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Oral Transliteration
 

Oral Transliteration

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Read my lips: Making English visible through oral transliteration

Read my lips: Making English visible through oral transliteration

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Oral Transliteration Oral Transliteration Presentation Transcript

  • READ MY LIPS: MAKINGENGLISH VISIBLE THROUGH ORAL TRANSLITERATION Daniel Greene, BA, CI & CT, NIC Master © Daniel Greene 2012 1
  • INTRODUCTIONS: ME• ASL-English interpreter since 1990; OT workshop Kirsten Gonzalez 2000• AA: ASL Interpreting• BA: English, comm./media• MA Interpreting Studies/ Teaching Interpreting (now) © Daniel Greene 2012 2
  • WORKSHOP OBJECTIVES© Daniel Greene 2012 3
  • WORKSHOP OBJECTIVES Mouthing© Daniel Greene 2012 3
  • WORKSHOP OBJECTIVES Mouthing Finger writing© Daniel Greene 2012 3
  • WORKSHOP OBJECTIVES Mouthing Use of Finger writing space© Daniel Greene 2012 3
  • WORKSHOP OBJECTIVES Deaf Mouthing culture Use of Finger writing space© Daniel Greene 2012 3
  • WORKSHOP OBJECTIVES Deaf Mouthing culture Role shifting Use of Finger writing space© Daniel Greene 2012 3
  • WORKSHOP OBJECTIVES Deaf Mouthing culture Role Facial shifting grammar Use of Finger writing space© Daniel Greene 2012 3
  • WORKSHOP OBJECTIVES Deaf Mouthing culture Role Facial shifting grammar Use of Finger writing space Myths© Daniel Greene 2012 3
  • WORKSHOP OBJECTIVES Oral Deaf deaf Mouthing culture Role Facial shifting grammar Use of Finger writing space Myths© Daniel Greene 2012 3
  • WORKSHOP OBJECTIVES Oral Deaf deaf Mouthing culture Role Oral Facial shifting Transliteration grammar Use of Finger writing space Myths© Daniel Greene 2012 3
  • 1. What do you 2. What do you want to know about DB know about DB interpreting? interpreting?3. What do you want to do 4. What do you not here today? want to do here today? © Daniel Greene 2012 4
  • INTRODUCTIONS: YOU© Daniel Greene 2012 5
  • INTRODUCTIONS: YOU ? • Your name • Group members’ names • Average years of experience • Your group’s questions and answers© Daniel Greene 2012 5
  • TRANSLITERATION DEFINED• From Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913):• Transliteration Trans*lit`er*a"tion, n.• The act or product of transliterating, or of expressing words of a language by means of the characters of another alphabet. © Daniel Greene 2012 6
  • ALEF-BET–TO–ALPHABET© Daniel Greene 2012 7
  • AURAL-TO-VISUAL ENGLISH © Daniel Greene 2012 8
  • INTERPRETATION VS. TRANSLITERATION Interpretation Transliteration • Decodes message from • Encodes message from source language; encodes source mode; encodes into into target language. target mode. • Deals with oral-aural and/ • Represents the same or visual-gestural sounds in different visual languages, e.g. French-to- media, e.g. Hebrew alef- English or English-to-ASL. bet–to–Roman alphabet or aural English–to–visual English.© Daniel Greene 2012 9
  • ORAL TRANSLITERATORS• Turn aural English into visible oral & manual English using their mouths, facial expressions, body language, and gestures! © Daniel Greene 2012 10
  • AN ORAL TRANSLITERATOR…“Communicates the words of a speaker or group of speakers toan individual who is deaf by inaudibly mouthing what is said sothat it can be read on the lips.” —Alexander Graham BellHearing Health Dictionary online. © Daniel Greene 2012 11
  • RID CERTIFIED ORAL TRANSLITERATORS“Qualified oral transliterators have knowledge and abilities in theprocess of speechreading, speech production and thecommunication needs of speechreaders. Transliterators are aware ofenvironmental and social factors influencing the service providerand the service recipient. Transliterators know how to manipulateand adapt these factors for successful communication. Qualified oraltransliterators have developed articulation skills and techniques thatallow for easy understanding by speechreaders and have becomeskilled in employing verbal and non-verbal support techniques, thusassuring that the message is transmitted accurately.” —RID StandardPractice Paper “Oral Transliteration” (2007) © Daniel Greene 2012 12
  • RID ORAL TRANSLITERATION CERTIFICATE (OTC)• NAD–RID Code of Professional Conduct; Written & performance test.• “OTC (Oral Transliteration Certificate): Holders of this generalist certificate have demonstrated, using silent oral techniques and natural gestures, the ability to transliterate a spoken message from a person who hears to a person who is deaf or hard-of-hearing. They have also demonstrated the ability to understand and repeat the message and intent of the speech and mouth movements of the person who is deaf or hard-of-hearing. This test is currently available.” —RID.org © Daniel Greene 2012 13
  • ORAL INTERPRETING DEMO © Daniel Greene 2012 14
  • ORAL INTERPRETING DEMO © Daniel Greene 2012 15
  • OT DON’T’S Finger- Reflections Thrust spelling tongue on L and Th Sign or Chew “teach” gum Whisper Move Distracting head too background Hair Smile muchcovering while face mouthing Contrast colors © Daniel Greene 2012 16
  • Lipread OT DO’S Write in air SpaceLipstick Mouth & role slower shifting Natural Natural Distinguish phrasing gestures B&M © Daniel Greene 2012 17
  • MOUTHING MATTERS“Say every word. Give full due to the ‘little’ words… Thesewords are essential to grammatical structure of English, onwhich a speechreader depends heavily.” —Kirsten Gonzalez“The Oral Interpreter must be totally focused on ‘how doesthat word look on my mouth?’ Can the sound be seen on mylips? Is there another word or phrase that can be seen moreeasily and still mean the same?” —Judith Codner, OTC © Daniel Greene 2012 18
  • THINGS TO WATCH FOR• Observedifferences/similarities between sign transliteration mouthing and oral transliteration mouthing.• Observe the use of facial expression/grammar, body language/ grammar, spacial schema, gesture, and air writing.• Observe how oral Deaf people mouth, speak, gesture, and read lips. What might an oral transliterator do that is similar or different? © Daniel Greene 2012 19
  • ADVANTAGES OF USING AN ORAL TRANSLITERATOR © Daniel Greene 2012 20
  • ASL INTERPRETERS VS.ORAL TRANSLITERATORS ASL Interpreters Oral Transliterators • Mouth ASL (pah, mm). • Mouth English only. • Sign while mouthing. • Do not distract with sign. • Might not know how to • Know how to mouth mouth without signing. without signing. • Might want to teach oral • Don’t try to teach oral people sign language. people sign language. • Might think oral deaf are • Respect oral deaf clients’ opposed to Deaf culture. choice not to use ASL.© Daniel Greene 2012 21
  • SPEAKERS VS.ORAL TRANSLITERATORS Speakers Oral Transliterators • Might not mouth words • Use their expertise to carefully enough. mouth words clearly. • Might turn their backs • Face clients directly at all while they are speaking. times. • Might have hard-to-read • Mouth clearly even if the accents, speech patterns. speaker doesn’t • Might have pale lips or • Wear a bit of lip color and/ heavy facial hair obscuring or trim their facial hair. their mouth.© Daniel Greene 2012 22
  • CART VS.ORAL TRANSLITERATORS CART Oral Transliterators • Letters on a flat screen • Expressive human beings • Limited to no interaction • Accessible for clarification with captionist & feedback • Limited portability • Go anywhere people fit • Captionist not trained in • Used to deaf speech and understanding deaf can repeat it clearly people’s speech© Daniel Greene 2012 23
  • BEWARE THE -ISMS & -ISTS © Daniel Greene 2012 24
  • 26% 28% 4 out of 10 40% 15–25% 30% 30– 23% 40%Less than half 20% 25–30% 1/3–1/4 (sic) THE PERCENTAGE MYTH © Daniel Greene 2012 25
  • CONTACT ME www.terptrans.comdanieljamesgreene@gmail.com © Daniel Greene 2012 26