Speak & Spell: Pronouncing & spelling foreign names & words

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Presentation I gave in Minneapolis in November 2012

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  • Priscilla, Sorry I didn't see your comment, but I never got a notification from SlideShare. (I'll see about changing that.) I don't know how people spell Quiñones in Castillian, but I have never seen an N with a straight line over it. I Googled 'Quinones Spain' and found this, FWIW: http://www.houseofnames.com/quinones-family-crest . They indicate people spell it in various ways, but none with a straight line over the N.
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  • How do you spell the name QUINONES in Castilian Spanish? My friend says that there is straight line (-) over the letter n not an umlaut (~).
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  • Mention VRS, VRI, multicultural, multilingual schools\n
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  • It is useful to recognize and adapt your process!\n
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  • Double O has various sounds; e.g., “Blood is good food.” Mu-hu-ah-ha-ha! (Danish government changed the aa to the å in 1948.)\n
  • Bagu (computer bug) / baggu (bag) — Japanese. Taka (back) / takka (fireplace) — Finnish. Beve (he/she drinks / is drinking) / bevve (he/she drank) — Italian. English, Estonian, German, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Polish, Russian, Swedish, et. al. have doubled consonants.\n
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  • (See also “Jilldaughter” as a feminist reclamation of Jackson.)\n
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  • Speak & Spell: Pronouncing & spelling foreign names & words

    1. 1. SPEAK & SPELL: HOW TO SPELL & PRONOUNCE FOREIGN NAMES & WORDS Daniel Greene, BA, Graduate Candidate, CI & CT, NIC MasterMonday, November 12, 12 1
    2. 2. WORKSHOP: DESCRIPTION We interpret in an increasingly multi-cultural world. We are daily confronted with foreign and/or idiosyncratic names and words that we donʼt know how to pronounce or spell. This workshop will teach participants the phonetical systems (phonology) of several of the worldʼs languages so that they recognize spelling patterns (orthography) to elevate their comfort and confidence while interpreting in an ever more international world.Monday, November 12, 12 2
    3. 3. SPEAK & SPELL: THE ‘80S TOY The first solid-state talking toy. It would ask you to spell a word and tell you if you got it right or wrong. Remember ET? “Be good.”Monday, November 12, 12 3
    4. 4. WORKSHOP: AGENDA Introductions and our names’ background Phonology (how words /names sound) Orthography (how they are spelled) Application to interpreting Sources for further studyMonday, November 12, 12 4
    5. 5. IMPORTANCE: NAMES “Remember that a person’s name is to that person the sweetest and most important sound in any language.” —Dale CarnegieMonday, November 12, 12 5
    6. 6. INTRODUCE: YOUR NAME What is your name? What are its origins? Shortened when your family came to U.S.? Alternative spellings & pronunciations? Say, “I hate it when people pronounce my name _____, I like it when people pronounce my name _____, and I love it when people pronounce my name _____.”Monday, November 12, 12 6
    7. 7. RATIONALE: FOR– FOR? America is a land of immigrants with names from many countries and languages. ASL interpreters are sheltered from various phonologies by migration patterns. Interpreters are increasingly exposed to names and words from all over the world, so fingerspelling and pronouncing those words is part of our everyday work.Monday, November 12, 12 7
    8. 8. SPELLING: FOLLOWS RULES Names and words are rarely spelled with unique sounds or letter clusters; rather, they tend to follow the spelling conventions of the language from which they came. If interpreters learn the spelling rules of various languages, they will be able to comfortably and confidently pronounce and spell international names and words.Monday, November 12, 12 8
    9. 9. DEMAND: CONTROL Demand: you don’t know how to spell it. Control options: “How is that spelled?” “Spelled K-A-L-A-S-H-N-I-K-O-V?” Sign and mouth “Sounds like _____.” Spell it Kalashnikov.Monday, November 12, 12 9
    10. 10. DEFINE: PHONOLOGY phonology |fəˈnɑlədʒi| |foʊˈnɑlədʒi| the branch of linguistics that deals with systems of sounds (including or excluding phonetics), esp. in a particular language. the system of relationships among the speech sounds that constitute the fundamental components of a language.Monday, November 12, 12 10
    11. 11. DEFINE: ORTHOGRAPHY orthography |ɔrˈθɑgrəfi| conventional spelling system of a language. study of spelling and how letters combine to represent sounds and form words. ORIGIN late Middle English: via Old French and Latin from Greek orthographia, from orthos ‘correct’ + -graphia ‘writing.’Monday, November 12, 12 11
    12. 12. DEFINE: ORTHOEPY “Orthoepy is the art and study of proper pronunciation.” It comes from the Greek ortho, which means correct, and epos, which means word (Elster, 1999). Correct pronunciation conveys intelligence and respect. It also removes barriers to comprehension on the part of our clients.Monday, November 12, 12 12
    13. 13. PROCESS: INTERPRETING You hear/see a foreign name/word. Do you: recognize the name/word in its entirety? recognize letters/sounds, infer sounds/letters? use prior knowledge to make an educated guess as to the pronunciation/spelling?Monday, November 12, 12 13
    14. 14. DEFINE: ALPHABET alphabet |ˈølfəˈbɛt| a set of letters or symbols in a fixed order, used to represent the basic sounds of a language; in particular, the set of letters from A to Z. ORIGIN early 16th cent.: from late Latin alphabetum, from Greek alpha, bēta, the first two letters of the Greek alphabet.Monday, November 12, 12 14
    15. 15. HISTORY: ALPHABETS Phoenician (2000 BC) Greek (1000 BC) Arabic Hebrew Cyrillic Etruscan Russian LatinMonday, November 12, 12 15
    16. 16. COMPARE: ALPHABETS Latin: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Cyrillic: а б в г д е ё ж з и й к л м н о п р с т у ф х ц ч ш щ ъ ыьэюя Hebrew: ‫א ב ג ד ה ו ז ח ט י כ ך ל מ ם נ ן ס ע צ ץ ק ר ש ת‬ Greek: α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ µ ν ѯ ο π ρ σ τ υ φ χ ψ ωMonday, November 12, 12 16
    17. 17. ALPHABET: ARABIC ‫آ‬ alif ‫ع‬ ayn ‫ب‬ ba ‫غ‬ gayn ‫ت‬ ta ‫ف‬ fa ‫ع‬ gim ‫ق‬ qaf ‫ﺡ‬ ha ‫ك‬ kaf ‫د‬ dal ‫ل‬ lam ‫ر‬ ra ‫م‬ mim ‫ز‬ zay ‫ن‬ nun ‫س‬ sin ‫ه‬ ha ‫ض‬ dad ‫و‬ waw ‫ط‬ ta ‫ي‬ yaMonday, November 12, 12 17
    18. 18. ALPHABET: HEBREW ‫א‬ alef ‫מ‬ mem ‫ב‬ bet ‫ם‬ mem sofit ‫ג‬ gimel ‫נ‬ nun ‫ד‬ dalet ‫ן‬ nun sofit ‫ה‬ he ‫ס‬ samech ‫ו‬ vav ‫ע‬ ayin ‫ז‬ zayin ‫פ‬ pe ‫ח‬ chet ‫ף‬ pe sofit ‫ט‬ tet ‫צ‬ tzadi ‫י‬ yud ‫ץ‬ tzadi sofit ‫כ‬ kaf ‫ק‬ quf ‫ך‬ kaf sofit ‫ר‬ resh ‫ל‬ lamed ‫ס‬ shin ‫ת‬ tavMonday, November 12, 12 18
    19. 19. ALPHABET: GREEK Αα alpha Νν nu Ββ beta Ξξ xi Γγ gamma Οο omicron Δδ delta Ππ pi Εε epsilon Ρρ rho Ζζ zeta Σσ sigma Ηη eta Ττ tau Θθ theta Υυ upsilon Ιι iota Φφ phi Κκ kappa Χχ chi Λλ lambda Ψψ psi Μµ mu ΩΩ ω omegaMonday, November 12, 12 19
    20. 20. ALPHABET: SPANISH A a N ene B be Ñ eñe C ce O o Ch che P pe D de Q cu E e R ere F efe S ese G ge T te H hache U u I i V ve J jota W uve doble K ka X equis L ele Y i griega LL elle Z zeta M emeMonday, November 12, 12 20
    21. 21. LETTER DOUBLING: VOWELS E & O doubled in English: green, moon. E doubled in French: Sautée, Brûlée. A doubled in Danish & Dutch: Kierkegaard, Aardvark, Afrikaans. Hawaiian: Kaanapali, Hawaii. (Glottal break.) None: Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Japanese, Chinese, Russian, Hebrew, Swahili, et al.Monday, November 12, 12 21
    22. 22. LETTER DOUBLING: CONSONANTS Also called gemination (after gemini, twins) Meaning changed by single vs. doubled consonants; e.g. pining/pinning, anus/annus, bagu/baggu, taka/takka, beve/ bevve. Italian vs. Spanish words: pappa/papa, mamma/mama, panna/pan, anno/año. German has double and triple consonants.Monday, November 12, 12 22
    23. 23. CLUSTERS: VOWELS French vowel clusters for one sound; e.g. au (café au lait), aux (la cage aux folles), eau (eau de toilette or beau), -eaux (beaux, the plural of beau) -aud (Mme. Toussaud’s), ault (Renault), -ot (Pinot Noir) all sound like O. Other languages have vowel clusters that represent either one vowel, diphthongs, or triphthongs.Monday, November 12, 12 23
    24. 24. CLUSTERS: CONSONANTS German consonant clusters; e.g., Schmidt has seven letters, and only one vowel. Italian, Spanish, and Japanese have no consonant clusters. In Japanese, every consonant is paired with a vowel sound. That is why its non-logographic orthography is Hiragana, a syllabary.Monday, November 12, 12 24
    25. 25. DIACRITICAL MARKS Marks above/below letters to indicate vowel sounds. French words, such as crème brûlée German words, such as gemütlichkeit Vietnamese vowels, such as a, ă, and â. Hebrew: diacritics for vowels.Monday, November 12, 12 25
    26. 26. DIACRITICS: HEBREW Vowels & Canti!ationMonday, November 12, 12 26
    27. 27. DEFINE: TRANSLITERATE transliterate |trønzˈlɪdəˈreɪt| |trøn(t)sˈlɪdəˈreɪt| write or print (a letter or word) using the closest corresponding letters of a different alphabet or language. transliteration |transˌlitəˈrā sh ən; tranz-| |trønzˈlɪdəˈreɪʃən| |trøn(t)sˈlɪdəˈreɪʃən| |-ˈreɪʃ(ə)n| nounMonday, November 12, 12 27
    28. 28. DEFINE: LOGOGRAM logogram |ˈloʊgəˈgrøm| a sign or character representing a word or phrase, such as those used in shorthand and some writing systems. ORIGIN mid 19th cent.: from Greek logos ‘word’ + -gram.Monday, November 12, 12 28
    29. 29. WRITING: LOGOGRAPHIC Chinese & Japanese names/words written in characters that represent meanings. Names/words in Chinese and Japanese transliterated following different transliterators’ approximations of the original, native names / words. (Examples: xi & chi, feng shui pronounced fung shway.) Sanskrit, for Indian languages, is logographic.Monday, November 12, 12 29
    30. 30. DEFINE: SYLLABARY syllabary |ˈsɪləˈbɛri| a set of written characters representing syllables and (in some languages or stages of writing) serving the purpose of an alphabet. ORIGIN mid 19th cent.: from modern Latin syllabarium, from Latin syllaba (see syllable).Monday, November 12, 12 30
    31. 31. SYLLABARY: JAPANESE N is the only ending consonant (Nippon, Seikyo Shimbun). Most consonants end in vowel sounds, such as ka, ku, fa, fu. English words written in Hiragana follow Japanese phonology: garufu, boiufirendu, garufirendu, miruku, seben ereben, sando witchi, maku donaru. No L or V sounds.Monday, November 12, 12 31
    32. 32. SYLLABARY JapaneseMonday, November 12, 12 32
    33. 33. PHONOLOGY: NUMBER OF SYLLABLES Chinese names/ words only one or two syllables each; e.g., Chang, Wen, Li, or Tsao. Japanese names/words tend to have two, three or four syllables; e.g., Honda, Seiko, Yamaha, Nakamura, Watanabe, Takahashi Italian names tend to have two, three, or four syllables; e.g., Verdi, Puccini, Da Vinci, Corleone, Berluscone.Monday, November 12, 12 33
    34. 34. VOWELS: DI/ TRIPHTHONGS Dipthongs: two pure vowels make a blended vowel sound; triphthongs: three. Languages have none–to–many diphthongs. Italianate vowels: Italian vowels are pure: Ah, Eh, Ee, Oh (not a diphthong like O-u), and Oo. Spanish, Portuguese, and Japanese have Italianate vowels.Monday, November 12, 12 34
    35. 35. PHONOLOGY: NASALIZATION French has nasal vowels ending in N: an, en, in, on, un. (Ex: Maman, en croute, Chopin, Montmartre, un-deux-trois) Many languages have a nasal m, n, and ng. Almost all languages have nasalization.Monday, November 12, 12 35
    36. 36. PHONOLOGY: TONALIZATION Chinese, Hmong, Korean, Thai, and Vietnamese are tonal. Japanese is not. Tonal languages use tones to distinguish homophones; e.g., “ma” can mean ghost, but, cheek/mother, tomb/grave, horse, or rice seedling depending on tone. Vietnamese: Latin letters with diacritical and tonal marks; e.g., a, ă, â, ằ, ắ, ẳ, ẵ, ặ.Monday, November 12, 12 36
    37. 37. HMONG: TONAL, NASAL, ALPHABETICAL Bee (bee) Hang (hahng)   Sy, See (see) Chang (chahng) Lee, Ly, Le (lee)   Thao, Tor (taw) Cheng (cheng) Lor, Lo (law)   Thong (tawng) Chue (che-u) Khang (kahng)   Tov (too) Dang (dahng)   Moua (moo-ah)   Vang (vahng) Fang (fahng)   Neng (neng)   Vue (voo) Ge (zhay)   Pao (pow)   Xiong (shee-ong) Ger, Yeu (dzur)   Sao (sow)   Yang (yahng)Monday, November 12, 12 37
    38. 38. SILENT LETTERS: WHY? Changes in pronunciation after spelling conventions were set, such as how English kept changing after people began writing it; e.g., knife and knight. Attempts at transliterating single letters from another language that have no corresponding letter in our alphabet; e.g., Ch for ‫ ח‬in Chanukah (corresponds to German Bach). It is not “acceptable” to some languages to pronounce what others do; e.g. English does not start words with “ps” so we take the Greek psi (Ψ) and pronounce it sigh.Monday, November 12, 12 38
    39. 39. SILENT LETTERS French has many silent letters in its orthography; e.g., final consonants S, T, and X as in Dupuis, Chevrolet, and La Cage Aux Folles. (However, final consonants are pronounced when followed by vowels as in “les amis,” “tout a l’heur,” and “beaux arts.” This is called liaison.) English silent E changes pronunciation of preceding vowel; e.g., tap, tape; met, mete; sit, site; mop, mope; run, rune Spanish has no silent letters except sometimes h, which was only added to clarify that the following u was not a v.Monday, November 12, 12 39
    40. 40. EMPHASIS: PLACEMENT Emphasis: initial, penultimate, or final stress. Initial stress; Latin: anno domini, patre, filio Penultimate stress; Italian: spaghetti, spaghettini, cannoli, cannelloni Final stress; French: Philippe, Desirée, Nicolas Sarkozy.Monday, November 12, 12 40
    41. 41. SOUND & SPELLING: ENYAY Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish all have “enyay” but the spell it differently. Italian: “gn” e.g., lasagna. Portuguese: “nh” e.g., caipirinha, piranha. Spanish: n with tilde diacritic (ñ); e.g., mañana, piñata, Quiñones, Muñoz.Monday, November 12, 12 41
    42. 42. RARE SOUNDS: THETA, ETH Theta (IPA θ) is in few languages. Eth (IPA ∂) is even rarer. In French, th is always pronounced T, as in Mathilde and Thérèse). In Castilian Spanish, all C’s and Z’s are pronounced θ. Contrary to popular belief, Spaniards do not lisp their S’s; e.g. “Gracias por me dar los zapatos a las cinco.”Monday, November 12, 12 42
    43. 43. ORTHOGRAPHY: SPANISH Consistent: always pronounced as spelled Avoids K unless in Greek words; e.g., kilo English -tion = -ción. Ex: nación, concepción Avoids double letters. ll = y/j e.g. tortilla Th = T; e.g., theme = tema, rhythm = ritmo Inm- instead of im- e.g., inmigraciónMonday, November 12, 12 43
    44. 44. ORTHOGRAPHY: SPANISH Es- replaces S preceding a consonant; e.g., especial, estéreo, estudio, escuela. Avoids Y as a vowel; y = i as in hidrógeno, dislexia, and gimnasta. qua/quo = cua/cuo; i.e., ecuador, cuota F replaces Ph; e.g., elefante, Ofelia, Filadelfia. No silent letters (psychologist = sicológico)Monday, November 12, 12 44
    45. 45. NAMES VARY BY: Caste (social status and profession) Religion (religious figures or saints) Profession (a subset of caste) State (geographical location) Region (east, west, north, south)Monday, November 12, 12 45
    46. 46. NAMES: ARTICLES Some names have articles such as “the” Arabic: Al; Spanish: El; French Le or La Al Jazeera, El Cortez, LeBrun, LaBelle LaShondra, Lakeisha, Leandra, LeroyMonday, November 12, 12 46
    47. 47. NAMES: PREFIXES Names sometimes have prefixes. Some have meanings, such as Ben (son of). Some have no meaning but sound good.Monday, November 12, 12 47
    48. 48. NAMES: PREFIXES “Prefixes including Chan-, Shan-, Ka-, and La- …which were used to create such names as Danell, LaTasha, Shandra, and Monisha. The prefixes De-, Ja-, Tri-, Ni-, Wa- and Sha-, which were used to create names for both sexes” (Weiss, 1999).Monday, November 12, 12 48
    49. 49. NAMES: SUFFIXES (WITHIN THE NAME ITSELF) “Suffixes such as -on, -won, -quon, -el, and -ell, which were used to create boys names such as Davon from David and Marquon from Mark. To give these names even a more distinctive twist, the suffix is stressed when pronounced” (Weiss, 1999). International suffixes include -son/sohn/sen, -es/ez, sky/ ski, -ton, -enko, -ian, -oviczMonday, November 12, 12 49
    50. 50. NAMES: HOMOPHONES Prefixes or suffixes in –sen is Danish, Norwegian, names may sound the same Swedish; but be spelled differently –son is English; and have different origins, –sohn is German for example: –ez is Spanish; Mc– is Irish; –es is Portuguese Mac- is Scottish Van– is Dutch; –sky is Russian, Czech; Von– is German –ski is PolishMonday, November 12, 12 50
    51. 51. NAMES: IDIOSYNCRATIC The value of uniqueness can be seen in: Combined names and creative spellings (Weiss, 1999). Unusual use of apostrophes & hyphens; e.g., D’Sean, Le– Vaughn, and even La—a (African-American baby names).Monday, November 12, 12 51
    52. 52. NAMES: COMBINED Names may be a combination of the parents’ names, such as Alwayne or Jodene. Can you think of others?Monday, November 12, 12 52
    53. 53. NAMES: CREATIVE SPELLING Merideth instead of Meredith Lynda instead of Linda Mikol instead of Michael Donnyelle instead of Danielle La—a instead of Ladasha Can you think of others?Monday, November 12, 12 53
    54. 54. NAMES: AESTHETIC APPEAL Fingerspelling that is pretty to watch. Sounds that are pretty to hear. Rhythms and stresses that are interesting.Monday, November 12, 12 54
    55. 55. PRONUNCIATION: NATIVE & NON-NATIVE Foreign name/word pronunciation is native, near-native, and anglicized. Nakamura— native: slightly rolled R; near- native: Ah/Oo; Anglicized: short æ/uh and hard R. Wiśniewski: Vish-nyefs-ski or Wiz-new-skiMonday, November 12, 12 55
    56. 56. GAME: SPEAK & SPELL Pull a name out of the bowl and tag someone to spell it. Give both the near–native and Anglicized pronunciations to help the speller know what they’re spelling. Tag someone who hasn’t gone yet. Keep it going for as long as time allows.Monday, November 12, 12 56
    57. 57. STUDY: FURTHER Listen to nationality, spelling, and pronunciation of names. Notice patterns. Take an introductory linguistics course. Take foreign language courses. Interpret foreign language courses and learn on the job. Watch foreign films.Monday, November 12, 12 57
    58. 58. STUDY: FURTHER Read the resources in the reference list. Listen to foreign music and read the lyrics. Travel / work / study abroad. Listen to international accents / languages. Respect diversity and thirst for knowledge.Monday, November 12, 12 58
    59. 59. RECAP: WHAT WE LEARNED Sound systems (phonologies) & spelling systems (orthographies) of languages. Ways to cope with the foreign names and words that we encounter as interpreters. Techniques for mastering spelling & pronunciation. Where to turn for further study.Monday, November 12, 12 59
    60. 60. CONTACT: ME me@danielgreene.com www.danielgreene.com a.k.a. www.terptrans.com Facebook.com/danieljamesgreene Google+: Search me@danielgreene.com LinkedIn: danieljamesgreene Twitter: @danielgreeneMonday, November 12, 12 60

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