Stratification And Social MobilityPresentation Transcript
Stratification andSocial Mobility
Categories of Social Class What is a SOCIAL CLASS? -It may be defined as a broad category, class, or stratum of people in the same economic bracket, with similar ideas, values, and lifestyle – that is, with a similar position in the social structure. -This concept of social class is not fixed nor subject to exact measurements.
-Even though the definition of social class lacks precision, sociologists consider it meaningful because it draws attention to the influence economic position has on social adjustment. MIDDLE CLASS -It is often regarded as either small or nonexistent with the two social class categories – the rich or the economically solvent and the poor or the people who requires at least occasional help from other people in order to exist.
The Five-Class System ***Note: This chart is only suggestive. It is based on observation, comparative income figures, and data on occupation distribution. The categories do not have fixed boundaries and overlap.
Determinants of Social Class Money -It takes a great deal of money to live as the upper class. It becomes one of the main determinants because of its importance. Education -One’s education determines one’s occupation and is one way to judge social class.
Prestige ranking of occupation -High-prestige occupations generally receive higher incomes. Style of Life -In many instances, wealth and improved lifestyle have come from outside the Philippine economy. Heredity -If you are from a well-known and well-off family, then you are part of at least, the upper-middle class society.
Historical Basis of the Philippine Class System Before the Colonization Period (Spanish Era): -The Chiefs -The Freemen -The Slaves
Historical Basis of the Philippine Class System During the Spanish Colonization -The Spaniards -The Illustrados -The Caciques -The Indios -The Chinese
Class Structure of Cultural Minorities What are CULTURAL MINORITIES? -It is used to designate the groups which are different from the majority because they have been less affected by Western influence. -These are often our own ethnic groups, who wanted to preserve their culture and traditions as much as possible.
Class-linked Attitudes -These are differences in attitudes, values, and lifestyles depending on a groups of people’s social stratum. -Conflicts because of contrasting class-linked behavior patterns have formed the basis of many novels and plays.
Class-liked Attitudes and Social Progress -One of the effects of class-linked attitudes is that they frequently operate to defeat changes which might improve the condition of the lower classes. -It has often been observed that one of the factors which takes place among lower-class Philippines is a leveling process.
Class-linked Status and Behavior -Usually the attitudes and behavior developed in each class are adapted to the social and economic conditions of that class, but poorly fitted to that of another class. -Middle class attitudes are the best adapted to either maintaining or improving class status.
Institutional Attitudes A. Attitudes toward government 1. Upper Class -Appreciates effect of government on own affairs. -Majority regarding government regime as basic to their own security and will resist drastic change. 2. Middle Class -Responsive to appeals for clean or honest government, but for the most part, will resist major change. -Feels resentful of what they consider as corrupt government but feels helpless to change matters.
3. Lower Class -May view government as the dispenser of petty favors such as minor jobs and possible payments for votes. -May be consciously discontented with status and work for a revolutionary change which promises greater benefits. B. Attitudes toward religion 1. Upper Class -Takes position of leadership in lay movements; likes to be considered patrons of the Church. -May feel above the need for religion and manifest little interest except when custom demands attendance on special occasions.
2. Middle Class -Responsive to appeals on a moral or intellectual basis. -Highly critical of religious practices which seem to be excessively emotional. 3. Lower Class -Responsive to emotional services and religious pageantry; accepts dogma uncritically but frequently fails to carry moral injunctions into practice; readily accepts reports of miracles. -May feel that the Church is an upper-class institution and be either indifferent or openly hostile to it.
C. Attitudes toward economy 1. Upper Class -Takes superior position and high standard of living for granted. -Bolsters self-esteem by conspicuously luxurious living. 2. Middle Class -Lauds virtues of thrift, ambition, and decent living. -Torn between desire to improve status by saving money and need to prove importance by expensive living. 3. Lower Class -Has no realistic hope for improvement. -Resents inferior position and hopes for change through revolution and different types of economic structures.