Planning an English InquiryPlanning in English is focussed around an inquiry into an aspect of text, language or literacy.What is the English problem to be solved, question to be answered, significant task to be completed or issue to be explored through theinterpretation or construction of particular texts?This stage involves:• Establishing a focus of investigation into the language used to entertain, to move, to express and reinforce cultural identity, and to reflect.• Exploring connections between the purpose, text type, subject matter, author, audience, mode and medium in these texts• Introducing students to a process that allows them to talk about the language in the texts they are interpreting and constructing.What the teacher may do What the students may doNegotiate a social context (subject matter and audience) for Brainstorm topics of interest and possible audiences.this unit with the students. Participate in formulating a group decision.Suggest options from appropriate text type/s within the Decide on an appropriate text type for achieving a particulargenre category. cultural purpose or purposesLead the development of an inquiry question that connects Participate in discussion to identify possible directions for the study of texts andthe text type and its purpose to the social context and textual language.features.Developing Field KnowledgeThe purpose of this stage is to investigate the concept/topic and social context of the written text that was negotiated with this group of learners.This stage involves:• Establishing the students’ prior knowledge and understanding of the concept/topic to be developed in the written narrative• Identifying the ideas to be included – What ideas do we want to find out about the topic, about the text, and about the language of the text?• Planning experiences that will develop the ideas and information – How will we find out the information?What the Teacher does What the student doesDeveloping Field Knowledge Establishes the extent of the students’ current knowledge and Participate in a discussion around the concept. understanding of the concept and build on it. Think Pair Share in groups to initiate the discussion. Uses a KWL to record information. Organise Think, Pair, Share in groups to initiate the discussion
DeconstructionThe purpose of this stage is to provide experiences of the text type to be studied. It has twoparts – Deconstruction of Context and Deconstruction of the Text.Deconstruction – Context of Culture & Context of SituationThis step provides an opportunity for students to become familiar with the text type, its socialpurpose, possible audiences, text structure and textual features, through immersion in theWhat the teacher does What the students doSelect a range and balance of texts that are models of the genre tobe studied.Introduce model/s of the text type to the class including those for Read and discuss the texts.different audiences and specific purposes.Ask questions from the point of view of the writer. Answer questions in small or whole groups.- Who would write this kind of text?- Why would someone write this text?- Who is the intended audience for the text?- In what other situation would you need to write this text?Ask questions from the point of view of a reader. Answer question in small or whole groups.- Where might you see/find/read this kind of text?- Who would be interested in reading this text?- What ideas would you expect to find in this text?- Why might you need to read or write a similar text?Provide sample texts and possible audiences. Match sample texts with possible audiences.Deconstruction – Deconstructing the TextThis step provides an opportunity for teachers and students to investigate the way the text is structured to achieve its purpose. Explicit teaching sessions includethe way the text is organised; the way each stage contributes to the achievement of the purpose; the relationship between the structure and the grammar inachieving the purpose; and the format - paragraph structure, page layout, visuals genre and exploring mentor/model.What the teacher does What the students doExamine the generic structure and the organisation of the text/s. Listen and observe teacher modelling task.What is the genre? Work individually, in pairs or small groups toWhat is the purpose of this genre? identify generic structure, text organisation andWhat is the text type? language featuresWhat stages does this text type go through in achieving its purpose?What clues are there that it is a new phase?What is the function of each stage?What language features are associated with each stage?Prepare cut up texts for students to reassemble. Listen and observe teacher modelling task.Model the activities Work individually, or in pairs or small groups to reassemble text according to generic structure. Reassemble text ordering paragraphs.
Cloze: Blank out words that have a specific function, e.g. processes, Listen and observe teacher modelling task.participants, Work individually, or in pairs or small groups tocircumstances, conjunctions, pronoun reference. Model the activity using complete the cloze.only oneelement each activity.Models on how to locate and identify using highlighters e.g. Watch and listen to the modelling. Individual, pair,• language features– participants (noun groups), processes (verb groups), small group work on highlighting specific aspectscircumstances (adverbs/adverbial phrases), cohesive elements of texts.(conjunctions)sentence structures, theme position .What is the process going on here? (process/verb group)Who or what (followed by the process?) (participant)When, where, how, why, with whom is the process taking place?(circumstance)Joint ConstructionThis stage has two steps – Preparation and Construction. It enables students to build a new text on the basis of shared experiences and knowledge of languagefeatures. The teacher scaffolds the process by modelling the kind of thinking needed to respond to the task requirements.PreparationThis step allows students to build up their field knowledge about the subject matter they want to develop for their readers.What the Teacher does What the student doesLead the students in Defining the task by asking questions such as: Consider these questions when working individually, in pairs or small groups to help themWhat does this writing task require us to do? define the task.What is our purpose?What text types are appropriate to the topic?Who is the audience?What are some key words and ideas for the topic?Lead the students in Organising the task by asking questions such as: Consider these questions when working individually, in pairs or small groups to locate theHow could this topic/incident/series of events develop over the ideas they need.orientation? Create own set of resources.the complication?the resolution?Lead the students in Creating the Ideas by asking questions such as: Consider these questions when working individually, in pairs or small groups to select theWhat is the mood of the story – exciting, adventurous funny? information they need.Who are the characters?Who is telling the story – a first or third person narrator?When and where is the story set?What is the plan of action – the plot?What is the resolution of the story?Provide models of ways to Organise the information appropriate to Use the organisers to plan the story.the genreStory map ; timeline; choose a path
Construction of TextThis stage provides an opportunity for the teacher to scaffold the writing of the text through negotiation and interaction with students. At this stage the teachercan use ‘think alouds’ and questions to guide the students into understanding the text structure, language features as well as developing; drafting, editing andproof reading skills. Also at this stage the teacher needs to be confident with the language features of the genre in order to guide the structure and wording ofthe text.What the teacher does What the student doesScaffold the writing of the text by asking questions, thinking aloud, suggesting, Participate with the teacher in whole class or groups to write the text.modelling language features, drafting and editing.Discuss the presentation of the text. Include e.g.punctuation, paragraphing, Make suggestions for presentation.visuals, animationIndependent ConstructionThis stage has two steps, preparation and individual writing. It also includes a critical literacy component. In this stage the teacher’s role is vital in providingdemonstrations, guidance and support as the students move through the steps that were modelled during the joint construction stage, either individually, in pairsor in groups depending on their confidence with writing. Students’ attempts and approximations of the genre are important at this stage.PreparationIn this step the students develop and organise relevant subject matter for the narrative.What the teacher does What the student doesDemonstrate and guide strategies for starting a new narrative Select a topictopic. Brainstorming. - independently construct a text using same subject matterClustering events under stages of narrative collected for the joint constructionConcept mapping – identifying vocabulary - with the same theme but different subject matter detailsContext mapping – setting circumstances of time and place for - within the same broad themeevents - a self-selected topic
Individual Writing of TextThis step involves students drafting, consulting, editing and publishing text.What the teacher does What the student doesBe available to work on drafting, consulting and editing with Discuss drafts with the teacher, peers or other support staff.students. Edit, redraft, rewrite.Use desired outcomes as a focus for the conversations.Identify steps needed to achieve outcomes.Keep a checklist of student achievement and needs as an indication forpossible whole class planned teaching/learning activities during this stage.Model the editing process. Edit writing.Suggest tools for publication and support students in publishing their work. Publish.Planning for AssessmentDEVELOPING THE CRITERIAThe purpose of this stage is to plan for ways learners can demonstrate what they know and can do when writing a narrative.This stage involves:• Creating a writing task that enables students to demonstrate what they know and can do• Deciding on explicit criteria drawn from the English outcomes and core content to guide student performance and teachers’ judgements of the writtennarrative• Providing a fair and equitable opportunity for all students to demonstrate what they know and can do• Scaffolding the assessment requirements with explicit teaching and learning.What the teacher does What the student doesDiscuss the task requirements. Ask questions to clarify the task demands.Specify criteria for expected/typical level of performance as well as the levels below and Discuss what this may look like.above.Indicate clear conditions for performance. Discuss areas for negotiation.
Semiotic Systems Linguistic- the code and conventions of texts. An understanding of how words, clauses and punctuation combine to make meaning. Web Tools: Online graphical dictionary: http://www.visuwords.com/ Wordsift: http://www.wordsift.com or http:// www.wordle.net Paste any text into WordSift/Wordle and you can engage in a verbal quick-capture. Wordsift helps to identify important words that appear in the text, use visualization of word thesaurus and Google® searches of images and videos. With just a click on any word in the Tag Cloud, the program displays instances of sentences in which that word is used in the text.Visual- the way elements depict an image. It is not universal but culturally influenced, however technology globalisation and influence of design and mediaare bridging this differentiation.Colour Color is one of the most powerful of elements. It has tremendous expressive qualities. Understanding the uses of color is crucial to effective composition in design and the fine arts. Placement- meaning of colours and where they are used in the image Saturation- intensity of colour used Tone- the amount of light/dark used. This can also create key focal points. Media, opacity, transparency- indicates quality or make-up of what is being depicted Questions: Is there a lot of colour used? Are the colours light or dark? What impression do they give you?Texture Texture is the quality of an object which we sense through touch. It exists as a literal surface we can feel, but also as a surface we can see, and imagine the sensation might have if we felt it. Texture can also be portrayed in an image, suggested to the eye which can refer to our memories of surfaces we have touched. Textures are of many kinds: Bristly, rough, and hard -- this is what we usually think of as texture, but texture can also be smooth, cold and hard, too. Questions: Are there any objects in the image? How does the image use texture to represent the object? What is the texture like?Line Line is a visual element to describe movement of dots in an image. A line is a mark made by a moving point and having psychological impact according to its direction, weight, and the variations in its direction and weight. It is an enormously useful and versatile graphic device that is made to function in both visual and verbal ways. It can act as a symbolic language, or it can communicate emotion through its character and direction . Line is not necessarily an artificial creation of the artist or designer; it exists in nature as a structural feature such as branches, or as surface design, such as striping on a tiger or a seashell. Symbolic Use of lines: Vertical – feeling isolated or lack of movement Horizontal- feeling calmness, lack of strife
Doorways-square- solidarity, security Right angles- unnatural Diagonals- off balance, out of control Jagged- destruction, anger Curved- movement Questions: What sorts of lines are used in the image? What impression do the lines give you? Do the lines make it an action image? Do they connect any people or objects? Are there invisible lines in the image?Form, shape and Form and shape are areas or masses which define objects in space. Form and shape imply space; indeed they cannot exist withoutspace space. There are various ways to categorize form and shape. Form and shape can be thought of as either two dimensional or three dimensional. Two dimensional form has width and height. It can also create the illusion of three dimension objects. Three dimensional shape has depth as well as width and height. Form and shape can also be described as either organic or geometric. Organic forms such as these snow-covered boulders typically are irregular in outline, and often asymmetrical. Organic forms are most often thought of as naturally occurring. Hue and value are very important cues that tell us whether an object is near or far. In general, we tend to read warm hues as being closer that cool hues. Questions What kinds of shapes are shown? Do they have clear outlines? Is there one shape used more than another? Do the shapes suggest a theme? Do the shapes have hard or soft edges?Framing Type of shot and angles used to create meaning.Editing How creator puts images together to give meaning. Parallel Cutting- use of spilt screen to look forward or backward. Speed- effects mood, draw attention to meaning, Inserts Pacing and Transitions.Web Tools: www.shauntan.net- great examples in picture book of the elements.Picture Editing Tools:BeFunky http://www.befunky.com/Online Image Editor- http://www.online-image-editor.com/Edit images ONLINE. Resize or crop your images, add text, add borders, or overlay your images, putyour image in a picture frame or add a mask, convert, sharpen, reduce size of your animated gif... and much, much, more...Picnik- http://www.picnik.com/ Fix your photos in just one click. Use advanced controls to fine-tune your results. Crop, resize, and rotate in real-time. Tons ofspecial effects, from artsy to fun. Awesome fonts and top-quality type tool. Works on Mac, Windows, and Linux. No download required, nothing to installImage Sites: Creative CommonsPhoto8, PhotoBucket, Photl, Pics4Learning, Corbis Images, Morgue Files, 4FreePhotos, Flickr Images Creative CommonsWeb 2.0 Sites Voicethread-http://voicethread.com/ Conversations around images
AudioVolume and Indicates moods and emotionsauditability Eg soft whispers can create intimacy, shouting creates distance Accentuation on key words to create meaningPace Speed sound is delivered Fast pace- excitement Slow paced calming It can draw attention to atmosphereWeb Tools:Garage Band (MAC) Audacity (PC)Finding CC Materials: Music & VideoPurple Purple: http://www.purpleplanet.com/Open Culture: http://www.openculture.com/Opsound- http://www.opsound.com – CC music archiveJamendo- http://jamendo.org – CC music distribution siteSoundtransit- http://soundtransit.nl/ -archive of “field recordings” from around the world published under a CC Attribution licenceOwlnn- http://www.owlmm.com/ - a next generation music discovery engine which compares your favourite songs to thousands of others to find similar songs, allof which are CC licensedGesturalBody contact Indicates relationships and social conventionsProximityBody position Interaction- can indicate power, intimacy, aggression, compliance, respectAppearance Indicates personality, social status and cultureFacial expressions Eyebrows, eyes, position of mouth, size of nostrils… Mood, emotion, agreement, disagreement or disinterestPosture Interpersonal attitudes, emotional states, nature of character. The ways people use height, weight and build as part of posture can indicate similar aspects of attitude, emotion and character.Web Tools:Comic Creators:ToonDoo: www.toondoo.comGo Animate: http://goanimate.com/ Create and share animations in minutesSpatial- Understanding the components of position (Left-right- Top-bottom- values in society, Foreground/background- importance), distance and framing.
Web Tool for EvaluatingGood online story sites eg. www.dustechoes.comwww.youtube.com- ads and movie trailersWeb Tools for Planning Multi modal TextsExploratree http://www.exploratree.org.uk/ Free online library of thinking guidesBubbl.us https://bubbl.us/ Online mindmappingMind42 http://www.mind42.com/ Online mindmapping- add images, links..Stixy http://www.stixy.com/ An online canvas that allows you to add notes, images, task, videoLinoit http://en.linoit.com/ An online canvas that allows you to add notes, images, task, videoTool for Creating Multimodal Text- PC Photostory, Movie Maker MAC-Movie, GaragebandWeb Tools for Creating Multi modal TextsPhotoPeach- http://photopeach.com/ PhotoPeach you can create a rich slideshow in seconds. Add background music, captions, and comments so you canelaborate on your story further.VuVox: http://www.vuvox.com/ VUVOX is an easy to use production and instant sharing service that allows you to mix, create and blend your personal media –video, photos and music into rich personal expressions.Glogster Edu http://edu.glogster.com/ - Glogster is an interactive visual platform in which users create a “poster or web page” containing multimedia elementsincluding: text, audio, video, images, graphics, drawings, and data.Google search stories: http://www.youtube.com/searchstories add images, sites, music, maps, news and more.Animoto: http://animoto.com/- Animoto allows users to create short videos, rather like film trailers, from their own uploaded photos and videos clips. The serviceprovides a library of music from which users can select appropriate music for their video or allows them to upload their own tunes.Dvolver moviemaker - http://www.dvolver.com/moviemaker/make.html Dvolver Moviemaker is a simple tool that enables you to create your own animatedcartoons by selecting from a range of characters backgrounds and scenarios and adding your own dialogue text bubble. The movies can then be sent by email or embeddedinto blogs or websites for others to enjoy.
Design Process for a multimodal text Purpose Topic/Content Genre Audience ContextAfter- Before- selection of resources Resources Required Semiotic Systems availabletransforamtion of Reflection:avaliable designs and for semiotic systemsresources into a and technologies from How did multimodal text meet itsmultimodal text. avaliable designs and purpose, audience and context?Review of design PURPOSE literacy identity AUDIENCE How did the combination of CONTEXT semiotic systems achieve communication purpose? How did balancing and weighing among the semiotic systems During- accomplish the communication purpose? designing and recombining avaliable How was salient content identified designs and resources. through the semiotic systems? How was cohesion realised within the semiotic systems and overall text?
Auditing checklist:Focus of Linguistic Visual Spatial Audio GesturalpracticecontinuumExplicitteachingTeacherdirectedGuidedFocus onlearningacquisitionStudentcentredexplorationSelf-directedNegotiated
Story Title _____________________________ Names:__________________________________ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.Text Text Text Text TextType of shot/ angle Type of shot/ angle Type of shot/ angle Type of shot/ angle Type of shot/ angleVisual Features Visual Features Visual Features Visual Features Visual FeaturesMusic Music Music Music MusicGestural Gestural Gestural Gestural Gestural 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.Text Text Text Text TextType of shot/ angle Type of shot/ angle Type of shot/ angle Type of shot/ angle Type of shot/ angleVisual Features Visual Features Visual Features Visual Features Visual FeaturesMusic Music Music Music MusicGestural Gestural Gestural Gestural GesturalReference: Evolving Pedagogies Reading and writing in a multimodal world Author: Michèle Anstey and Geoff Bullhttp://www.curriculum.edu.au/leader/helping_teachers_to_explore_multimodal_texts,31522.html?issueID=12141