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Guerra Electronica

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  • Brief definition of terms : EW : Any military action involving the use of electromagnetic and directed energy to control the electromagnetic spectrum or to attack the enemy. COMINT : Reconnaissance of communication links using electromagnetic waves. Evaluation of the intercepted communications shall result in knowledge about organisation, formation, movement and therefore about the intention of the enemy. Delivery of data for the EOB. ELINT : Reconnaissance of emissions of radar and fire control equipment. Delivery of data for the EOB. ES : Reconnaissance focussing on possible threats, thus being used for early warning of own forces. Delivery of data for introduction of electronic counter measures and electronic protection measures. Use of similar equipment as for COMINT / ELINT, but with different objective. EA : jamming of hostile communication and control systems as well as COMINT / ELINT sensors in order to disrupt enemies forces command and the effectiveness of its weapon systems. EP : Impede hostile reconnaissance as well as hostile counter measures.
  • EW: Electronic warfare The term EW refers to any action involving the use of the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS) or directed energy (DE) to control the EMS or to attack the enemy. EW includes three major subdivisions: electronic attack (EA), Electronic Protect (EP), and electronic warfare support (ES). The purpose of EW is to deny the opponent an advantage in the EMS and ensure friendly unimpeded access to the EM spectrum portion of the information environment. EW can be applied from air, sea, land, and space by manned and unmanned systems ES: Electronic Warfare Support Electronic Warfare Support (ES), is the subdivision of EW involving actions tasked by, or under direct control of, an operational commander to search for, intercept, identify, and locate or localize sources of intentional and unintentional radiated Electromagnetic (EM) energy for the purpose of immediate threat recognition, targeting , planning, and conduct of future operations . An overlapping discipline, Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) is the related process of analyzing and identifying the intercepted frequencies (e.g. as a cell phone or RADAR). SIGINT is a combination of ELINT, COMINT, and MASINT. Where these activities are under the control of an operational commander and being applied for the purpose of situational awareness, threat recognition, or EM targeting, they also serve the purpose of Electronic Warfare Support (ES). Government, law enforcement, and military operational techniques are governed by US Codes for use with intelligence gathering procedures. EA: Electronic Attack Electronic attack (EA) involves the use of the electromagnetic energy, or anti-radiation weapons to attack personnel, facilitites, or equipment with the intent of degrading, neutralizing, or destroying enemy combat capability . Examples of EA include communcations jamming, IADS suppression, DE/LASER attack, expendable decoys (e.g., flares and chaff), and counter radio controlled improvised explosive device (C-RCIED) systems. An older term for EA is electronic countermeasures (ECM): It may be used both offensively or defensively in any method to deny targeting information to the enemy , trick or deceive detection systems like RADAR, SONAR, IR EP: Electronic Protection Electronic Protection (EP) involves actions taken to protect personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy use of the electromagnetic spectrum that degrade, neutralize, or destroy friendly combat capability. EP should not be confused with self-protection (jamming). The use of flare rejection logic on an IR missile to counter an adversary’s use of flares is EP. While defensive EA actions and EP both protect personnel, facilities, capabilities, and equipment, EP protects from the EFFECTS of EA (friendly and/or adversary). Other examples of EP include spread-spectrum technologies , use of Joint Restricted Frquency List (JRFL), emissions control (EMCON), and low observability or "stealth". Older terms for EP include electronic protective measures (EPM) and electronic counter countermeasures (ECCM).
  • Definition of terms : C4ISTAR: C4I (Command, Control, Computers, Communications, Information) and ISTAR (Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition, Reconnaissance.
  • C4ISTAR and its related terms can be used to refer to infrastructure, a role of military units or individuals, or procedures employed EW is using procedures and infrastructure of C4ISTAR The “concept” of Network Centric Warfare/Operations is realized by the “tool” C4ISTAR. EW definition: Any military action involving the use of electromagnetic and directed energy to control the electromagnetic spectrum or to attack the enemy.
  • FEBA: F orward E dge of B attle A rea VUHF EA: VUHF E lectronic A ttack RES: R adar E lectronic S upport CES: C ommunication E lectronic S upport CCP: C ommand & C ontrol P ost HF EA: HF E lectronic A ttack
  • A general definition of „Intelligence“ and the „Intelligence Cycle“ is as follows: Intelligence is knowledge about the world around us that will help our civilian and military leaders make more informed decisions and prepare for and counter potential and emerging threats to U.S. interests. The process of tasking, collecting, processing, analyzing, and disseminating intelligence is called the intelligence cycle. The intelligence cycle drives the day-to-day activities of the Intelligence Community. The Int. Cycle starts with the needs of those often referred to as intelligence "consumers„, i.e. policymakers, military officials, and other decisionmakers. They need intelligence information in conducting their duties and responsibilities. These intelligence requirements are sorted and prioritized within the Intelligence Community, and are used to drive the collection activities of the members of the Intelligence Community that collect intelligence. Once information has been collected it is processed, initially evaluated, and reported to both consumers and so-called "all-source" intelligence analysts. In the US these are e.g. agencies like the CIA, DIA, and the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research. All-source analysts are responsible for performing a more thorough evaluation and assessment of the collected information by integrating the data obtained from a variety of collection agencies and sources--both classified and unclassified. This assessment leads to a finished intelligence report being disseminated to the consumer. The "feedback" part of the cycle assesses the degree to which the finished intelligence addresses the needs of the intelligence consumer and will determine if further collection and analysis is required. The cycle is thus repeated until the intelligence requirements have been satisfied.
  • Communications Intelligence contributes to the creation of „finished intelligence“, and thus can be seen as one „tile“ in the entire puzzle. However, the Intelligence C ycle can be mapped to COMINT as shown above. Depending on the number of operators / size of a COMINT system, the a.m. functions are inherited by one or more operators or operator teams respectively. In large COMINT systems, these steps often define teams or subsystems. Mission Planning: Planning of deployment of semi-mobile (deplyoable) or mobile systems / stations. Creation of orders / tasks and distribution to the relevant workposts / operators within the COMINT system. Interception: The process of receiving / DFing / positionfix / monitoring of radio communication signals. Production: The process of demodulation / decoding of content of intercepted radio communication signals and storage of the according audio / text files. Analysis: Analysis is often devided in different sections. Technical Analysis: Determination of technical parameters for unknown signals. Traffic Analysis: Analysis of traffic relationships among opponent stations with information about amount and type of traffic as well as operating types and procedures. Content Analysis: Evaluation of the content of voice and decoded data transmissions, which includes the translation of foreign languages. Tactical Analysis: Dissemination / Reporting: P assing of reports to the intelligence „consumer“. The quality and relevance of the disseminated reports lead in turn to the re-specification of intelligence collection priorities, thereby completing the intelligence cycle.
  • The different steps of the Intelligence Cycle are served by different modules of the RAMON software family. RAMON software modules enable: Direct control of all sensor equipment which is connected to the control PCs (via LAN) Storage and evaluation of the data obtained during the interception / production process Controlling and monitoring of the information flow in a networked system with several workstations or system locations.
  • ReportEdit is the name of the Order / Report Editor, which belongs to the RAMON software family. This editor is used throughout a COMINT or CES system by all operators, and is used for the intra-communication in terms of tasking and reporting. Templates are delivered with ReportEdit which are used as a basis for creation of the different documents. The screenshot above shows a Task document, which is derived from an order and a mission. A supervisor creates the document by filling out the different fields, and afterwards forwards the document to one of the operators in his team.
  • There are different possibilities of searching for signals. This slide shows the signal search with a ScanLoc system, consisting of two V/UHF direction finders of type DDF05A. With a two TFT display workpost, the Search operator may display the two scan spectrums of the direction finders as well as the map display with the automatically calculated positionfix results. The frequency marked wioth the yellow marker in the scan display of the direction finders is highlighted on the map display with the respective DF beams.
  • The Search operator in this example has tasked another operator to check the content of a new radio communication signal. This second operator received this „Transfer Task“, and uses an AMMOS classification receiver in order to recognize the transmission system. In parallel, the location system provides him with the positionfix result of this specific radio signal.
  • An analysis operator uses the Analysis Center software plus MapView to analyse intercepted radio communication signals. He is tasked by operators which have performed the interception, and have sent reports to initiate the analysis (evaluation) operators. Analysis Center supports the operator in recognition of the radio communication networks, and therefore enable traffic analysis. The screenshot shows two V/UHF radio communication networks: one, which is still unknown (yellow icons on the map), the second which is already identified (pink coloured icons). Such a map display could now e.g. form a report to a military commander, if this analysis is performed in a CES system. It would then be called „Communications Order of Battle“ (COB), and provides a snapshot of the current situation (with regard to radio communications).
  • The EDM = Emitter Data Manager is used to create the basic reference data out of the analysis results. Basic reference data contain: signal profiles, i.e. the description of a radio communication signal by its technical parameters information about tactical units, i.e. the users of the radio communication equipment whose signals were intercepted information about the communication networks and thus with that the organizational structure of enemy forces. The screenshot above shows the organizational structure of a military task force.
  • Airborne systems are mostly a combination of ELINT and COMINT. They may be used for tactical as well as strategic purposes.

Transcript

  • 1. Sistema de Guerra Electrónica Octubre 2009 Milton César Bolaños S. Radiocomunicaciones Radiomonitoreo
  • 2. Terminos & Abreviaciones Sistemas de Radiomonitoreo Sistemas Complementarios de Radio
  • 3. Subdivisiones de Guerra Electrónica (Electronic Warfare – EW) ES EA EP (ESM) (ECM) ECCM, EPM SIGINT COMINT, ELINT, IMASINT
  • 4. C4ISTAR Comando, Control, Computadores, Comunicaciones, Información. C4I ISTAR Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition, Reconnaissance.
  • 5. C4ISTAR se refiere a...
    • Infraestructura
    • Roles de Unidades Militares o Individuos
    • Procedimientos Empleados
    Cualquier acción militar que envuelve el Espectro Electromagnético y Energía dirigida a controlarlo y/o denegarlo para el Enemigo. La Guerra Electrónica utiliza C4ISTAR en cuanto a infraestructura y procedimientos y se refiere a…
  • 6. Ejemplo de Sistema EW: Pelotón Oficial de Enlace del Cuartel General FEBA Support Maintenance VUHF EA VUHF EA RES RES RES CCP CCP CES CES CES HF EA VUHF EA
  • 7. El Ciclo de Inteligencia Dirección de Planeación Recolección Procesamiento Análisis Diseminación
  • 8. Ciclo Operacional en Sistemas COMINT Planeamiento de Misiones Tareas Interceptación Producción Análisis Técnico Tráfico / Contenido Diseminación Reportes
  • 9. Ejemplo de Ciclo Operacional COMINT
    • Planeamiento de Misiones
    • S.I.G. (Cartografía)
    • Ordenes / Reportes
    • Equipos Sensores (Rx/DF)
    • Creación de Trabajos
    • Localización
    • Cartografía
    • Generador de Actividades
    • Ordenes / Reportes
    • Equipos Sensores (Rx/DF)
    • Creación de Trabajos
    • Localización
    • Cartografía
    • Archivos de Audio
    • Ordenes / Reportes
    • Centro de Análisis
    • Archivos de Audio
    • S.I.G.
    • Ordenes / Reportes
    • Centros de Análisis
    • Herramientas de Redes de Tx
    • S.I.G.
    • Ordenes / Reportes
    Mission Planning Tasking Interception Production Technical / Traffic / Content Tactical Analysis Dissemination Reporting
  • 10. Ciclo Operacional Planeamiento de Misiones Cálculo de posiciones de RF como base para la selección de los sistemas CES. Mission Planning Tasking Interception Production Technical / Traffic / Content Tactical Analysis Dissemination Reporting
  • 11. Ciclo Operacional Tareas para los operadores Mission Planning Tasking Interception Production Technical / Traffic / Content Tactical Analysis Dissemination Reporting
  • 12. Ciclo Operacional Interceptación: Búsqueda Mission Planning Tasking Interception Production Technical / Traffic / Content Tactical Analysis Dissemination Reporting
  • 13. Ciclo Operacional Producción: Decodificación Mission Planning Tasking Interception Production Technical / Traffic / Content Tactical Analysis Dissemination Reporting
  • 14. Ciclo Operacional Analisis de Información Mission Planning Tasking Interception Production Technical / Traffic / Content Tactical Analysis Dissemination Reporting
  • 15. Ciclo Operacional Creación de Datos Básicos Mission Planning Tasking Interception Production Technical / Traffic / Content Tactical Analysis Dissemination Reporting
  • 16. COMINT CES Estacionario Sistemas Móviles
    • Sistemas Estacionarios
      • Enfocado en Uso Estratégico
      • Ubicaciones Fijas
    • Sistemas Móviles
      • Enfocado en uso Táctico
      • Instalación Rápida (máx.. 10 min.)
      • Operación en movimiento
    • Sistemas Semi-móviles
      • Soporte de Uso Estratégico
      • Tipo Container.
      • Tiempo de Instalación: máx.. 60 min.
  • 17. Plataformas para Sistemas Móviles CES
    • Los sistemas CES son mayormente móviles.
    • Las plataformas generalmente pueden ser:
      • Terrestres (Vehículos)
      • Aéreas (Aviones, Helicópteros)
      • Marítima (Buques).
    • Los criterios a clarificar para cada caso:
      • Concepto Operacional
      • Requerimientos ambientales
      • Disponibilidad / Requerimientos de Sistemas de Comunicaciones.
      • Pruebas / Cualificación del Personal.
  • 18. Ejemplo de Sistema Móviles
    • Ejemplo: Uso de Racks especiales para mejor blindaje EMI, EMC, enfriamiento, reducción de ruido acústico y resistencia a los impactos/vibración
  • 19. Plataformas Terrestres
    • Plataformas Separadas HF y V/UHF
      • Diferente Cobertura HF/VUHF
      • Diferentes “Blancos
    • Altura de la Antena Limitada
    • Espacio Limitado
      •  Integración en Rack
      •  Fuente de Alimentación
    • Plataformas Móviles
      •  Vehículos Armados
  • 20. Sistemas Aéreos de Apoyo CES
    • Principales Requerimientos / Ventajas
      • Área de Cobertura Enorme
    Área de Cobertura Típica
  • 21. Sistemas Aéreos de Apoyo CES
    • Debido a la Altura se extiende considerablemente la “Línea de Vista” para emisiones de V/UHF resultando en cantidades de información enormes
      • Nota : No dibujado a Escala
  • 22. Sistemas Marítimos CES
    • Requerimientos Principales / Ventajas
      • Sensores Totalmente Pasivos
      • Cubrimiento más allá del horizonte del Radar
      • Alerta Temprana y Reconocimiento de Amenazas
    Consolas Multifunción
  • 23. FLOT Pelotón Escuadrón Convoy Batallón Plataforma Terrestre Consideraciones Generales La Plataforma correcta para la Tarea Correcta Escuadrón Plataforma Aérea Plataforma Naval
  • 24. Consideraciones Generales
    • Las siguientes consideraciones necesitan tenerse en cuenta:
      • Que Tipo de Señal y en que Rango de Frecuencia se requiere el Sistema EW.
        • Comunicaciones (CNR‘s, Redes Celulares, Comunicaciones Satelitales, etc.…)
        • Radar.
        • Enlaces de Datos (WLAN, WiMax, …)
      • En que tipo de Plataforma el Sistema debe ser Instalado / Operado
      • Cuál es el Área de Cubrimiento para el Sistema CESM / ECM (Potencia de Salida)
      • ...
  • 25. Gracias por su Atención!