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  1. 1. + Using picture story books in middle years to empower and inspire readers and writers By Danica Murphy 17473122
  2. 2. + Key terms and definitions During the literacy block it is important for you as a teacher to cater for individual needs of every student in the classroom. It is also important to understand the different ways students learn. For example: I Know I am a visual learner, but I no others learn from knowledge etc. This is why the literacy block is broken down into a two-hour block, which allows us as teachers to focus on reading and writing during this allocated time. I strongly believe the whole part whole lesson plan approach should be completed during the two-hour literacy block. This means you begin the lesson with the whole class and then you come back to the whole class at the end of the lesson for class discussions on what they have learnt. During the two-hour literacy block the teacher is scaffolding the students by creating clear expectations of what they are expected to do during this time. Students will gain an understanding of their responsibilities and they will just complete their tasks without any assistance.
  3. 3. + Two-hour literacy block  Guided Reading  Independent Reading  Guided Writing  Independent Writing  Group Work
  4. 4. + Independent and Guided Reading During the time allocated for reading in the literacy block there are two main focuses the teacher will have. They include:  Independent reading is done while the teacher is holding guided reading sessions. Students will be independently reading silently while they are listening to the teacher for their turn to be a part of her guided reading group.  And Guided reading is done during the reading part of the literacy block, during this time it allows the teacher to have a guided group where she is helping them read and will also be completing running records. By using picture story books during the serial reading time, which is, were the teacher would be explicitly teaching English by reading to expand and extend students vocabulary.
  5. 5. + Guided and Independent Writing  Also during the two-hour literacy block the teacher will be focusing on guided writing and Independent writing. The teacher will initially explicitly teach the style of writing the students are focusing on for example: persuasive text the teacher will then have a clear expectation when the students are writing persuasive text independently.
  6. 6. + Working in Groups  Working in groups is also an important key element to the literacy block as when the teacher is taking the guided reading or writing group the group will need to work together assisting one another and respecting each other when someone in the group has something to say. It also plays a key role when focusing on guided reading groups if the teacher already has the students in allocated groups so she can walk around and join a group rather than have students not reading independently and distracting others in the classroom. By having some weaker students in groups with students who are strong in reading for example: it allows the weaker students to push themselves and the stronger students to challenge themselves by assisting the weaker students.
  7. 7. + Winch et al (2010) Literacy: Reading, writing and children’s literature, 4th edition  ‘Australia is a country of linguistic diversity. There are currently more than sixty indigenous languages spoken as well as more than a hundred students learning English as an additional language or dialect, Winch et al (2010)
  8. 8. + Catering for students with dyslexia  Catering for students with dyslexia, understanding how this effects students in the middle years with their reading and writing. How can you diagnose this and how do you go about informing parents?  Although true dyslexia cannot be cured, most dyslexics can be taught to read and go about their lives in an effective way. Winch et al (2010)  The matter of dyslexia is often little understood and a cause of confusion among parents and teachers. Winch et al (2010)  Dyslexia is a type of specific learning difficulty that effects a person’s ability to read and spell. It is characterised by difficulties in the decoding and encoding of single words, and reflects poor phonological processing. Winch et al (2010)
  9. 9. +  Dyslexia is difficult to diagnose, and although it is recognized that the causes such as hearing and vision difficulties, irregular attendance at school, an attention deficit disorder, poor teaching programs, inappropriate second language learning programs, inadequate or broken schooling, and low school or community expectations of the student. Winch et al (2010)  If a child is thought to suffer from dyslexia, professional help is required through a specialist educational psychologist or speech therapist who can make an effective diagnosis and recommend treatment. Winch et al (2010)
  10. 10. + Classroom organization, how to effectively organize a classroom and create a safe and happy environment for all students  The classroom must provide a print-rich environment with, for example, wall displays, charts, word lists, and samples of children’s work. Winch et al (2010)  There must be a class library containing books of many genres in grade levels covering a range of key learning areas. Winch et al (2010)  There must be spaces for shared, guided, and independent reading and writing and computer terminals for reading, writing, and research. Winch et al (2010)
  11. 11. +  Students must be familiar with the routines of the literacy session and know where all the resources are. Winch et al (2010)  They must be familiar with assessment procedures, such as portfolios, checklists, profiles, and tests, and be ready to talk to their teacher about their work. Winch et al (2010)  The teacher must be able to teach flexibly and be able to move readily from task to task in the literacy session: from shared to guided reading: from group teaching to supervision of individual students: from teaching to assessing process. Winch et al (2010)
  12. 12. + Literacy block introduction: shared/modeled reading, reading activities, guided reading, independent reading, guided writing, independent writing, teacher reading and conclusion  An effective literacy session usually has the following elements, although these can be altered to suit changing circumstances. Winch et al (2010)  Shared/modeled reading is where the teacher shares an enlarged text with the class, demonstrating what the effective readers do when they read. The teacher reads the text with students following, and explains the key learning focus of the day’s activities (eg. New vocabulary or a new sound/letter cluster). Winch et al (2010)
  13. 13. +  Reading activites are completed after shared reading. Shared reading students engage in various reading activities that allow them to practice that specific skills that have been apart of the shared reading group.  Guided reading. During this part of the session, while the rest of the class is engaged in reading activities, the teacher works closely with a small group of four or five students who have a similar reading level. Winch et al (2010)  Independent Reading. During this part of the session students read independently, for enjoyment and to practice the skill they have been learning. Winch et al (2010)  Guided writing. In guided writing the teacher involves students in a joint construction of a text to demonstrate how effective writers put a text together. Winch et al (2010)  Independent writing. This part of the lesson provides opportunities for students to create their own text, using the guided writing text as a model. Winch et al (2010)
  14. 14. +  Teacher reading. As part of the literacy session the teacher finds time to read aloud to students. The text chosen will be a quality example of children’s literature or a factual text that relates in some way to the unit being studied. Winch et al (2010)  Session conclusion. The literacy session usually closes with the teacher bringing the class together to share some part of the daily activities. Winch et al (2010)
  15. 15. + Applying a range of strategies to comprehend a picture storybook.  Using the milo planning framework to comprehend a picture storybook, allows you to gain ideas and information, organization and structural features, language appropriateness and style/language features and mechanics of a text.  Using the three sharing’s text to text connections, text to self connections and text to world connections to comprehend a text.  Assessment strategies include: linking directly to your teaching program, mirror classroom learning experiences students are familiar with and provide multiple opportunities for students to show what they know and can do.
  16. 16. + Decoding the words, phrases and sentences  When students are completing a group guided session, give each student the chance to read in turn a double page spread at a time, as each student reads prompt with questions to help the student draw on what they know in order to solve unknown words. When a student has trouble with a word identify which cue system is causing difficulty. As an example: does the students problem stem from the fact that they cannot decode the printed letters with the correct sound/symbol relationships?  Say the sounds with the student to help blend them to help get the correct pronunciation of the word, test and re-test the word. Winch et al (2010)
  17. 17. + Stopping by making the meaning clear in a text  Questions you could use when making sure the meaning in a text is clear, as questions such as:  Does this seem right?  Does that word fit into this sentence?  Does it make sense?  Look at the pictures, does the picture match the words?  Reinforce with the right questions and get a group meaning on the outcome of the text. Winch et al (2010)
  18. 18. + Reflecting on the text and adjusting meaning  Students should ask questions focused towards the author and their intensions of the intended text.  Was the book a factual description? What did we learn?  Was the book fictional?  Did the illustrations help us understand the meaning in the book?
  19. 19. + Drawing conclusions on text  After the reading experience students need to be reminded of the skills they have learnt in the guided reading session. A range of activities can be undertaken such as, making a language experience book, sequencing sections of the text written onto cardboard strips and get the student to place them in the right order of the text, focusing on specific letters and words, examples of different sounds and draw their own illustrations on the text.  What were the hard letters, what did they say? What is the hard word we looked at? Drawing conclusion on what has been learnt during the text.
  20. 20. + Asking effective comprehending questions  Comprehension is about understanding of the text. It allows students to answer questions about the literal meaning of the text, which is what is actual said or done in the story. As apposed to the inferential meaning whereby children can be asked what they think the characters feel in the story without those words actually being said. That is by looking at the pictures, or thinking about themselves in the story and how they would feel. Winch et al (2010)
  21. 21. + Three themes Theme One Shared/modeled reading in the literacy block  Shared/modeled reading is where the teacher shares an enlarged text with the class, demonstrating what the effective readers do when they read. The teacher reads the text with students following, and explains the key learning focus of the day’s activities (eg. New vocabulary or a new sound/letter cluster). Winch et al (2010)  Shared reading involves the whole class, it allows the teacher to give students structured demonstrations of what skilled readers do when they read. Winch et al (2010)  Prepare the class for the topic of the text by using strategies which will enable them to form mental images to relate to words on the page and the illustrations. For example: taking students to a farm enables them to see the farm animals to be discussed in the text chosen by the teacher. Winch et al (2010)
  22. 22. + Theme Two Inferential questions  Ask a question to check what the students know or think about a text. For example: what can we see in this picture? Winch et al (2010)  A student is selected to respond and may say I see a picture of a person. Winch et al (2010)  A teacher will give feedback on the answer by saying yes but what is he doing? This approach is aimed at requiring students to access information in a picture and relate it to what has happened in the story. Winch et al (2010)  This style of questioning response and feedback can be continued with one or more students to clarify their understanding of the text. Winch et al (2010)
  23. 23. + Theme Three Look at a cover, pictures and words to build knowledge  Select a well known popular children’s story book and become familiar with it making sure to pay particular attention to the illustrations which form a vital part of the story. Rehearse the reading and vary your voice and facial expression.  Talk to the children before you start reading. Discuss the cover and its illustrations, the writing on it. What does the writing mean, what is the book about?  Read the story to the children as rehearsed. Actively engage and encourage discussion about the story line as you progress. Ensure that the experience is a fun and happy one.
  24. 24. +  Record your responses to your experience. How did you gauge your performance? What did you do well? What could you have done better? What did you observe about the child’s reactions. Winch et al (2010)
  25. 25. + Point one Whole, part, whole  Questions  I would like to know how to successfully complete a whole part whole lesson using a picture storybook to empower and inspire readers?  Is this strategy successful in the middle years?  How do I complete a whole part whole lesson plan using a picture storybook?
  26. 26. + Point Two Catering for individual needs questions.  How do I figure out how to work out a plan for individual students who are not learning the same as others in their class?  When are you able to get a second opinion on how a student is going?  Will they need to get assistance?
  27. 27. + Point Three Questioning  How do I ask effective questions to get the best out of using a picture storybook to develop and expand the students vocabulary?  What types of questions should be asked to get students on the right track?  What is the most effective questioning techniques?
  28. 28. + Referencing Lecturer Sarah Mayor Cox Winch et al (2010) Literacy. Reading writing and children’s literature. Oxford university press. Australian Literacy educators association. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.alea.edu.au/documents/item/459 Booker, K. (2012). Using Picturebooks to Empower and Inspire Readers and Writers in the Upper Primary Classroom. Practical Strategies Literacy Learning: the Middle Years. Volume 20(2) Moving at the speed of creativity. (2013). Retrieved from:http:// www.speedofcreativity.org/2008/07/14/empowering-student-picture-book- publishing-with-biguniverse/