Grammar book sp3


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Grammar book sp3

  1. 1. Grammar Book SP3 semesters 1 &2 <br />Isabel Vogt<br />
  2. 2. El Preterito<br />Preterite Triggers<br />Car.Gar.Zar<br />Spock Verbs<br />Snake and Snakey<br />Cucaracha Verbs<br />El Imperfecto<br />Imperfect Triggers<br />Imperfect Irregulars<br />Preterite vs. Imperfect<br />Verbs like Gustar<br />Comparatives and Superlatives <br />Comparative/Superlative Irregulars<br />Estar<br />Ser<br />Transition Words<br />El Futuro<br />Triggers for Future<br />Future Irregulars<br />Por<br />Para<br />Table of Contents- first semester<br />
  3. 3. Conditional <br /> present prefect tenses <br />-past<br />- present perfect-irregular<br />-subjunctive perfecto<br />Tan y tanto<br />Impersonal “se” <br />Saber vs conocer<br />Commands <br />Subjunctive <br />Impersonal expressions<br />Expressions of emotions <br />Conjunctions of time<br />Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns <br />Table of contents- second semester<br />
  4. 4. Preterite is used when you are talking about the past<br />-ar<br />éasteóamosasteisaron<br />Er/ir <br />íisteióimosisteisieron<br />Ex. Ella caminó por el parque. <br />Preterite <br />
  5. 5. Words that are used with the preterite to signal the preterite is being used. <br />Ayer <br />Anteayer<br />Anoche<br />La semanapasada<br /> Ex. Ayer lavé mi carro<br />Trigger words <br />
  6. 6. Irregular preterite<br />-car –gar –zar only take place in the “yo” form, otherwise use the regular preterite conjugation<br />Verbs that end in –car conjugate to qué<br />Ex. Sacarsaqué, sacaste, sacó, sacamos, sacaron<br />Verbs that end in –gar conjugate to gué<br />Ex. Llegarllegué, llegaste, llegó, llegamos, llegaron<br />Verbs that end in –zarconguate to cé<br /> ex. Cruzarcrucé, cruzaste, cruzó, cruzamos, cruzaron<br />-car –gar –zar<br />
  7. 7. The “hand” irregulars <br />Ir- fui, fuiste, fue, fuimos, fueron<br />Ser- fui, fuiste, fue, fuimos, fueron<br />Dar- di, diste, dio, dimos, dieron<br />Ver- vi, viste, vio, vimos, vieron<br />Hacer- hice, hizo, hicimos,hicieron<br />Spock Irregular Verbs <br />
  8. 8. Snake <br />(e>i) pedir, preferir, competir, reptir, servir. (o>u) dormir, morir,<br />sirvió<br />durmió<br />Snakey<br />Leer, creer, oir<br />I changes to y in 3rd person <br />Leyó<br />Creyó<br />oyó<br />Snakey + snake verbs <br />
  9. 9. Andaranduv- <br />Estarestuv-<br />Poderpud- <br />Poner pus-<br />Quererqurs- -e (yo), -iste (tú), -o (el, ella, ud.)<br />Saber sup- -imos (nostros), -ieron (ellos, ellas, uds.)<br />Tenertuv-<br />Venirvin- <br />Conducirconduj- <br />Producirproduj- <br />Traducirtraduj- -no i<br />Decirdij<br />Traer traj<br />Cucaracha Verbs<br />
  10. 10. Indicates a continuous action<br />Imperfected time<br />Very distant past<br />El Imperfecto<br />-AR<br />-er/ir<br />
  11. 11. Imperfect Triggers <br />
  12. 12. Imperfect Irregulars<br />IR<br />SER<br />VER<br />
  13. 13. Preterite vs. Imperfect<br />
  14. 14. Verbs like Gustar<br /><ul><li>Used in the conditional tense to soften a request/ command
  15. 15. When followed by one or more infinitives, singular is used</li></li></ul><li>Comparatives & superlatives <br />menos<br />adjective<br />adjective<br />que<br />más<br />que<br />El/la más<br />adjective<br />de<br />el menos<br />adjective<br />de<br />
  16. 16. Comparative/Superlative Irregulars<br />
  17. 17. Estoy<br />Estás<br />Está<br />Estamos<br />Están<br />Use estar when you are talking about the following… <br />H-health<br />E-motion<br />L-location<br />P-resent condition<br />I- Identification<br />N-ar = ando<br />G- er/iedno<br />Ex. La manzanaestáverde.<br />Estar<br />
  18. 18. Soy<br />Eres<br />Es <br />Somos<br />Son<br />Use Ser when you are talking about the following….<br />D- description <br />O-origin <br />C- characteristics (personality)<br />T- time <br />O-occupation<br />R-relationship<br />P-possession <br />E-events <br />D-dates <br />Ex. Ella escallada. <br />Ser <br />
  19. 19. Transition words <br />
  20. 20. Infinitive plus ending<br />-ar, -er, & -ir all the same  <br />I will, you will, he/she will, they will, we will <br />Future <br />
  21. 21. El proximo<br />Mañana<br />En <br />Triggers for Future<br />
  22. 22. Caber—cabr<br />Decir—dir<br />Haber—habr<br />Hacer—har<br />Hay—habrá<br />Poder—podr<br />Poner—pondr<br />Querer—querr<br />Saber—sabr<br />Salir—saldr<br />Tener—tendr<br />Valer—valdr<br />Venir--vendr<br />Future Irregulars<br />
  23. 23. Passing through..PORtal<br />General rather than specific location..PORtugal<br />How long something lasts..PORever<br />An exchange<br />Doing something in place of or instead of someone else..I'm POoR, pay for me<br />Means of transPORtation<br />Por<br />
  24. 24. For whom something is done..surprise PARAty<br />Destination.. PARAguay<br />The purpose of which something is done..PARAsite<br />To express an opinion…PARAdon me<br />To contrast of compare<br />To express idea of deadline… PARAmedic<br />Para<br />
  25. 25. When do I use it?<br />I use it when… possibility, probability, wonder, “would, could, must have, probably”<br />Irregulars<br />Caber- cabría<br />Poner- pondría<br />Decir- diría<br />Haber-habría<br />Salir- saldría<br />Hacer- haría<br />Poder- podría<br />Tener- tendría<br />Querer- querría<br />Valer- valdría<br />Saber-sabría<br />Venir- vendría<br />Conditional <br />
  26. 26. Present perfect is a compound tense<br />When and how to use present perfect…<br />To tell what you have or have not done<br />When speaking about something (like an action) that was true in the past and is still true in the present<br />To indicate an action was completed recently<br />Present Perfect<br />
  27. 27. Past perfect <br />Two verbs are necessary because the past perfect is a compound tense. These verbs are the main verb and the auxiliary verb <br />Combine the auxiliary verb “had” with the past participle <br />
  28. 28. Abrir- abierto<br />Cubrir-cubierto<br />Decir-dicho<br />Escribir-escrito<br />Hacer-hecho<br />Morir-muerto<br />Poner-puesto<br />Resolver-resuelto<br />Romper-roto<br />Ver-visto<br />Volver-vuelto<br />Ir-ido<br />Present perfect irregulars <br />
  29. 29. The present subjunctive is used when the dependent clause is in the present or future, while the present perfect subjunctive is used when the dependent clause is in the past<br />Used when a verb or expression requiring the subjunctive in the main clause is in the present, future, or present perfect<br />Ex. Dudoque lo hayashecho<br />subjunctive perfecto<br />
  30. 30. Tanto + noun + como (-a,-os,-as) <br />Example: Talia tienetantodinerocomo Isabel<br />Tan + adjective or adverb + como<br />Example: la peliculaes tan buenocomo el libro<br />Tan y tanto<br />
  31. 31. Se can be used in all tenses <br />Use se to avoid talking about a specific person who is doing the action of the verb<br />Using se, the verb is always in 3rd person <br />“Se” Impersonal <br />
  32. 32. Saber- facts and information<br />Conocer- places, literature, people <br />Saber vs Conocer<br />
  33. 33. Put it in the yo form<br />Drop the –o and add the opposite vowel ending<br />Ar-e<br />Er/ir-a<br />To make it plural add –an<br />Hablar- hable(n)<br />Comer- coma(n)<br />Commands- formal Ud. & Uds. <br />
  34. 34. T.V.D.I.S.H.E.S<br />Tener- tengo-tengue(en)<br />Venir-vengo-venga(n)<br />Decir/Dar-diga(n) or dé(n)<br />Ir-voy-vaya(n)<br />Ser-sea(n)<br />Hacer-hago-haga(n)<br />Estar-estoy-esté(n)<br />Saber-sepá(n) <br />Commands- formal Ud/Uds irregular<br />
  35. 35. Conjugate the verb in the tú form <br />Drop the –s<br />Example: hablar- habla<br />Comer- come<br />Commads- Tú affirmative <br />
  36. 36. Decir- di<br />Hacer-haz<br />Ir- ve<br />Poner-pon<br />Salir-sal<br />Tener-ten<br />Venir-ven<br />Commads- Tú affirmative Irregular<br />
  37. 37. Put it in the yo form and drop the –o<br />Add the opposite tú ending<br />Example: <br />hablar- no hables<br />Comer- no comas<br />Commands- negative tú<br />
  38. 38. Tener- tengas<br />Venir- vengas<br />Decir- digas<br />Ir-vayas<br />Ser-sayas<br />Hacer-hagas<br />Estar-estes<br />Saber-sepas<br />Commands- negative tú irregular <br />
  39. 39. Put it in the yo form of the present tense verb and drop the –o<br />Add opposite nosotros ending<br />Example: hablar- hablemos<br />With reflexive verbs, drop the –s on the command form before attaching the reflexive pronoun<br />Levantemos- noslevantémonos<br /> Commands- nosotros<br />
  40. 40. Object pronouns are directly attached to the end of the imperative form of the verb<br />Ex: cómprelo<br />If both direct and indirect object pronouns are attached, the indirect object pronoun comes before the direct object pronoun<br />Ex: cómpreloUd.- cómpremeloUd. <br />Negative commands<br />The object pronouns come before the imperative form of the verb<br />Ex. No lo compre<br />If both there are both direct and indirect object pronouns, the indirect object pronoun comes before the direct object pronoun<br />Ex: no me lo compre<br />Commands- IOP/DOP Placement <br />
  41. 41. Present Subjunctive <br />
  42. 42. Irregulares <br />
  43. 43. Impersonal Expressions <br />
  44. 44. Expressions of Emotions <br />
  45. 45. Expressions of emotions<br />
  46. 46. Take the indicative when the action in the subordinate clause is either habitual or in the past. The subjunctive is used when the main clause is a command or in the future. <br />Example: trabajéhastaquemisniños me llamaron. <br />Conjugations of Time<br />
  47. 47. This, that, these, those <br />Ejemplos:<br />Adjectives:<br />Este libroes mal- this book is bad<br />Yoquieroestataza<br />Pronouns:<br />Yoquieroeste- I want that<br />¿Queesese? <br />Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns <br />