Care ethics
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Care ethics

on

  • 796 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
796
Views on SlideShare
781
Embed Views
15

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0

1 Embed 15

http://mybb.gvsu.edu 15

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Care ethics Care ethics Presentation Transcript

  • Care Ethics
  • Lawrence KohlbergLawrence Kohlberg Lawrence Kohlberg identifies three stages ofLawrence Kohlberg identifies three stages of moral development:moral development: 1.1. Preconventional – moral reasoning is tied toPreconventional – moral reasoning is tied to feelings of pleasure and avoidance of painfeelings of pleasure and avoidance of pain 2.2. conventional – specific cultural normsconventional – specific cultural norms dominate moral reasoningdominate moral reasoning 3.3. Postconventional – more abstract ethicalPostconventional – more abstract ethical principles are involvedprinciples are involved
  • Carol GilliganCarol Gilligan Research focuses on a systematic comparisonResearch focuses on a systematic comparison of moral development for females and males.of moral development for females and males. Her work indicates that the moral reasoning ofHer work indicates that the moral reasoning of girls and boys is different.girls and boys is different. 1.1. Girls tend to use a care and responsibilityGirls tend to use a care and responsibility perspectiveperspective 2.2. boys tend to use a justice perspective.boys tend to use a justice perspective. An important question is whether theAn important question is whether the differences are the result of nature or nurture.differences are the result of nature or nurture.
  • Kohlberg’s stages of moralKohlberg’s stages of moral developmentdevelopment Preconventional Level - childhood to middle schoolPreconventional Level - childhood to middle school Stage 1: Heteronymous Morality - Ethics ofStage 1: Heteronymous Morality - Ethics of Punishment and obediencePunishment and obedience  Good is simply based on rules and avoidingGood is simply based on rules and avoiding punishment without considering whether thepunishment without considering whether the rules themselves are good.rules themselves are good. Stage 2: Instrumental purpose - Ethics of marketStage 2: Instrumental purpose - Ethics of market exchangeexchange  Good is what is good for the individual, or whatGood is what is good for the individual, or what you can trade for by doing favors in the moment.you can trade for by doing favors in the moment.
  • Kohlberg’s stages…Kohlberg’s stages… Conventional Level—adolescence andConventional Level—adolescence and adulthood (many never go past this level)adulthood (many never go past this level) Stage 3: Interpersonal conformity—ethicsStage 3: Interpersonal conformity—ethics of peer opinionof peer opinion  Good is what the peer group approves ofGood is what the peer group approves of Stage 4: Social system orientation—Stage 4: Social system orientation— ethics of law and orderethics of law and order  Good conforms to social rules, laws andGood conforms to social rules, laws and customs—similar to stage 3, but broadercustoms—similar to stage 3, but broader
  • Kohlberg’s stages…Kohlberg’s stages… PostconventionalPostconventional Stage 5: Social contract orientationStage 5: Social contract orientation  Good is what conforms to procedures regulatingGood is what conforms to procedures regulating agreement and disagreement (see Utilitarian andagreement and disagreement (see Utilitarian and Deontology ethics)Deontology ethics) Stage 6: Ethics of self-chosen universalStage 6: Ethics of self-chosen universal principlesprinciples  Good is consistent with personally identified andGood is consistent with personally identified and chosen moral principleschosen moral principles
  • Carol Gilligan:Carol Gilligan:  As we have listened for centuries to the voices ofAs we have listened for centuries to the voices of men and the theories of development that theirmen and the theories of development that their experience informs, so we have come more recentlyexperience informs, so we have come more recently to notice not only the silence of women but theto notice not only the silence of women but the difficulty in hearing what they say when they speak.difficulty in hearing what they say when they speak. Yet in the different voice of women lies the truth ofYet in the different voice of women lies the truth of an ethic of care, the tie between relationship andan ethic of care, the tie between relationship and responsibility, and the origins of aggression in theresponsibility, and the origins of aggression in the failure of connection .failure of connection .  The failure to see the different reality of women'sThe failure to see the different reality of women's lives and to hear the differences in their voices stemslives and to hear the differences in their voices stems in part from the assumption that there is a singlein part from the assumption that there is a single mode of social experience and interpretation (seemode of social experience and interpretation (see moral pluralism).moral pluralism).
  • What is Care Ethics…What is Care Ethics…  A family of beliefs about the way values should beA family of beliefs about the way values should be manifested in character and in behaviormanifested in character and in behavior  Unified by shared concerns and commitments and by theUnified by shared concerns and commitments and by the rejection of the traditional philosophical view that ethicsrejection of the traditional philosophical view that ethics can be adequately represented by rules and principlescan be adequately represented by rules and principles  In her work with women, she came to the conclusion thatIn her work with women, she came to the conclusion that she was hearing a different voice from the traditional ethicalshe was hearing a different voice from the traditional ethical theory “male” voicetheory “male” voice  When women are presented with cases of moral conflict,When women are presented with cases of moral conflict, they focus on the details of the people involved in thethey focus on the details of the people involved in the situation and their personal relationshipsituation and their personal relationship
  • What this meansWhat this means  There is an attempt to, as much as is possible, satisfy the interestsThere is an attempt to, as much as is possible, satisfy the interests of everyone concerned and cause the least amount of harmof everyone concerned and cause the least amount of harm  This means there is preparation for compromise and aThis means there is preparation for compromise and a willingness to find points of agreement, to be flexible in theirwillingness to find points of agreement, to be flexible in their demands, and to take novel approaches to find resolutions thatdemands, and to take novel approaches to find resolutions that are acceptableare acceptable
  • Ethic of Care vs. Ethic of justiceEthic of Care vs. Ethic of justice  Women – ethic of careWomen – ethic of care  Men – ethic of justiceMen – ethic of justice  She does not consider this a perfect correlation between theShe does not consider this a perfect correlation between the gendersgenders  Ideally, moral agents should employ both approaches in moralIdeally, moral agents should employ both approaches in moral decision makingdecision making  There is room for both and a need for both and GilliganThere is room for both and a need for both and Gilligan recognizes thisrecognizes this
  • What this means  Rules are inappropriate and unnecessary where certain human relationships are concerned  Care ethics denies that abstract principles can capture everything relevant to making moral decisions  We can’t just slap a rule onto every situation  We must instead have an understanding of the complexities of the particular situation in which a moral problem has occurred  We need a deep and detailed understanding of the people, their interests and feelings. And only with this is it possible to sensitively respond to their problem
  • Intelligence and Empathy  This requires intelligence – grasp relationships and details about the people, circumstances, and the problem  We must also use empathy to understand the concerns and feelings of the people involved (must identify with them)  We must realize what they consider to be at stake, ascertain their worries and concerns  The point is not to find out who is wrong and right, but to find a way out of the conflict that takes into account the concerns and feelings of all those involved
  • Inappropriate and Mistaken  Traditional values placed emphasis on disinterestedness, detachment, and dispassionate objective judging. Gilligan says this is inappropriate and mistaken  Why?  Because it excludes the very values that are most relevant to moral situations and most important to the people involved  This means we must make an effort to develop individuals who respond appropriately to moral situations (recognize importance of personal relationships, respect others and accept responsibility)
  • DifficultiesDifficulties  Gilligan’s claims about the differences between the moralGilligan’s claims about the differences between the moral reasoning of women and men do not stand up to thereasoning of women and men do not stand up to the challenge of more recent datachallenge of more recent data  However, these claims are not crucial to care ethics. It isHowever, these claims are not crucial to care ethics. It is enough to demonstrate the importance of values thatenough to demonstrate the importance of values that belong to the ethic of care by showing how they play abelong to the ethic of care by showing how they play a role in the moral life of individuals and societyrole in the moral life of individuals and society  Care ethics can be seen as a part of the traditionalCare ethics can be seen as a part of the traditional enterprise of philosophical ethics (act so as to promoteenterprise of philosophical ethics (act so as to promote the good of others)the good of others)  If this is so, then care ethics is a part of the traditionalIf this is so, then care ethics is a part of the traditional enterprise of ethics (it does not necessarily stand as anenterprise of ethics (it does not necessarily stand as an alternative to a moral theory)alternative to a moral theory)