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Erving Goffman's  Presentation of Self Book Outline by Fall 2011 SOC205 Students Contemporary Sociological Theory Occident...
Chapter 1: Performances <ul><li>  </li></ul>
PERFORMANCES Chapter 1
Two Extremes <ul><ul><li>Performers can either be taken in by their own performance, or they can be cynical </li></ul></ul...
Front
Setting
Appearance
Manner
Scenery, Props, Location
Idealization <ul><ul><li>Definition: the tendency for performers to offer their observers an impression that is idealized ...
Downgrade Approach  <ul><ul><li>African American shipping clerk takes the title and pay of a messenger  </li></ul></ul><ul...
Opposite Approach  <ul><ul><li>Idealization in terms of social mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower caste immitate hi...
Ceremony <ul><ul><li>Def: an expressive rejuvenation and reaffirmation of the moral values of the community  </li></ul></u...
Maintenance of Expressive Control <ul><ul><li>Audiences take minor cues as a sign of something important about one's perfo...
Misrepresentation <ul><ul><li>When we discover a fraud, we are discovering that the person did not have the right to play ...
More on Misrepresentation <ul><ul><li>In every day life it is usually possible for the performer to create any kind of fal...
Mystification
Mystification <ul><ul><li>  Mystification requires the regulation of information and contact flowing from the performer to...
Mystification <ul><ul><li>&quot;The implication here is that an hones, sincere, serious performance is less firmly connect...
Goffman Chapter 1: Performances
Q1: What are the two extremes in the &quot;reality&quot; of a given performance <ul><ul><li>Sincerity -  the performer tru...
2. Are individuals always in one extreme or the other or is there a continuum?  There is a continuum that is anchored in m...
Q3: Define <ul><ul><li>Front  – Standard elements of social performance. Generalizable and transferrable, meaning audience...
<ul><ul><li>Appearance  – “May be taken to refer to those stimuli which function at the time to tell us of the performer's...
3. “In those interactions where the individual presents a product to others, he will tend to show them only the end produc...
Q3 <ul><ul><li>Dramatic Realization -  in the presence of others, human actions are &quot;dramatized&quot; to emphasize pa...
4. What are some of the factors that can lead to a discrepancy between reality and appearance? 1. “the performer may be en...
5. What is the relationship between performers and audience in understanding the meaning and interactions in performances?...
What happens when cues are misunderstood? T he consequences of misunderstood cues can be broken into three categories: 1. ...
4. “There are many performances which could not have been given had not tasks been done which were physically unclean, sem...
Q7: What are three types of unintentional events?  1. Losing muscle control. ex. tripping, burping, yawning, scratching, i...
Q8: What happens when we discover a fraud? - Realization that the actor is not capable of playing the part- not qualified....
Q9: Can individuals tell lies without divulging that or without actually telling a lie? White lies- doctors, guests, frien...
Q10: What are some examples of roles that &quot;require&quot; misrepresentation and suggest you &quot;conceal practices wh...
examples of roles wherein misrepresentation would pose a “threat to the whole relationship or role”  Q11
What are sociologists concerned with related to misrepresentation and performances being subject to disruption? Q12 Sociol...
What is mystification? Q13 A technique of impression management. Mystification is a particular technique of impression man...
Q14 What does mystification involve on the side of the performer? -Performers restrict the contact between themselves and ...
What are Simmel and Durkheim’s thoughts on the sacred and the performers? Simmel On the invisible sphere around individual...
In “Anglo-American culture” what are the two common-sense models that formulate our conceptions of behavior? <ul><li>Real ...
What does Goffman mean when he states, “The implication here is that an honest, sincere, serious performance is less firml...
 
Chapter 2: Teams <ul><li>  </li></ul>
  <ul><li>  </li></ul>
Chapter 3: Region and Region Behavior <ul><li>  </li></ul>
  <ul><li>  </li></ul>
Chapter 3 Regions and Region Behavior
Front Stage <ul><ul><li>Place where the performance is given </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. a waiter on the floor of the ...
Back Stage <ul><ul><li>Where the impression fostered by the performance is knowingly contradicted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
<ul><ul><li>Ideally, the audience is not privy to backstage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some workers have insufficient cont...
Outside <ul><ul><li>Neither front nor back- all other places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Given an ongoing performance, the ...
TV/Radio <ul><ul><li>Here, backstage is all places where the camera is not focused/no live mics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
News Blooper <ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cWsx6xV9tXw </li></ul></ul>
Most interesting time to observe impression management
Back and front region blending
Example
How discrepant information can ruin a performance <ul><ul><li>Team contains social divisions  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A...
What can a performer do to ensure that audiences will only see her/him in one role at a time? Audience segregation!
What is audience segregation? • Audience segregation is the answer to the outsider problem • The performer must segregate ...
Example of audience segregation A man who is a loving father to his children, but extremely critical and harsh to the peop...
In what two ways can an audience accommodate issues surrounding audience segregation?  • First, those in the audience may ...
In what two ways can an audience accommodate issues surrounding audience segregation?  <ul><ul><li>Second, the outsider ca...
Cocktail Party
Back stage <ul><ul><li>Back stage: place of relaxation. Make sure that any flaws be corrected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A...
 
Front stage is blended with the back stage:   <ul><ul><li>“ while a performance is in progress and can interrupt his perfo...
Front stage performance being interrupted: <ul><ul><li>When mistakes are made like the door for service and managers </li>...
garage
TA DA!!!!!!
Chapter 4: Discrepant Roles <ul><li>  </li></ul>
Chapter 4 Discrepant Roles
           The Shill <ul><li>-Someone who acts as an ordinary member of the audience, but is actually working with the per...
         The Informer <ul><li>  - Someone who pretends to the performers that he is a member of their team </li></ul><ul><...
       The Non-person <ul><li>-Individuals who are present during the performance, may even be allowed in the back stage b...
      The Protector <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-Acts in the interest of the audience by checking up o...
The Mediator or Go-Between <ul><li>-Usually acts with the permission of both sides, acting as a mediator and/or messenger,...
Chapter 4: Discrepant Roles Kelsey Hill, Ryan Metzler,  Claire Whedbee
Chapter 4 Overview <ul><li>There are three posts that must be occupied at all times while a performance is being given.  T...
Chapter 4 Continued <ul><li>Performers  are aware of their positionality and are in possession of any secrets.   </li></ul...
The Informer <ul><li>Definition: &quot;somehow who pretends to the performers to be a member of their team, is allowed to ...
ex- The Departed <ul><li>  </li></ul>
The Shill   <ul><li>Definition: &quot;someone who acts as though he were an ordinary member of the audience but is in fact...
ex-The Shareholder Meeting <ul><li>  </li></ul>
The Protector: <ul><li>The Protector  is a member of the audience who's goal is to protect the interests of the audience. ...
1) A protector can be open about their intentions, an example being if a professor were to sit in on a lecture a student w...
3) A protector can also be self appointed and are referred to as &quot;knockers&quot; or &quot;wiseguys&quot;.  These agen...
What Would You Do?  This hidden camera show places actors in the audience and prompts them to make decisions or express op...
The Go-Between or Mediator <ul><li>The Go-Between or Mediator  is a person that travels between two sides to learn their s...
<ul><li>- The mediator would be another  performer  on the stage </li></ul><ul><li>- And example of a mediator would be a ...
Ex. of the Mediator: <ul><li>  </li></ul>
The Non-Person <ul><li>The Non-Person  has a discrepant role. It is defined as the ones who appear at the stage or perform...
Ex. The Non-Person <ul><li>  </li></ul>
Chapter 5: Communication Out of Character <ul><li>  </li></ul>
Chapter 5 Communication Out of Character
Slip <ul><ul><li>Is when a performer  “blurts out a relatively uninformed exclamation”  page 168 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
Example <ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NxSxUxDS-N4   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In this example a news anchor ...
Compare to Undercurrents <ul><ul><li>Undercurrent: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purposely done in a secretive manner </l...
Treatment of the Absent: When the performers speak badly about the audience when they go backstage. Ex: Mock Role Playing ...
Staging Talk  Discussing how to stage a performance, which may include gossiping about other team members and revising how...
Team Collusion <ul><ul><li>Communication between performers during a performance, so as not to disrupt the performance or ...
Realigning Actions Communication out of character occurs between performer and audience. They are unofficial communication...
<ul><ul><li>“  Whatever it is that generates the human want for social contact and for companionship, the effect seems to ...
Chapter 5: Communication Out of Character <ul><li>Presented by: Dirty Durkheims! </li></ul>
What happens when performers &quot;slip?&quot; Can you think of examples? <ul><li> When performers slip, they say th...
Are these mistakes common or rare? <ul><li> These mistakes are rare, but there are always situations that are going...
How do they compare to &quot;undercurrents?&quot; <ul><li> Undercurrents are more hidden and less apparent than the...
Define, Compare, and Contrast and Give an Example of each below: Treatment of the Absent <ul><li> Treatment of the ...
Staging Talk <ul><li> Staging Talk:  In absence of the audience’s presence, teammates often discuss problems of sta...
Team Collusion <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li> Team Collusion:  “I shall call team collusion any collusive [a secret a...
Realigning Actions <ul><li> Realigning Actions:  The “unofficial line of communication” that occurs when individual...
Discussion: <ul><li>1)   What does Goffman mean when he states, “whatever it is that generates the human want for social c...
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    1. 1. Erving Goffman's  Presentation of Self Book Outline by Fall 2011 SOC205 Students Contemporary Sociological Theory Occidental College // Department of Sociology
    2. 2. Chapter 1: Performances <ul><li>  </li></ul>
    3. 3. PERFORMANCES Chapter 1
    4. 4. Two Extremes <ul><ul><li>Performers can either be taken in by their own performance, or they can be cynical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all performances are necessarily one or the other extreme. There is some grey area. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Front
    6. 6. Setting
    7. 7. Appearance
    8. 8. Manner
    9. 9. Scenery, Props, Location
    10. 10. Idealization <ul><ul><li>Definition: the tendency for performers to offer their observers an impression that is idealized in several different ways </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Downgrade Approach <ul><ul><li>African American shipping clerk takes the title and pay of a messenger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American college girls play down their intelligence in the presence of datable boys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QIMSC-RWvF8 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Opposite Approach <ul><ul><li>Idealization in terms of social mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower caste immitate higher class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Idealization of a higher strata leads people in lower places to aspire to be move up to higher ones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation of proper performances </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sacrifices they make for maintance of the front </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Ceremony <ul><ul><li>Def: an expressive rejuvenation and reaffirmation of the moral values of the community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A performance highlights the common official values of a society </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Maintenance of Expressive Control <ul><ul><li>Audiences take minor cues as a sign of something important about one's performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If they misunderstand these cues, due to an embarrassing mistake or an unmeant gesture by the performer, the audience may obtain a false impression of the intended message. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are 3 types of unintentional events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  The impression of reality fostered by a performance is delicate and can be shattered by very minor mishaps </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Misrepresentation <ul><ul><li>When we discover a fraud, we are discovering that the person did not have the right to play the part he played, and we therefore assume that his performance misrepresents him. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In every day life it is usually possible for the performer to create any kind of false impression without putting himself in the indefensible position of having told a clear cut lie. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociologist concern: impressions fostered in every day performances are subject to disruption. What are the ways in which a given impression can be discredited? What are the ways in which the given impression is false? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When we discover a fraud, we are discovering that the person did not have the right to play the part he played, and we therefore assume that his performance misrepresents him. </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. More on Misrepresentation <ul><ul><li>In every day life it is usually possible for the performer to create any kind of false impression without putting himself in the indefensible position of having told a clear cut lie. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociologist concern: impressions fostered in every day performances are subject to disruption. What are the ways in which a given impression can be discredited? What are the ways in which the givenimpression is false? </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Mystification
    18. 18. Mystification <ul><ul><li>  Mystification requires the regulation of information and contact flowing from the performer to the audience </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Mystification <ul><ul><li>&quot;The implication here is that an hones, sincere, serious performance is less firmly connected with the solid world than one might first assume&quot;  -Goffman </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Goffman Chapter 1: Performances
    21. 21. Q1: What are the two extremes in the &quot;reality&quot; of a given performance <ul><ul><li>Sincerity - the performer truly believes their performance represents reality and the audience is also convinced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cynicism - the performer does not believe that their action represents reality, instead they are acting a role </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. 2. Are individuals always in one extreme or the other or is there a continuum? There is a continuum that is anchored in more extreme beliefs and schema of securities and defences.
    23. 23. Q3: Define <ul><ul><li>Front – Standard elements of social performance. Generalizable and transferrable, meaning audience can use what they know from past experiences and apply that knowledge to new situations when they see something reminiscent of previous experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting – the scenic parts of expressive equipment. Involves furniture, décor, physical layout, and the other background items, which supply the scenery (stage elements) and stage props.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stationary, performers must come to the setting to begin the performance and the performance ends when they leave (there are few exceptions to this where setting follows the performers, example – race, sex, age, etc.). The setting shapes what others see and how they interpret the performers </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><ul><li>Appearance – “May be taken to refer to those stimuli which function at the time to tell us of the performer's social status,” (24).  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What performers look like and convey current state: working, playing, studying, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manner – “those stimuli which function at the time to warn us of the interaction role the performer will expect to play in the oncoming situation,” (24).  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indication of how performers act and how they wish to be perceived in a given situation </li></ul></ul></ul>Q3: Continued
    25. 25. 3. “In those interactions where the individual presents a product to others, he will tend to show them only the end product, and they will be led into judging him on the basis of something that has been finished, polished, and packaged” --> PERFORMER PRESENTS HIS FINAL PRODUCT AS HIS ONLY PRODUCT, DISREGARDING THE STEP ALONG THE WAY ex. we only hand in “final copies” of important papers implying that everything we produce is in pristine condition
    26. 26. Q3 <ul><ul><li>Dramatic Realization - in the presence of others, human actions are &quot;dramatized&quot; to emphasize parts they want others to understand the most </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  performance vs. action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idealization - performers tend to offer audience impressions that are idealized in several different ways in social interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>incorporate and exemplify the officially accredited values of the society (35) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>concealment vs. exaggeration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex) social mobility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ceremony - an expressive rejuvenation and reaffirmation of the moral values of the community </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. 4. What are some of the factors that can lead to a discrepancy between reality and appearance? 1. “the performer may be engaged in a profitable form of activity that is concealed from his audience and that is incompatible with the view of his activity which he hopes theywill attain” --> PERFORMER BENEFITS IN WAYS UNKNOWN TO THE AUDIENCE ex. Frats having &quot;philanthropies&quot; where they appear to be doing good for the community but are also using it   as an excuse to party 2. “We find that errors and mistakes are often corrected before the performance takes place, while telltale signs that errors have been made and corrected are themselves concealed. In this way, an impression of infallibility is maintained” --> PROBLEMS IN PREPARATION ARE HIDDEN BY PERFORMER ex. doctors “burying” their mistakes, or officers going back over and correcting reports before officially filing them to insure an appearance of perfection
    28. 28. 5. What is the relationship between performers and audience in understanding the meaning and interactions in performances? “ A performer often engenders in his audience the belief that he is related to them in a more ideal way than is always the case” (48) --> P ERFORMER IDEALIZES THE INTERACTION 1. The performer displays the impression that the part they are presently performing is their most important one: therefore will not allow a particular audience member to see them perform multiple roles ex. You will not allow Prof. Dirks to see you doing jello shots on Friday night 2. The performer tends to hold that their current performance is unique and special rather than a routine. ex. in each college interview you gave, you tried to portray that THIS was the school for you, regardless of if it was what you said for every school you visited.
    29. 29. What happens when cues are misunderstood? T he consequences of misunderstood cues can be broken into three categories: 1. “a performer may accidentally convey incapacity, impropriety, or disrespect by momentarily losing muscular control of himself” --> PERFORMER PHYSICALLY CONTRACTICTS THE EXPECTATION OF THE INTERACTION ex. trip, stumble, fart, run into another performer, have a slip of the tongue 2. “the performer may act in such a way as to give the impression that he is too much or too little concerned with the interaction” -- > PERFORMER EXPRESSES TOO MUCH OR TOO LITTLE CARE IN THE PERFORMANCE ex. he may stutter, forget his lines, appear nervous, may give inappropriate outbursts of anger, laughter, or he may show too much serious involvement or lack of interest 3. “the performer may allow his presentation to suffer from inadequate dramaturgical direction” --> THE PERFORMER DOES NOT INSURE THE CORRECT SETTING FOR THE PERFORMANCE ex. having your strobe light on during a study session
    30. 30. 4. “There are many performances which could not have been given had not tasks been done which were physically unclean, semi-illegal, cruel, and degrading in other ways; buT these disturbing facts are seldom expressed during a performance” (44) --> PERFORMER HIDES DIRTY WORK   ex. “dirty work” done by an unseen party like the image that a house is always pristine when actually it is cleaned by hired help who may be an illegal immigrant   5. “If the activity of an individual is to embody several ideal standards, and if a good showing is to be made, it is likely then that some of these standards will be sustained in public by the private sacrifices of some of the others” (44) --> PERFORMER SACRIFICES PRIVATE EXPECTATIONS IN ORDER TO APPEASE PUBLIC ONES ex. restaurants usually judged on speed and quality. of the two characteristics, quality is likely to be compromised first because speed can be easily measured while it is possible for slight discrepancies in quality to go unnoticed 6. “Performers often foster the impression that they had ideal motives for acquiring the role in which they are performing, that they have ideal qualifications for the role, and that it was not necessary for them to suffer any indignities, insults, and humiliations or make any tacitly understood ‘deals,’ in order to acquire that role” (46) --> PERFORMER IDEALIZES REASONS BEHIND PLAYING HIS ROLE ex. clergy men give the impression that they joined a specific church because they felt a certain calling when really it was due to payment or a house they wanted, OR when you ask your friend to go to the movies with you giving the impression that you want to spend time with them when REALLY they just have a car and you want to see that particular movie
    31. 31. Q7: What are three types of unintentional events?  1. Losing muscle control. ex. tripping, burping, yawning, scratching, infringing on others' personal space. 2. Too much dedication- ex. exaggerated anger, sorrow. Not dedicated enough- ex. improper bursts of laughter, nervousness, self consciousness.  3. Inaccurate dramaturgical direction, compromises the order, legitimacy of setting. ex. preparing for the wrong performance, the unavoidable awkward moments between interactions because of late arrivals, early departures.
    32. 32. Q8: What happens when we discover a fraud? - Realization that the actor is not capable of playing the part- not qualified. - The performance completely misrepresents the actor, performance will be at fault in other ways.  - The more accurate the performance, the more unsettled the audience becomes. - Compromises the morality of the relationship between actual authorization to play a part and the basic ability to do so. 
    33. 33. Q9: Can individuals tell lies without divulging that or without actually telling a lie? White lies- doctors, guests, friends.  Meant to save feelings of the audience being lied to.  Strategic omission, innuendo, ambiguity- able to profit from bending the truth without actually fabricating a lie.  ex. Real Estate- exaggeration, understatements, omissions. ex. Mass Media- certain flattering camera shots, editing.
    34. 34. Q10: What are some examples of roles that &quot;require&quot; misrepresentation and suggest you &quot;conceal practices which are incompatible with fostered impressions?&quot; Well-Adjusted Marriage: Don't discuss financial troubles, flirtations, true opinions about relatives, costly indulgences.  Parent-Child: Parent hides personal worries, financial issues, fear. Child hides trouble making, questionable friends, dangerous destinations. Teacher-Student: Teacher hides confusion, lack of knowledge, personal beliefs. Student hides unfavorable thoughts, bad behavior, inappropriate interests. 
    35. 35. examples of roles wherein misrepresentation would pose a “threat to the whole relationship or role” Q11
    36. 36. What are sociologists concerned with related to misrepresentation and performances being subject to disruption? Q12 Sociologists want to know what kind of impression of reality can shatter the fostered impression of reality, and what reality really is can be left to other students. &quot;we can profitably study performances that are quite false in order to learn about the ones that are quite honest&quot;
    37. 37. What is mystification? Q13 A technique of impression management. Mystification is a particular technique of impression management that may be employed to keep the observers at a sense of awe. Thus, the observers may be held in the state of mystified in regard to the performers. Maintenance of social distance, and regulation of social contacts, are usually crucial if this process is to work successfully.
    38. 38. Q14 What does mystification involve on the side of the performer? -Performers restrict the contact between themselves and their audiences in order to limit the chances that audiences will recognize errors in their performances.  
    39. 39. What are Simmel and Durkheim’s thoughts on the sacred and the performers? Simmel On the invisible sphere around individuals: “ cannot be penetrated, unless the personality value of the individual is thereby destroyed.” Durkheim “ The human personality is a sacred thing.” Q15
    40. 40. In “Anglo-American culture” what are the two common-sense models that formulate our conceptions of behavior? <ul><li>Real Performances: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effortless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unintentional </li></ul></ul>Q16 <ul><li>Contrived/False Performances: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Painstakingly pasted together&quot; (p. 70) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intended to be taken seriously or not </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. What does Goffman mean when he states, “The implication here is that an honest, sincere, serious performance is less firmly connected with the solid world than one might first assume” (p. 71)? &quot;Performers may be sincere- or insincere but sincerely convinced of their own sincerity- but this kind of affection for one's part is not necessary for its convincing performance.&quot;(p. 71) Q17 http://www.williamhung.net/
    42. 43. Chapter 2: Teams <ul><li>  </li></ul>
    43. 44.   <ul><li>  </li></ul>
    44. 45. Chapter 3: Region and Region Behavior <ul><li>  </li></ul>
    45. 46.   <ul><li>  </li></ul>
    46. 47. Chapter 3 Regions and Region Behavior
    47. 48. Front Stage <ul><ul><li>Place where the performance is given </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. a waiter on the floor of the restaurant is in the “front stage”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He adheres to conventions that have meaning to the audience. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formal </li></ul></ul></ul>
    48. 49. Back Stage <ul><ul><li>Where the impression fostered by the performance is knowingly contradicted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. A waiter venting to his coworkers in the kitchen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language: profanity, open sexual remarks, elaborate griping, smoking, informal dress, “sloppy posture”, etc (128) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant for “work control”- i.e. maintaining the backstage is necessary for fully performing in the frontstage. </li></ul></ul>
    49. 50. <ul><ul><li>Ideally, the audience is not privy to backstage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some workers have insufficient control of their backstage and cannot keep audiences out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Shetland Hotel kitchen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some customers, disregard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the right of the service </li></ul><ul><li>personnel to have a backstage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. a mechanic fixing a car </li></ul></ul>
    50. 51. Outside <ul><ul><li>Neither front nor back- all other places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Given an ongoing performance, the outside is where the performer still puts on a show but one different than the original </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. A waiter talking to his boss off the floor. </li></ul></ul>
    51. 52. TV/Radio <ul><ul><li>Here, backstage is all places where the camera is not focused/no live mics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slip-ups can occur when people think they are off stage but are in fact on the air- this discredits the situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The wall between front/back stage can fall very quickly here </li></ul></ul>
    52. 53. News Blooper <ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cWsx6xV9tXw </li></ul></ul>
    53. 54. Most interesting time to observe impression management
    54. 55. Back and front region blending
    55. 56. Example
    56. 57. How discrepant information can ruin a performance <ul><ul><li>Team contains social divisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age-grades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different ethnic groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual </li></ul></ul>
    57. 58. What can a performer do to ensure that audiences will only see her/him in one role at a time? Audience segregation!
    58. 59. What is audience segregation? • Audience segregation is the answer to the outsider problem • The performer must segregate his audiences so that those who see him in one role do not also see him in a different role • Audience segregation can be practiced through front region control – it is useful for the performer to exclude people from the audience who see him/have seen him in another performance inconsistent with the current one • Proper scheduling assists with keeping the performer’s audiences apart, but if this is not possible, the different audiences must not come within hearing distance of each other. • Another useful means to keep audiences separate is the use of walls (such as doctors who have more than one examining room and can move quickly from one region to another so that their patients still feel as though they are receiving special and unique services)
    59. 60. Example of audience segregation A man who is a loving father to his children, but extremely critical and harsh to the people he employs. If his children were to visit him at work, they would be witnessing a show that is not intended for them. As a result, they would feel disillusioned not only about the show that is not intended for them (but rather the employees), but even about the show that is meant for his children.
    60. 61. In what two ways can an audience accommodate issues surrounding audience segregation? • First, those in the audience may join the performer in abruptly shifting to an act that is acceptable for an outsider to see. • For example, if an acquaintance arrives unexpectedly to a party at which the hosts are bickering, the hosts will immediately stop arguing and act as though no conflict ever occurred. The rest of the people at the party will likely go along with this sudden change in performance as well to ensure that it is something an outsider can observe.
    61. 62. In what two ways can an audience accommodate issues surrounding audience segregation? <ul><ul><li>Second, the outsider can be given a welcome that implies that the outsider should have been there all along. The same performance then carries on but includes the outsider. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• An example of this occurs when someone stops by uninvited to someone’s house and finds that there is a dinner party occurring. In this case, the group will often display excessive enthusiasm and strongly encourage them to stay in order to make the unexpected guest feel welcome. </li></ul></ul>
    62. 63. Cocktail Party
    63. 64. Back stage <ul><ul><li>Back stage: place of relaxation. Make sure that any flaws be corrected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alone time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looking at the mirror </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With a group you feel comfortable with </li></ul></ul>
    64. 66. Front stage is blended with the back stage: <ul><ul><li>“ while a performance is in progress and can interrupt his performance momentarily for brief period of relaxation” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a technique of impression management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading someone’s incomplete suicide letter </li></ul></ul>
    65. 67. Front stage performance being interrupted: <ul><ul><li>When mistakes are made like the door for service and managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Live microphone on at the wrong time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tv recording the wrong thing at the wrong time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When someone does respect your backstage privilege </li></ul></ul>
    66. 68. garage
    67. 69. TA DA!!!!!!
    68. 70. Chapter 4: Discrepant Roles <ul><li>  </li></ul>
    69. 71. Chapter 4 Discrepant Roles
    70. 72.           The Shill <ul><li>-Someone who acts as an ordinary member of the audience, but is actually working with the performers.  </li></ul><ul><li>- Provides a model of the type of response the performer is looking for or the type of response that is necessary at the moment for the development of the performance.   </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    71. 73.          The Informer <ul><li>  - Someone who pretends to the performers that he is a member of their team </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>- Is trusted and allowed to acquire destructive information. He then tells the secrets of the team. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>- If he joined the team in a sincere way, with no plan of selling the team out, he is called a traitor or quitter.  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>- If he has meant to sell out the team from the start, he is called a spy.  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    72. 74.       The Non-person <ul><li>-Individuals who are present during the performance, may even be allowed in the back stage but are not part of the &quot;show&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>- Their role is usually obvious and thus they are usually ignored by the performers and the audience </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    73. 75.       The Protector <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>-Acts in the interest of the audience by checking up on the standards that performers maintain </li></ul><ul><li>-Sometimes warns the performers that that night’s show will be judged  </li></ul><ul><li>-Other times he does not inform the performers that the show will be judged, and in this case is called a spotter   </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    74. 76. The Mediator or Go-Between <ul><li>-Usually acts with the permission of both sides, acting as a mediator and/or messenger, facilitating communication between various teams. </li></ul><ul><li>-The mediator can bend the truth about the other side in order to help them reach a mutually profitable agreement, or make a closer relationship between the two sides possible.  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    75. 77. Chapter 4: Discrepant Roles Kelsey Hill, Ryan Metzler,  Claire Whedbee
    76. 78. Chapter 4 Overview <ul><li>There are three posts that must be occupied at all times while a performance is being given.  These include: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The Audience </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The Performer </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The Outsider </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    77. 79. Chapter 4 Continued <ul><li>Performers are aware of their positionality and are in possession of any secrets.  </li></ul><ul><li>Audience knows the definition of the situation and are spectators.  They have no destructive information.  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Outsiders are people who are not on the stage and do not participate with any other actors or the audience. They are “extra” and often not acknowledged. </li></ul>
    78. 80. The Informer <ul><li>Definition: &quot;somehow who pretends to the performers to be a member of their team, is allowed to come backstage and to acquire destructive information, and then openly or secretly seels out the show to the audience&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Two Types: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Traitor- one who joins a team sincerely but then discloses secrets </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Spy- one with a premeditated plan of disclosing information </li></ul>
    79. 81. ex- The Departed <ul><li>  </li></ul>
    80. 82. The Shill   <ul><li>Definition: &quot;someone who acts as though he were an ordinary member of the audience but is in fact in league with the performers&quot;(146 Goffman) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Can be viewed two ways: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>A salesman attempting to sell a product to an audience </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>                                                 OR </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>A wife who &quot;cues&quot; her husband in a conversation to make a story more engaging and interesting </li></ul>
    81. 83. ex-The Shareholder Meeting <ul><li>  </li></ul>
    82. 84. The Protector: <ul><li>The Protector is a member of the audience who's goal is to protect the interests of the audience.  This agent is knowledgeable on the subject that is being preformed, and therefore able to detect exaggeration or lying that will fool less informed audience members.   </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>There are four different characteristic that can apply to protector, titles and examples are as follows: </li></ul>
    83. 85. 1) A protector can be open about their intentions, an example being if a professor were to sit in on a lecture a student was giving, the student would know the professor was an expert on their topic and able to inform the audience of any mistakes.  2) A protector can also keep his position a secret by acting like an audience member (called 'spotters') and are present when an actor who is unaware that they are being watched preform poorly.  An example would be if the owner of a store sent a spotter to act like a customer in order to determine how well real costumers were being treated in their store.
    84. 86. 3) A protector can also be self appointed and are referred to as &quot;knockers&quot; or &quot;wiseguys&quot;.  These agents are not empowered by the law to out an actor on any mistakes they might make because they are not certified &quot;experts&quot; on the subject.   4) Protectors may also exist in order to inform a competitor about the inner workings of team whose work they have witnessed.  These agents keep their position a secret and act like a real audience member until they report to their employer. 
    85. 87. What Would You Do? This hidden camera show places actors in the audience and prompts them to make decisions or express opinions about a topic. 
    86. 88. The Go-Between or Mediator <ul><li>The Go-Between or Mediator  is a person that travels between two sides to learn their secrets and vows to truly keep them </li></ul><ul><li>- To each party he acts as if he is the most loyal to that side, often giving a false impression of loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>- He then is able to manipulate each party from what he has learned, though usually it is to bring the two sides together rather than apart </li></ul><ul><li>- His behavior can be described as 'bizarre' and 'undignified' since he is alternating between sides; this indecisiveness is understandable when the mediator is a member of both sides  </li></ul>
    87. 89. <ul><li>- The mediator would be another  performer on the stage </li></ul><ul><li>- And example of a mediator would be a marriage counselor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They would work between the two sides, make them  each feel comfortable so that each member of the couple would think they are being agreed with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The counselor would then be able to present a favorable view of the opposite partner and it would be a trusted opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then, each spouse could feel better about the other one because a person they have come to trust finds value in them </li></ul></ul>
    88. 90. Ex. of the Mediator: <ul><li>  </li></ul>
    89. 91. The Non-Person <ul><li>The Non-Person has a discrepant role. It is defined as the ones who appear at the stage or performance, and may appear in the back stage but they are not considered as part of the performance.  </li></ul><ul><li>- This is because their role is not acknowledged by the audience and the performers as well. They could be considered in some aspect to the outsiders.  </li></ul><ul><li>- Examples could be a janitor, a waiter/waitress, server, etc. </li></ul>
    90. 92. Ex. The Non-Person <ul><li>  </li></ul>
    91. 93. Chapter 5: Communication Out of Character <ul><li>  </li></ul>
    92. 94. Chapter 5 Communication Out of Character
    93. 95. Slip <ul><ul><li>Is when a performer “blurts out a relatively uninformed exclamation” page 168 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually caused by sudden disruption or when a misidentification is discovered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Oh my God” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Good Lord” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>facial expression </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example of scenario </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The four star general </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in the jeep </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://campfireladycreates.blogspot.com/2009/03/crafting-must-have-non-stick-craft-mat.html </li></ul></ul>
    94. 96. Example <ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NxSxUxDS-N4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In this example a news anchor messes up on her line and then abruptly cusses during live TV </li></ul></ul>
    95. 97. Compare to Undercurrents <ul><ul><li>Undercurrent: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purposely done in a secretive manner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acts as though their response was immediate and unthinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different from Slip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Because “slips” are done spontaneously and unconscious </li></ul></ul></ul>
    96. 98. Treatment of the Absent: When the performers speak badly about the audience when they go backstage. Ex: Mock Role Playing or Mean Names
    97. 99. Staging Talk Discussing how to stage a performance, which may include gossiping about other team members and revising how to act. How to “talk the talk”. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JxpI9mLvgGY In this video, the girls are discussing how they should stage their costumes, which in turn becomes part of how they perform.
    98. 100. Team Collusion <ul><ul><li>Communication between performers during a performance, so as not to disrupt the performance or give notice to the audience. </li></ul></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mWB9v7PE8Q8 In this scene of The Office, Pam signals Jim to come over and pretend to be Michael so that the man at her desk will go away. Their performance is so convincing, the get Michael and Dwight to perform with them as well.
    99. 101. Realigning Actions Communication out of character occurs between performer and audience. They are unofficial communications used to shift the official working consensus of the interaction.
    100. 102. <ul><ul><li>“ Whatever it is that generates the human want for social contact and for companionship, the effect seems to take two forms: a need for an audience before which to try out one’s vaunted selves, and a need for teammates with whom to enter into collusive intimacies and backstage relaxation.” (p.206) </li></ul></ul>
    101. 103. Chapter 5: Communication Out of Character <ul><li>Presented by: Dirty Durkheims! </li></ul>
    102. 104. What happens when performers &quot;slip?&quot; Can you think of examples? <ul><li> When performers slip, they say things that are out of character </li></ul><ul><li> Example of a “slip-up”: Saying “oh my god!” or a curse word </li></ul><ul><li> Example of a situation where a “slip-up” would be used: students discussing a party in class and the teacher walks in during the conversation—the students have “forgotten their characters” </li></ul>
    103. 105. Are these mistakes common or rare? <ul><li> These mistakes are rare, but there are always situations that are going to arise in which maintaining the show is not always possible </li></ul>
    104. 106. How do they compare to &quot;undercurrents?&quot; <ul><li> Undercurrents are more hidden and less apparent than these slip-ups </li></ul><ul><li> If these undercurrents were openly communicated, they would make the purpose of the situation completely different </li></ul>
    105. 107. Define, Compare, and Contrast and Give an Example of each below: Treatment of the Absent <ul><li> Treatment of the Absent: When members of a team go backstage where the audience cannot see or hear them, they talk about the audience in a derogatory way that is inconsistent with their face-to-face treatment </li></ul><ul><li>                                               i.     Example: friendships—some occasions where attitudes expressed behind a friend’s back are different than those attitudes expressed to his face (ex. mean girls 3- way phone conversation) </li></ul><ul><li>                                              ii.     Two common forms of derogation: mock role-playing and uncomplimentary terms of reference </li></ul>
    106. 108. Staging Talk <ul><li> Staging Talk: In absence of the audience’s presence, teammates often discuss problems of staging </li></ul><ul><li>o   This is also called gossip, and it helps show how individuals with “widely different social roles live in the same climate of dramaturgical experience” (176) </li></ul><ul><li>o   Example: doctors and actors give very different talks, but their “talk about their talk” is very similar </li></ul>
    107. 109. Team Collusion <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li> Team Collusion: “I shall call team collusion any collusive [a secret agreement for the team’s gain] communication which is carefully conveyed in such a way as to cause no threat to the illusion that is being fostered for the audience [the definition of the situation]” (177) </li></ul><ul><li>o   Example: kicking under tables as a signal to stop talking </li></ul><ul><li>o   Example: “Executives who want to terminate interviews both rapidly and tactfully will train their secretaries to interrupt interviews at the proper time and with the proper excuse” (178) </li></ul>
    108. 110. Realigning Actions <ul><li> Realigning Actions: The “unofficial line of communication” that occurs when individuals interact with different teams, where each member “adheres to the part that has been cast for him” but also with his team maintain “the appropriate mixture of formality and informality, of distance and intimacy, toward the members of the other team” (190) </li></ul><ul><li>o   Example: Guarded disclosure – two members of the same team make themselves known to each other. They both keep their distance by releasing information gradually with each other until they realize that they are part of the same team. </li></ul>
    109. 111. Discussion: <ul><li>1)   What does Goffman mean when he states, “whatever it is that generates the human want for social contact and for companionship, the effect seems to take two forms: a need for an audience before which to try out one’s vaunted selves, and a need for teammates with whom to enter into collusive intimacies and backstage relaxation.” (p. 206)? </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>     2)   Can you think of examples from public life of these     communications? What is the fallout from these experiences? How do individuals or teams try to recover? </li></ul>

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