XXX Sunbelt Conference Riva del Garda June 29- July 4, 2010 Visualizing networks and territory: interactive systems and web2.0 technologies Cinzia Conti, Angela Ferruzza, Daniele Frongia, Paola Patteri
Principal problems and solutions A specific subject: migrations Data: rich datasets, detailed territorial disaggregations The goal: to make easier the access to (over)information Solution (a first step): networks visualizations resources (Netdraw) Costumized solutions: web 2.0
Network migrationMigration dynamics seem to be deeply determined by thepresence and the functioning of a variety of networks atdifferent levels of aggregation. Migration networks can bedefined as “groups of social ties formed on the basis of kinship,friendship and common origin. They link migrants and non-migrants together in a system of reciprocal obligations andmutual expectations. They develop rapidly because the act ofmigration itself generates network connections; every newmigrant creates a group of friends and relatives with a social tieto someone with valuable migrant experience. Networks bringabout the cumulative causation of migration because every newmigrant reduces the costs of migration for a group of non-migrants, thereby inducing some of them to migrate, creatingnew network ties to the destination area for another group ofpeople, some of whom are also induced to migrate, creatingmore network ties, and so on” [Massey, 1990].
Advantages of network analysis To overcome the observation of biunivocal links established by migratory ties (flows) To reach a synthetic description of migratory dynamics in order to understand also the stock situation (territorial distribution of foreign population) To observe jointly international and national migratory flows To try to individuate the existence of migratory networks in a strict sense To individuate, if they exist, networks constituted by different territories with specific characteristics linked by migration flows To individuate relations among migratory networks and other networks (productive net f.i.)
Nodes and tiesThe relations (ties) are established by migration flowsThe nodes are represented by territorial units (provinces, municipalities, local labour market areas, States….).In the examples we focus on local labour market areasInternal and international migrations
The Local Labour Market Areas A particular territorial reference grid makes it possible to analyze the economic and social geography in greater detail than that allowed by traditional administrative subdivisions (regions and provinces). This grid is represented by the Local labour market areas (LLMAs) are 686 aggregations of contiguous municipalities (not necessarily belonging to the same region or province), created according to an analysis of the daily journeys of commuters (surveyed by Censuses). A local labour market area is a functional region that is defined as a “self-containing” commuter flow area and indicates a set of municipalities linked by a high level of interdependence.
ISTAT and network analysis: a brief history (chapter 1) Focus on internal migrations Specific graphs for foreign citizens Problems: distance between nodes, geography, characterization of the nodes (demographic dimensions), stock and flows http://www.istat.it/dati/catalogo/20080528_00/ http://www.istat.it/dati/catalogo/20080528_00/volum
Network of long-distance changes of residence between Italian Locallabour market areas - average 2002-2005 (weighetd values)
Networks of foreign citizens changes of residence from abroad and betweenItalian Local labour market areas – Average- 2002-2005 (weighted values)
ISTAT and network analysis: a brief history (chapter 2) Focus on foreign citizens Network of internal and international migrations Problems: internal + international Again: Geography, characterization of the nodes http://www.istat.it/dati/catalogo/20090526_00/volu me.html/ http://www.istat.it/dati/catalogo/20090526_00/volu me/capitolo5.pdf
Networks of foreign population changes of residence from abroad towardsItalian Local labour market areas by main citizenships, Pakistan, Bangladesh,India, China – Average 2005-2006 (per 10 000 residents)
Networks of Moroccan citizens changes of residence between ItalianLocal labour market areas – Average 2005-2006 (absolute values)
Networks of Chinese citizens changes of residence between ItalianLocal labour market areas – Average 2005-2006 (absolute values)
Networks of Moroccan citizens changes of residence between Italian Local labour market areas – Average 2005-2006 (absolute values)Source: Istat data
Networks of Chinese citizens changes of residence between Italian Local labour market areas – Average 2005-2006 (absolute values)Source: Istat data
Networks of Chinese citizens changes of residence from abroad and between Italian Local labour market areas – 2007 (absolute values)
Dynamic representations: advantagesGeneralMatching network analysis and geographyRepresenting both flows and stocks dataConsidering migration flows (ties)Taking in account the distance between origin and destinationComparing different citizenshipsConsidering both internal and international migrationsConsidering the direction of flowsConsidering nodesCharacterizing nodes with network analysis measuresCharacterizing nodes with rich context information
Stargame A system developed in Istat to support the statistical process of data production Interactivity, flexibility It is based on SVG technologies
Web2.0 dynamic representationNew sites have been launched to allow all web users to uploadand integrate data, share and visualize them, and talk about theiruse with other people. Among them IBM Manyeyes and Swivel,online services already used by some international governmentalorganizations.The development of web specialized environments, able tointegrate statistical information at various levels of structure
WEB 2.0 OPPORTUNITIES: MASHUP Unfortunately there are not web application which enable users to create and visualize graphs (that is what we need to represent flows) based on online interactive maps. Thats why we need to "create" such a service, thats why we have to spend a slide on Mash-up. In Web development, a mashup is a Web page or application that uses and combines data, presentation or functionality from two or more sources to create new services. The term implies easy, fast integration, frequently using open APIs and data sources to produce enriched results that were not necessarily the original reason for producing the raw source data (Wikipedia)
Goglearth UNHCR Internally Displaced Persons, Somalia This geographical representation enables you to explore the refugee crisis affecting Somalias capital city, Mogadishu. Using lines to show the paths people have taken and polygons to represent numbers, this file offers a much richer and more detailed understanding of one of Africas most pressing current problems.
Google maps Google Maps “…Google Maps is a free web mapping service application and technology provided by Google…” Google Maps is, in fact, an innovative web-based service for territorial location and mapping that a wide number of users are already familiar with and use. Available online at the following address maps.google.it, not only does it enable a specific location to be identified and visualised through maps and satellite images, but combined with Geo CMS technology, it enables companies and government agencies to design new solutions to offer final users the opportunity to access new applications
GeoCMS GeoCMS is a Web Content Management System to mush- up Enterprise geocoded information over Google Maps and other geographic devices. From Wikipedia: Web Content Management System: “ …is a software system used for content management with additional features to ease the tasks required to publish web content…” GeoCMS is the solution developed by Scube NewMedia, based on the cartographic service provided by Google Maps/Earth, to locate and map territories, able to associate proprietary data and information to geographic maps and satellite images.
Three key words for next steps Interactivity Customizing Net for the net