Eu kids online II key findings 11 april 2011

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  • 1. Risks and safety on the internet: The perspective of European children Full findings from EU Kids Online , January 2011
  • 2.
    • To enhance knowledge of the experiences and practices of European children and parents regarding risky and safer use of the internet and new online technologies, in order to inform the promotion of a safer online environment for children.
    Aim
  • 3. Classifying risks (exemplars) Note: risks in bold are included in the survey Content Child as receiver (of mass productions) Contact Child as participant (adult-initiated activity) Conduct Child as actor (perpetrator / victim) Aggressive Violent / gory content Harassment, stalking Bullying, hostile peer activity Sexual Pornographic content ‘ Grooming’, sexual abuse or exploitation Sexually harassment, ‘sexting’ Values Racist / hateful content Ideological persuasion Potentially harmful user-generated content Commercial Embedded marketing Personal data misuse Gambling, copyright infringement
  • 4. Usage Activities Risk factors Harm or coping INDIVIDUAL USER SOCIAL MEDIATION NATIONAL CONTEXT Parents School Peers Child as unit of analysis Country as unit of analysis Demographic Psychological Cultural values Socio-economic stratification Regulatory framework Education system Technological infrastructure
  • 5. Surveying ‘Europe’
    • Random stratified sample: ~ 1000 9-16 year old internet users per country
    • Fieldwork in spring/summer 2010
    • Total: 25142 internet-users, 25 countries
    • Interviews at home, face to face
    • Self-completion for sensitive questions
    • Indicators of vulnerability and coping
    • Data from child paired with a parent
    • Directly comparable across countries
    • Validation via cognitive/pilot testing
    • National stakeholders consulted
    • International advisory panel
  • 6. How do children use the internet? Usage Where How Amount Skills Etc. What do children do online? Activities Learn Create Play Meet people Hang out Try new things Bully others Etc. What online factors shape their experience? Opportunities / Risks Positive content User-generated content Sexual content/ messages Stranger contact Bullying Personal data misuse Etc. What are the outcomes for children? Benefits / Harms Learning Self-esteem Sociality Values In/excluded Coping/resilience Bothered/upset Abuse Etc. Project scope Project focus
  • 7. How do children use the internet?
  • 8. Use at home is high
    • 87% use at home
    • 49% have in bedroom
    • Privatised use is growing
    • SES and age matter more than gender
    • National variation
  • 9. Mobile access growing
    • 12% via handheld devices
    • 33% via mobile and/or handheld device
    • Flexible access is growing
    • Age and SES matter
    • National variation
  • 10. Internet embedded in daily life, users are getting younger
    • 60% use every day or almost daily, 93% use at least weekly
    • 88 minutes spent online in an average day (see graph)
    • SES matters especially for daily use:
    • 67% high SES vs. 52% low SES
    • Age matters also for daily use:
    • 33% 9-10 yrs vs. 80% 15-16 yrs
    • Children first go online at 9 yrs old:
    • at 7 for 9-10 yrs, at 11 for 15-16 yrs
    Minutes per day online
  • 11. Digital skills growing unevenly
  • 12. “ I know more about the internet than my parents”
  • 13. Some use the internet to excess
    • % who have fairly or very often:
    • Tried unsuccessfully to spend less time on the internet - 13%
    • Spent less time with friends, family or doing schoolwork because of the internet – 13%
    • Caught myself surfing when not really interested – 16%
    • Felt bothered when I cannot be on the internet – 11%
    • Gone without eating or sleeping because of the internet – 5%
    • Graph shows that 30% said yes to one or more of the above across Europe
  • 14. What do children do online?
  • 15. Multiple opportunities
  • 16. Positive content
    • “ There are lots of things on the internet that are good for children of my age”
    • 44% say “very true”, 46% say “a bit true”, 10% say “not true”
    • Only 34% of 9-10 year olds say “very true”
  • 17. Social networking
  • 18. Online communication
  • 19. What online factors shape children’s experiences?
  • 20. Sexual images off/online
    • “ In the past year, you will have seen lots of different images – pictures, photos, videos. Sometimes, these might be obviously sexual – for example, showing people naked or having sex. Have you seen anything of this kind?”
    • 23% have seen sexual images online or offline
    • Who? More older than younger children
    • Teenage boys 13-16 most likely to see sexual images online – 24%
    • Where did they see this? 14% online, 12% on television/film/video, 7% in magazines
    • Most often seen via accidental pop-ups
    • What did they see (11+)? 11% - nudity, 8% - someone having sex, 8% - genitals, 2% - violent sex
  • 21. Bullying off/online
    • “ Sometimes children or teenagers say or do hurtful or nasty things to someone and this can often be quite a few times on different days over a period of time. It can include teasing someone in a way the person does not like; hitting, kicking or pushing someone around; leaving someone out of things.
    • Has someone acted in this kind of hurtful or nasty way to you in the past 12 months?/ Have you been treated in a hurtful or nasty way on the internet?”
    • 19% have had someone act in this way, online or offline
    • Who? Few differences by age, gender or social class
    • Teenage girls 13-16 most experience this online – 9%
    • How? 13% had this happen in person face to face, 6% had this happen online, 3% by mobile phone calls/texts
    • Most often happens online via SNS or IM
    • What (11+)? 4% - nasty/hurtful messages, 2% - messages passed around about them, 1% threatened online
    • 12% have bullied others at all, 3% online
  • 22. Sending/receiving sexual messages online (11+yrs)
    • “ People do all kinds of things on the internet. Sometimes they may send sexual messages or images. By this, we mean talk about having sex or images of people naked or having sex.
    • Have you seen/sent/received/posted a sexual message (words, pictures or video) of any kind on the internet?”
    • 15% have seen/received sexual messages online
    • 3% have sent/posted sexual messages online
    • Who? More older (22% 15-16 yrs) than younger teens
    • How? Occurs more by ‘pop up’, IM or SNS
    • What? 5% saw other people perform sexual acts, 2% were asked to talk about sexual acts online, 2% were asked for photo/video of genitals
  • 23. Meeting new people
    • “ Have you ever had contact on the internet with someone you have not met face to face before?
    • Have you ever gone on to meet anyone face to face that you first met on the internet in this way?”
    • 30% have contact(s) they met online
    • 13% of 9-10 year olds up to 46% of 15-16 year olds
    • 9% have met an online contact offline
    • 2% of 9-10 year olds up to 16% of 15-16 year olds
    • More online contacts - more offline meetings
    • 55% who went to a meeting met one or two people this way; 23% met 5+
    • 57% of those who went to a meeting met friend of a friend/family; 48% met a new person
    • Contact first made usually via SNS or IM
  • 24. Parental awareness
    • Among those children who have encountered the particular risk online …
    • Seeing sexual images online:
    • 40% of parents are not aware of this, 26% say they don’t know
    • Parents are least aware when daughters (46%) and
    • younger children (54% 9-10 and 11-12 year olds) have seen sexual images online
    • Being bullied online:
    • 56% of parents are not aware of this, 15% say they don’t know
    • Parents are less aware when this involves their 9-10 year olds (65%)
    • Receiving sexual message online:
    • 52% of parents are not aware of this; 27% say they don’t know
    • Parents of younger children, and in higher SES homes, are least aware
    • Meeting an online contact offline:
    • 61% of parents are not aware of this, 11% say they don’t know
    • Parents of younger children, of boys, and in higher SES homes, are less aware
  • 25. What are the outcomes for children?
  • 26. From risk to harm? Sexual images
    • 14% have seen sexual images online
    • Only 4% (32% of those who saw sexual images online) were bothered by this
    • Girls and younger children less likely to see such images but more likely to be bothered/upset
    • Among those who were bothered,
    • 41% a bit upset, 28% fairly upset, 16% very upset
    • Still, most got over it straight away
  • 27. From risk to harm? Online bullying
    • Among the 6% who have been bullied online, on the last time this happened:
    • 30% were a bit upset, 24% fairly upset, 31% very upset
    • Who was more upset?
    • Younger, girls, low SES homes
    • How long did this last?
    • Most (62%) got over it straight away, 31% still upset a few days later and 6% still upset a few weeks later
  • 28. From risk to harm? Sexual messages
    • 15% have seen/received sexual
    • messages images online.
    • But only 4% (25% of those who saw sexual messages) were bothered by this
    • Girls are more likely than boys to be bothered/upset
    • Teens more likely to receive such messages but younger children more upset
    • Among those who were bothered,
    • 47% were a bit upset the last time this
    • happened, 30% were fairly upset,
    • 15% were very upset.
    • Still, half got over it straight away
  • 29. From risk to harm? Meeting contacts offline
    • 9% have met an online contact offline,
    • but only 1% were bothered by this
    • Or, 11% of those who met an online
    • contact offline were bothered or upset
    • Of those who were bothered in some
    • way, half were ‘very’ or ‘fairly’ upset
    • 9-10 year olds were more likely to be
    • bothered/upset (31% of those
    • who went to such a meeting)
    • Among those bothered by such a meeting,
    • - 30% met someone older (8% met an adult)
    • - 22% had had hurtful things said to them
    • - few said they were hurt physically/sexually
  • 30. Other risks
    • 21% exposed to potentially harmful user-generated content
    • 9% experienced personal data misuse
  • 31. Overall subjective harm
    • “ By bothered, we mean, made you feel uncomfortable, upset, or feel that you shouldn’t have seen it”
    • 55% think there are things online that bother people their age
    • 12% have been bothered themselves
    • 8% parents say their child has been bothered
    • 9-10 year olds less likely to be bothered
    • More children have been bothered in DK, EE, NO, SE, RO
    • Fewest say this in IT, PT, DE, FR, CY
  • 32. Coping strategies Just those who encountered the risk and were bothered by it Who did they tell? What did they do? Online help? Sexual images 53% told someone 33% friend 25% parent 9% sibling 3% teacher 26% hoped it would go away 22% tried to fix it 9% felt guilty 26% deleted messages 25% stopped using the internet Bullying 77% told someone 50% friend 40% parent 13% sibling 7% teacher 24% hoped it would go away 36% tried to fix it 12% felt guilty 46% blocked person 41% deleted messages Sexual messages 60% told someone 37% friend 29% parent 8% sibling 2% teacher 22% hoped it would go away 27% tried to fix it 6% felt guilty 40% blocked person 38% deleted messages Meeting contacts offline 70% told s/one first 52% went with s/one 62% told s/one after 30% hoped it would go away 18% tried to fix it 12% felt guilty 37% deleted messages 34% blocked person
  • 33. More opportunities, more risks
  • 34. What mediates children’s online experiences?
  • 35. Parental mediation of use and safety
  • 36. Parental restrictions
  • 37. Who suggests ways to use the internet safely?
  • 38. Sources of advice (children, parents)
  • 39.
    • Parents
    Policy implications Industry Civil society Schools Government Children
  • 40. Specific recommendations
    • Parents - awareness-raising to alert them to the risks their children may encounter online whilst encouraging parent/child dialogue and understanding.
    • Parents’ preferred sources of information on internet safety are the child’s school, so greater efforts should be undertaken by the education sector.
    • Schools - digital skills training needs continued emphasis and updating to ensure all children reach a minimum standard and to promote creative uses.
    • Government (and others) – target resources and guidance where particularly needed: on ever younger children/newer users and those who are vulnerable.
    • Industry - efforts are needed to support awareness, usability and take up of internet safety tools to support blocking, reporting and filtering.
    • Industry - under half 9-16 year olds are very satisfied with online provision, fewer among young children, more age-appropriate positive content is needed.
    • Children, civil society - encourage children to be responsible for their online behaviour/ safety if possible, promoting empowerment and digital citizenship.
  • 41. Thank you More at www.eukidsonline.net