Information growth Change pressure 1. Growth of information .
Information growth In 2006, the amount of digital information created, captured, and replicated was 161 exabytes or 161 billion gigabytes … This is about 3 million times the information in all the books ever written. The Diverse and Exploding Digital Universe
Information growth In 2008, the number of new digital information bits created throughout 2008 as 3,892,179,868,480,350,000,000 – said as three sextillion, 892 quintillion, 179 quadrillion, 868 trillion, 480 billion and 350 million. Converted into gigabytes it becomes 468.522 billion gb. EMC-sponsored report by IDC
Information growth Between 2006 and 2010, the information added annually to the digital universe will increase more than six fold from 161 exabytes to 988 exabytes. The Diverse and Exploding Digital Universe
Information growth Images, captured by more than 1 billion devices in the world, from digital cameras and camera phones to medical scanners and security cameras, comprise the largest component of the digital universe. The Diverse and Exploding Digital Universe
Information growth Chevron's CIO says his company accumulates data at the rate of 2 terabytes – 17,592,000,000,000 bits – a day. The Diverse and Exploding Digital Universe
More than 3,000 new books are published . . . Karl Fisch http://thefischbowl.blogspot.com/2006/08/did-you-know.html
daily . Karl Fisch http://thefischbowl.blogspot.com/2006/08/did-you-know.html
It’s estimated that a week’s worth of New York Times . . . Karl Fisch http://thefischbowl.blogspot.com/2006/08/did-you-know.html
Contains more information than a person was likely to come across in a lifetime in the 18 th century. Karl Fisch http://thefischbowl.blogspot.com/2006/08/did-you-know.html
The amount of new technical information is doubling every 2 years. Karl Fisch http://thefischbowl.blogspot.com/2006/08/did-you-know.html
For students starting a four year degree this means that … Karl Fisch http://thefischbowl.blogspot.com/2006/08/did-you-know.html
½ of what they learn in first year will be outdated by third year Karl Fisch http://thefischbowl.blogspot.com/2006/08/did-you-know.html
Technical information is predicted to double every 72 hours by 2010. Karl Fisch http://thefischbowl.blogspot.com/2006/08/did-you-know.html
The top 10 in demand jobs in 2010 did not exist in 2004 Karl Fisch http://thefischbowl.blogspot.com/2006/08/did-you-know.html
We are preparing students for jobs that don’t exist yet – using technologies that haven’t been invented Karl Fisch http://thefischbowl.blogspot.com/2006/08/did-you-know.html
Open Educational Resources (OER) are teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use or re-purposing by others.
Open educational resources include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge.
open access "The objective of the Harvard mandate is to provide Open Access (OA) to its own scholarly article output. This objective is accomplished by making those articles freely accessible on the web by depositing them in a Harvard OA Institutional Repository."
“ the emerging open education movement in higher education and beyond is beginning to change the way educators use, share, and improve educational resources and knowledge by making them open and freely available.”
A 2009 survey and interviews with 30,616 freshman, senior, and community college students at 115 American higher education institutions indicated: The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2009
98.4% own a computer 88.3% own a laptop The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2009
99.9% create, read and send email The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2009
90% use social networks The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2009
90% text The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2009
89% use course management systems The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2009
84% download music or video The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2009
Fewer than 45% said most or all instructors used IT effectively in their courses. The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2009
32% regularly use their cell phone for non-course activities in the classroom . The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2007
Today’s undergraduate student spends an average of 21 hours per week online The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2009
26% spend more than 20 hrs per week online Academica Group, 2007 UAS/CAS Web Trends Study
They are the first generation to grow up with the Internet – pervasive, always-on, mobile.
The Web has shifted from being a medium, in which information is transmitted and consumed, into being a platform, in which content is created, shared, remixed, repurposed, and passed along. Stephen Downes
the emergence of Web 2.0 is not a technological revolution, it is a social revolution Stephen Downes
They will not have 15 minutes, but 15MB of fame.
What is surprising perhaps is … the sophisticated ways in which they are finding and synthesizing information and integrating across multiple sources of data. JISC LXP Student experiences of technologies Draft final report Gráinne Conole, Maarten de Laat, Teresa Dillon and Jonathan Darby 1The Open University, 2Exeter University, 3Polar Produce http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/programmes/elearningpedagogy/lxpprojectfinalreportdec06.pdf
… there is strong evidence of peer support and peer community, resonant with the rhetoric inherent in the idea of social networking and the world of Web 2.0. JISC LXP Student experiences of technologies Draft final report Gráinne Conole, Maarten de Laat, Teresa Dillon and Jonathan Darby 1The Open University, 2Exeter University, 3Polar Produce http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/programmes/elearningpedagogy/lxpprojectfinalreportdec06.pdf
I’m not thinking the way I used to think. I can feel it most strongly when I’m reading.
Immersing myself in a book or a lengthy article used to be easy. My mind would get caught up in the narrative or the turns of the argument, and I’d spend hours strolling through long stretches of prose.
That’s rarely the case anymore. Now my concentration often starts to drift after two or three pages. I get fidgety, lose the thread, begin looking for something else to do.
The deep reading that used to come naturally has become a struggle.
“ Students are demonstrating new skills in terms of harnessing the potential of technologies for their learning. These include new forms of evaluation skills and strategies (searching, restructuring, validating), which enable them to critique and make critical decisions about a variety of sources and content.” JISC LXO: Student experiences of technologies
“ The use of these tools is changing the way we gather, use and create knowledge. There is a shift in the basic skills with a shift from lower to higher levels of Blooms taxonomy , necessary to make sense of their complex technologically enriched learning environment.” JISC LXO: Student experiences of technologies
Decrease in verbal-linguistic and logical mathematical intelligence. Increase in spatial intelligence. Mark Bauerlein, The Dumbest Generation
“ The simple fact is that kids aren't reading, aren't engaging in wider cultural experiences, aren't developing broad horizons of interest or knowledge. And so, they are not building the cognitive frameworks they require for a flourishing life” Mark Nichols
What formal education does How does formal education respond?
“ in school they are expected to submit to a pedagogic regime that is fundamentally premised on the transmission and testing of decontextualised knowledge and skills, and which is dominated by “old generation” technologies (Web 1.0) underpinned by a radically different philosophy and a different set of affordances.”
Learning from digital natives: bridging formal and informal learning
What formal education does What is the role of formal education in this environment?
What formal education does What value does it add?
cognitive growth conceptual maturity the development of reasoning exposure to alternatives The promise – the values of a formal education
Formal education puts boundaries on knowledge – courses circumscribe what has to be learned. The practice
Formal education defines outcomes – programs extract meaningful chunks (courses) and sequence them The practice
Provides structure and discipline– through place/space/time (both physical and virtual) The practice
Provides access to experts, mentors, guides (both human and technological) The practice
Provides access to learning resources - libraries, studios and labs. The practice
Provides a narrative of coherence. The practice
“ Formal and informal learning have been viewed as competing paradigms, however, students are increasingly adopting the tools and strategies for informal learning within formalised educational settings.” "a widening of the gap between the culture of the educational institutions and the culture of learners' lives outside school" (p.4) http://www.academy.gcal.ac.uk/ldn/LDNFinalReport.pd f
What formal education does is elearning a solution?
What formal education does can it close the gap?
What formal education does can it adopt the tools and strategies used by students for informal learning within formalised educational settings?
What formal education does A quick definition of elearning
“ Electronic learning (or e-Learning or eLearning) is a type of education where the medium of instruction is computer technology. No in-person interaction may take place in some instances.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-learning
elearning is pedagogy empowered by technology . Mark Nichols ,
elearning is as varied as the pedagogies and technologies that facilitate it. Mark Nichols ,
Almost all current university level courses have an elearning component
From the simplest … a traditional face to face course augmented with email communication between instructor and students and/or students to students
To a blended course… where traditional learning activities are moved online (e.g. bulletin board discussion, simulation, or online test) with a reduction in face to face contact time.
To an online course . . . where all content, communication, interaction and assessment are delivered through technology.