Direct Method
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Direct Method

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    Direct Method Direct Method Presentation Transcript

    • Brought to you by Sbastian & Daniel
    • Linguists, such as Henry Sweet (1845-1912)in England, Wilhelm Viëtor (1850-1918) İn Germany, and Paul Édouard Passy (18591940)in France too became interested in the controversies that emerged about the best way to teach foreign languages, and ideas were fiercely discussed and defended in books( The Practical Study of Languages by H. Sweet), articles and pamphlets(Language Teaching Must Start Afresh by W. Viëtor). Reformers in the late 19th century shared many beliefs about the principles on which a new approach to teaching foreign languages should be based.
    • The late nineteenth-century reformers shared the following beliefs:       Knowing a language is being able to speak it. Great stress on correct pronunciation and target language from outset. Second language learning must be an imitation of first language learning, as this is the natural way humans learn any language. The written word / writing should be delayed until after the printed word has been introduced. The learning of grammar ductively/ translating skills should be avoided. All above items must be avoided because they hinder the acquisition of a good oral proficiency.
    • The AntiGrammatical Method The Berlitz Method The Reform Method The Natural Method
    • The Direct Method was developed by Maximilian Berlitz towards the end of the 19th century as a reaction to the Grammar Translation Method.
    • The Direct Method is named “direct” because meaning should be connected directly with the target language without translation into the native language. meaning target language
    • Basically, the Direct Method aims to provide language learners with a practically useful knowledge of language. Knowing a language is being able to speak it. Rather than translating the teaching material, the teacher is expected to directly use the target language in class because a language can best be taught by using it actively in the classroom. The teacher should not explain but associate the meaning through action and demonstration.
    • Direct Method 1. avoids close association between the second language and the mother tongue. 2. lays emphasis on speech. 3. follows the child‟s natural way of learning a language. 4. teaches the language by „use‟ 5. does not favour the teaching of formal grammar at the early stage.
    • Grammar Translation Method 1. maintains close association between the second language and the mother tongue. 2. lays emphasis on translation. 3. follows the adult‟s natural way of learning a language. 4. teaches the language by „rule‟. 5. teaches formal grammar from the very beginning.
    •  Q & A: The teacher asks questions of any nature and the students answer.  Dictation: The teacher chooses a grade appropriate passage and reads the text aloud. Teacher reads the passage three times.  Reading Aloud: Students take turn reading sections of a passage, play or dialog out loud.  Getting Students to Self-Correct: The teacher should have the students self-correct by offering them a choice between what they said and the correct answer.
    •  Conversation Practise: The teacher asks students a number of questions in the target language which the students are able to answer correctly. Later, the students ask each other their own questions using the same grammatical structures.  Map Drawing: Students are given a map without labeled then the students label it by using the directions the teacher gives.  Paragraph Writing : The students are asked to write a passage in their own words. They can do this from memory or use a reading passage in the lesson as a model.
    • There are many advantages of direct method. Firstly, it makes the learning of English interesting and lively by establishing direct bond between a word and its meaning. Secondly, it is an activity method facilitating alertness and participation of the pupils. According to Macnee, "It is the quickest way of getting started". In a few months over 500 of the commonest English words can be learnt and used in sentences. This serves as a strong foundation of further learning. Furthermore, students are able to understand what they learn, think about it and then express their own ideas in correct English about what they have read and learnt. This method also can be usefully employed from the lowest to the highest class. In addition, through this method, fluency of speech, good pronunciation and power of expression are properly developed.
    •   There are many disadvantages of direct method. Firstly, there are many abstract words which cannot be interpreted directly in English and much time and energy are wasted in making attempts for the purpose. This method is based on the principles that auditory appeal is stronger that visual. But there are children who learn more with visual than with their oral- aural sense like ears and tongue. In addition, the method ignores systematic written work and reading activities and sufficient attention is not paid to reading and writing. Since in this method, grammar is closely bound up with the reader, difficulty is experienced in providing readers of such kind. This method also may not hold well in higher classes where the Translation Method is found suitable.