalphilosophy to providesupport to religiousdoctrines, but othernaturalist pursuits wereconsidered to besubversive.
  • 20. Development of Experimentation• The Renaissance was the period when the experimental method, still characteristic of science today, began to be developed and came increasingly to be used for understanding all aspects of the
  • 21. Development of Experimentation William Gilbert (1544- 1603), English physicist and physician, known primarily for his original experiments in the nature of electricity and magnetism.
  • 22. Development of Experimentation Andreas Vesalius Belgian anatomist and physician Andreas Vesalius helped establish the foundations of modern anatomy in the 16th century by dissecting human cadavers and publishing his results.
  • 23. Development of Experimentation Andreas Vesalius Belgian anatomist and physician Andreas Vesalius helped establish the foundations of modern anatomy in the 16th century by dissecting human cadavers and publishing his results.
  • 24. Development of ExperimentationDe Magnete (1600; Of Magnets, Magnetic Bodies, and the Great Magnet of the were first1890), Earth,developed byPetrusPeregrinus, arenownedmedievalmagus(magician).
  • 25. Religious OppositionReligious opposition to magic had less force after the discovery of various writings allegedly written by Hermes Trismegistus, Zoroaster, Orpheus, and other mythical or legendary characters.
  • 26. New Focus On Experimentation And ObservationThe invention of new observational instruments… Italian physicist and astronomer Galileo maintained that the earth revolved around the sun, disputing the belief held by the Roman Catholic church that the earth was the center of the universe.
  • 27. New Focus On Experimentation And ObservationThe invention of new observational instruments…
  • 28. Mathematization of Nature The scientific revolution has also been characterized as the period of the “mathematization of the world Quantitative information and mathematical analysis of the physical world began to be seen to offer more reliable knowledge than the picture”more qualitative and philosophical analyses that had been typical of traditional natural philosophy. The mathematical sciences had theirown long history, but thanks to Aristotles strictures they had alwaysbeen kept separate from natural philosophy and regarded as inferior to it.
  • 29. Mathematization of Nature • Nicolaus Copernicus
  • 30. Mathematization of Nature Johannes Kepler He dramatically increased scientists’ understanding of planetary motion;
  • 31. Mathematization of Nature Isaac Newton . Most notably, Newton derived the law of universal gravitation, invent ed the branch of mathematics called calculus
  • 32. Practical Uses of Scientific Knowledge• Experimentalism and mathematization were both stimulated by an increasing concern that knowledge of nature should be practically useful, bringing distinct benefits to its practitioners, its patrons, or even to people in general. Apart from supporting dubious medical ideas, the only use to which natural philosophy had been put throughout the Middle Ages was for bolstering religion.
  • 33. Modern Science• Albert Einstein is considered one of the greatest and most popular scientists of all time.
  • 34. Modern Science• Albert Einstein is considered one of the greatest and most popular scientists of all time.
  • 35. True or False: Write (T) if the statement is based onfacts or true and write (F) is the statement is asuperstition or false.1. Albert Einstein invented the microscope.2. Science is always based on facts.3. It is a bad luck for us to keep a turtle as a pet.4. The Earth is the center of the Solar System.5. Charles Darwin formulates the Theory of Evolution.6. Science is a systematized body of knowledge.7. Mathematics is a Science.
  • 36. True or False: Write (T) if the statement is based onfacts or true and write (F) is the statement is asuperstition or false.8. Superstations were based on facts.9. It is not necessary to continue walking if a black cat cross your way.10. Isaac Newton is a well know Greek Philosopher.