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Social media adoption, policy and development: exploring the way forward for academic libraries
 

Social media adoption, policy and development: exploring the way forward for academic libraries

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"Exploring the way forward for academic libraries." ...

"Exploring the way forward for academic libraries."

My recent foray into the world of academic libraries, social media and a world of scholarly literature, completed as a semester-long project at the School of Library, Archival and Information Studies at the University of British Columbia. In this paper, I outline activities undertaken during my project with Dean Giustini, a SLAIS adjunct faculty and a reference librarian at the UBC Biomedical Branch Library. The purpose of this investigation into social media was to examine the role of institutional strategies, policies and guidelines that support and lead its use in academic libraries.

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    Social media adoption, policy and development: exploring the way forward for academic libraries Social media adoption, policy and development: exploring the way forward for academic libraries Document Transcript

    •           Social  media  adoption,  policy  and  development:     Exploring  the  way  forward  for  academic  libraries         Daniel  Hooker,  MLIS  Student   Supervised  by  Dean  Giustini,  UBC  Biomedical  Branch  Librarian     Submitted  to  Dr.  Mary  Sue  Stephenson   In  completion  of  the  requirements  for  LIBR  594:  Directed  Study   School  of  Library,  Archival  and  Information  Studies  (SLAIS)   University  of  British  Columbia   1  December  2009    
    • Table of Contents Introduction .....................................................................................3   Literature review..............................................................................7   Background...................................................................................................................7   Social media in higher learning .............................................................................9   Academic library 2.0 ...............................................................................................14   Strategic planning....................................................................................................19   Social media library policy............................................................ 22   Policy recommendations......................................................................................24   Conclusion and recommendations.............................................. 26   References..................................................................................... 28   Appendices.................................................................................... 33   Appendix A: Directed Study Schedule, Fall 2009 ......................................33   Appendix B: Selected Search Concepts and Sources ................................35   Appendix C: Works Consulted .........................................................................37   Appendix D: Selected CARL Strategic Plans ...............................................42   Appendix E: Example Social Media Policy....................................................44    
    • Hooker  -­‐  3   Introduction In  this  paper,  I  outline  activities  undertaken  during  my  2009  directed  study  project   with  Dean  Giustini,  a  SLAIS  adjunct  faculty  and  a  reference  librarian  at  the  UBC  Biomedical   Branch  Library.  The  purpose  of  this  investigation  into  social  media  was  to  examine  the  role   of  institutional  strategies,  policies  and  guidelines  that  support  social  media  and  lead  its  use   in  academic  libraries.  To  orient  myself  to  this  research  topic,  I  began  by  locating  freely   available  primary  materials  on  academic  library  websites  and  by  retrieving  presentation   slides  and  relevant  grey  literature  from  search  engines,  social  media  of  various  types  and   online  abstracting  and  indexing  services  and  databases.  In  an  effort  to  examine  as  many   papers  and  ideas  as  possible,  I  searched  for  topics  using  a  combination  of  keywords  and   thesaurus  descriptors  such  as  blogs,  wikis,  RSS  feeds,  Twitter,  social  software,  web  2.0,   library  2.0,  university  2.0,  post-­‐secondary  education,  strategic  planning,  policy  development,   and  social  media  in  higher  education.  Some  of  my  primary  search  concepts  are  detailed  in   Appendix  B.   During  the  fall  2009  term1,  I  completed  the  following  activities:  1)  literature  reviews  in   multiple  academic  databases  such  as  Academic  Search  Complete,  ERIC,  Google  Scholar,  LISA,   LISTA;  OAIster,  Web  of  Science,  to  name  a  few;  2)  environmental  scans  of  web  documents   on  academic  library  websites  and  blogs  in  Canada  (and  select  examples  in  the  United  States)   and  3)  reviews  of  social  media  guidelines,  ‘appropriate  use’  policies  and  strategic  planning   documents  that  mention  web  2.0  or  social  media  specifically  (see  Appendix  B).  In  addition,  I                                                                                                                For  a  complete  fall  2009  schedule  of  activities  for  my  directed  study,  see  appendix  A.     1
    • Hooker  -­‐  4   enrolled  as  an  auditor  in  a  new  online  course  about  social  media  offered  through  SLAIS   entitled  LIBR559M  “Social  media  for  information  professionals”.  As  a  student  librarian   immersed  in  evaluating  social  media,  I  worked  closely  this  term  with  the  instructor  and  my   peers  in  exploring  and  interrogating  a  range  of  topics  and  modules  in  the  course.  Dean   demanded  high  quality  work  and  sustained  effort  from  all  of  us  in  the  course,  and  my  role  as   an  auditing  student  was  no  exception.  Additionally,  in  October,  I  was  also  able  to  co-­‐author  a   paper  on  social  cataloguing  with  Allan  Cho  and  Giustini  which  was  subsequently  accepted  for   publication  by  the  Journal  of  the  Canadian  Health  Libraries  Association2.  The  most  important   activity  this  term  was  accumulating  and  reading  the  literature  of  social  media  in  the   academic  environment,  and  taking  time  to  reflect  on  its  history  and  recent  developments.     Overall,  the  scholarly  literature  of  social  media  in  library  and  information  science  (LIS)   reveals  an  impressive  range  of  applications  that  are  regularly  used  in  the  teaching  and   learning  activities  of  academic  librarians.  Beyond  the  isolated  use  of  blogs,  wikis,   synchronous  chat  tools  and  social  bookmarking,  a  number  of  successful  social  media  projects   and  initiatives  in  the  United  States,  Australia  and  the  United  Kingdom  can  be  examined   where  they  are  adequately  publicized  (and,  to  a  lesser  extent,  projects  originating  in   Canadian  academic  libraries).  Individualized  reports  of  success  and  scattered  reports   originating  in  Canadian  academic  libraries  prompted  further  investigation  about  the   circumstances  that  led  to  those  programs  best  practices.  Some  evidence  was  found  to   support  the  assertion  that  ‘library  2.0’  projects  in  Canadian  academic  libraries  are   undertaken  in  ‘hot  spots’  of  innovation  and  in  environments  where  there  are  varying  levels                                                                                                                The  accepted  paper  is  entitled  “Social  cataloguing:  an  introduction  for  health  librarians”  and  will  be  published  in  early  2010.   2
    • Hooker  -­‐  5   of  interest  and  support.  Often,  it  seems  that  in  addition  to  an  academic  librarian’s  regular   duties,  social  media  experimentation  was  undertaken  due  to  personal  initiative  or  skills  set,   and  often  they  enjoy  little  in  the  way  of  institutional  support.  The  perceived  lack  of   administrative  resources  provided  to  academic  librarians  seems  to  be  exacerbated  by   common  barriers  such  as  the  inordinate  amount  of  time  needed  to  learn  social  media  or  the   inherent  cultural  resistance  to  social  media  (some  tools  are  blocked  at  OPACs  and  on  library   staff  computer  builds,  for  example)3.  In  addition,  due  to  my  experience  this  semester  with   Giustini  (personal  communication,  October  2009)  it  has  become  clearer  to  me  that  direct   conflicts  between  an  academic  librarian’s  desire  to  use  new  services  and  the  inevitable  clash   that  occurs  with  a  library’s  information  technology  (IT)  department  are  quite  common  and   that  this  invariably  results  in  initiatives  being  abandoned  –  or  shelved  for  a  period  of  time.   In  the  past  few  years,  social  media’s  rise  in  academic  communities  has  been  steady,   but  this  year  has  proven  to  be  unique  so  far  for  a  number  of  reasons  (Armstrong,  2008;   Weller,  2009).  For  example,  bloggers  are  beginning  to  consider  what  kinds  of  policies  are   needed  to  support  the  use  of  social  media  in  library  organizations  (Kroski,  2009).  Not   surprisingly,  academic  libraries  are  still  very  much  in  an  experimental  phase  in  their  use  of   social  tools  particularly  folksonomies,  social  cataloguing  sites  and  microblogging  tools  like   Twitter.  Universities,  too,  are  in  an  exploratory  period  in  applying  social  media  to  their   recruitment,  teaching  and  development  efforts.  Throughout  the  academic  world,  though,                                                                                                               3  The  social  media  drivers  and  barriers  that  exist  in  Canadian  academic  libraries  will  be  part  of  Giustini’s  CARL/ABRC  survey   research  that  he  plans  to  conduct  in  2010.  
    • Hooker  -­‐  6   social  media  is  beginning  to  make  a  considerable  impact  on  higher  education  and,  as  a   result,  on  the  delivery  of  information  services  in  academic  libraries.     As  social  media  is  used  to  reach  out  to  academic  constituencies,  and  to  build  cross-­‐ disciplinary  collaborative  relationships,  the  lack  of  social  media  policies  and  usage  guidelines   is  set  to  emerge  as  a  critical  problem  (Armstrong,  2008).  Given  Dean’s  experience  within  a   large  institutional  academic  library,  it  became  clear  from  our  discussions  about  these  issues   (personal  communication,  October  2009)  that  there  are  driving  forces  in  the  external   environment  that  compete  with  the  seemingly  insurmountable  barriers  within  organizations   when  social  media  is  used  creatively.  Occasionally,  it  must  be  said,  the  rigid  administrative   hierarchies  and  conservative  library  cultures  do  little  but  compound  the  problem  of  using   social  media  innovatively.  While  individual  ‘social’  librarians  are  forging  new  paths  in  their   deliver  of  library  services,  many  do  so  at  the  expense  of  their  own  personal  time  and  talent.   Whereas  some  academic  librarians  are  successfully  creating  programs  for  their  users,  others   have  to  wait  for  institutional  cultures  to  change  before  social  media’s  affordances  can  be   fully  identified.  As  new  social  media  emerge  as  potential  catalysts  for  innovation,  academic   librarians  face  a  number  of  pressures  about  how  to  respond  to  new  tools  in  new  ways.     In  this  directed  study,  I  had  the  increasing  sense  that  the  acceptance  of  social  media  in   academic  libraries  has  now  reached  a  critical  point  where  it  is  difficult  to  ignore.  Social  media   has  built  enough  popular  awareness  and  worked  its  way  into  academic  activities  such  that  it   cannot  be  ignored  as  a  passing  fad.  The  effective  evaluation  and  management  of  social   media  should  be  a  key  consideration  in  all  academic  libraries  given  the  prominence  and  
    • Hooker  -­‐  7   potential  of  the  tools  in  managing  our  users’  information  behaviours,  and  our  own.  What   seems  clear  is  that  most  academic  librarians  are  increasingly  required  to  interpret  the  values   of  web  2.0  or  ‘academic  library  2.0’  within  their  own  libraries’  cultural  context.  How  can  we   engage  users  in  a  dialogue?  How  can  we  meet  them  in  digital  spaces  such  as  Facebook,   Twitter  and  Google?  Many  academic  librarians  feel  that  they  should  be  responding  to  these   needs  but  find  it  hard  to  do  so  when  institutions  remain  unconvinced  of  social  media’s  place   in  the  academy  (Thomson,  2007)  and  in  key  documents  such  as  strategic  planning  and  library   policy.     Literature review Background In  2009,  the  LIS  literature  is  replete  with  discussions  of  web  2.0  and  library  2.0  (Weller,   2009).  Between  the  advocates  and  critics  of  social  media,  the  bibliography  is  characterized   by  the  emphasis  on  the  attributes  of  specific  social  tools  or  programs;  more  often  than  not,   their  accompanying  affordances  for  teaching  and  learning  are  typically  outlined.  However,  a   less  obvious  theme  is  how  academic  librarians  can  assess  these  tools  properly  within  their   own  libraries  and  how  they  might  meet  the  specific  needs  of  their  local  users.  Given  the   demands  of  assessment  on  any  innovative  library  program,  and  the  extent  to  which  faculty   and  students  drive  change  within  the  academic  library,  a  number  of  formidable  challenges   lie  ahead  for  academic  librarians.  Both  Giustini  and  I  believe  that,  because  of  the  rapid   expansion  of  the  social  media  sector,  academic  librarians  may  have  no  alternative  in  the   near  future  but  to  concede  the  value  of  some  specific  tools.  In  the  past  decade,  numerous  
    • Hooker  -­‐  8   articles  have  shown  that  librarians,  while  inclined  to  try  out  new  technologies  to  deliver   library  services,  are  uncertain  or  even  anxious  about  what  they  might  need  to  know  or  how   to  use  new  technologies  within  the  existing  framework  of  legacy  library  systems  (if  they  can   at  all).  Therefore,  academic  librarians  are  often  expected  to  seek  evidence  or  proof  that   technologies  are  “useful”  before  implementing  social  media  in  their  programming.  However,   what  many  academic  librarians  discover  is  that  the  empirical  research  on  social  media  is  still   in  nascent  and  that  more  investigation  is  needed  before  direction  can  be  found  from  the  LIS   literature.  We  fear  that  academic  library  users  will  move  on  to  other  ways  of  interacting   while  at  the  university  or  begin  to  see  the  Library  as  ‘out  of  touch’.   An  additional  challenge  faced  by  academic  librarians  is  measuring  the  impact  of  digital   tools  on  the  development  of  information  behaviours  (e.g.  Gordhamer,  2009).  Can  social   tools  actually  promote  desirable  behaviours  or  do  they  in  fact  set  back  librarians’  media  and   information  literacy  efforts?  Academic  research  is  not  simply  a  matter  of  searching  on  the   Internet  or  networking  with  scholars  on  Twitter  and  Facebook.  Some  researchers,  in  fact,   suggest  that  social  media  has  considerable  potential  to  impact  how  users  communicate  and   find  information  (e.g.  Zhao  &  Rosson,  2009)  not  to  mention  how  they  collaborate  and  solve   problems.  Likewise,  the  web  also  may  have  a  tendency  to  fragment  readers’  attention  and   willingness  to  engage  in  thorough  or  extended  reading  (Carr,  2008)  –  surely  this  point  alone   is  why  social  software  is  seen  to  be  disruptive  by  most  university  faculty.  Building  on  these   observations,  the  notion  of  using  social  media  in  higher  education  has  nonetheless  been   breached  and  a  variety  of  inroads  have  been  made  (Weller,  2009).  But  the  question  about  
    • Hooker  -­‐  9   whether  social  media  can  be  deployed  to  promote  desirable  research  skills  is  a  salient  (and   likely  to  be  a  recurring)  one.     The  adoption  of  popular  search  engines  such  as  Google,  Google  scholar  and  Yahoo  is,   to  some  extent,  illustrative;  these  tools  followed  similar  trajectories  in  terms  of  their  use  by   and  eventual  acceptance  in  academic  libraries  (Ford  &  O’Hara,  2008;  Walters,  2009).   However,  finding  a  rightful  place  for  social  media  and  its  acceptance  in  academia  is  one  of   main  reasons  for  this  directed  study.  Given  a  continued  lack  of  usage  guidelines  or   strategies,  social  media  has  the  potential  to  disrupt  academic  libraries  and  their  services.  As   social  media  is  used  for  learning  more  generally,  academic  librarians  need  to  be  aware  of  the   challenges  that  they  introduce  and  work  to  meet  the  emerging  needs  of  post-­‐secondary   students  (many  of  whom  are  accustomed  to  social  tools).  At  the  very  least,  academic   librarians  should  be  devoting  some  of  their  time  each  week  to  explore  the  emerging  digital   landscape  to  see  what  students  themselves  are  doing.     Social media in higher learning The  debate  about  Web  2.0  and  its  role  in  higher  education  (Grosseck,  2009)  has  been   around  since  Tim  O’Reilly  initially  defined  it  (O'Reilly,  2005).  Since  then,  of  course,  much  has   happened  on  the  web;  the  rise  of  “digital  natives”  (McHale,  2005),  “millennials”  (Raines,   2002)  and  even  the  “net  generation”  (Bullen,  2009;  Oblinger  &  Oblinger,  2005)  has  been   extensively  discussed.  These  students  were  born  in  the  post-­‐Web  era  and  are  increasingly   familiar  with  online  environments  that  involve  two-­‐way  interaction.  The  literature  that   discusses  these  learners  and  their  unique  expectations  has  also  emerged  as  a  topic  of  
    • Hooker  -­‐  10   research  for  educators  and  librarians  alike;  and,  how  to  target  them  directly  in  the  delivery   of  programs  and  services  is  a  perennial  subject  in  the  literature.    Although  generalizing  too   broadly  about  these  learners  is  problematic  (Bennett  et  al.,  2008;  Wesch,  2008),  it  can  be   said  that  the  expectations  of  web-­‐based  learning  and  online  access  to  educational  resources   have  deeply  changed  what  students  want  from  their  university  experiences.  This  is  a  result   of  the  growing  relevance  of  the  Web  in  learners’  digital  lives  and  because  of  the  fact  that   many  learners  arrive  for  their  undergraduate  education  with  considerable  awareness  of  the   Internet  and  its  potential  for  social  collaboration  and  networking  (Tapscott,  2008).   Because  of  the  growing  awareness  of  digital  learners,  a  theoretical  discussion  has   developed  slowly  among  educational  technologists.  One  topic  that  is  debated  fiercely  by   educators  is  how  to  use  the  Web  as  a  supplementary  learning  space  and,  more  specifically,   how  to  use  it  to  promote  collaborative,  social  learning.  For  example,  Eijkman  (2008)   envisions  a  “non-­‐foundational  network-­‐centric  learning  space”  realized  through  social  media   tools.  Williams  and  Chinn  (2009)  discuss  an  active  learning  theory  model  for  increasing   engagement  of  “net  generation”  students  through  the  use  of  social  media,  and  Huang  &   Behara  (2007)  note  the  potential  for  experiential  learning  for  students  using  social  media  in   MBA  courses.  Additionally,  Beard  &  Dale  (2008)  describe  the  development  of  information   literacy  skills  through  the  academic  library  that  incorporate  social  media  and  web-­‐based   collaborative  appliances.  Practically  speaking,  Maloney  (2007)  writes  that  “what  we  can  see   in  the  Web's  evolution  is  a  renewed  focus  on  innovation,  creation,  and  collaboration,  and  an   emphasis  on  collective  knowledge  over  static  information  delivery,  knowledge  management   over  content  management,  and  social  interaction  over  isolated  surfing.”  Outlining  the  
    • Hooker  -­‐  11   collaborative  and  social  benefits  of  these  technologies  for  academic  librarians  is  a  first  step   to  promote  the  untapped  potential  of  social  media  in  library  programs  and  services,  and  it   seems  as  though  there  is  a  leadership  opportunity  for  academic  librarians  to  make  the   connection  between  changes  in  pedagogies  and  the  use  of  social  media  to  promote  more   active  forms  of  learning.   Recently,  at  the  highest  levels  of  higher  education,  there  has  been  discussion  about   social  media  and  its  impact  on  research  practices  and  academic  collaboration  (Weller,  2009)   which  is  a  further  way  to  embed  social  media  into  to  the  mission  of  academic  libraries.  For   example,  Greenhow  et  al.  (2009)  state  “Web  2.0  has…  expanded  the  academic’s  ability  to   cultivate  social  and  professional  connections  and  to  potentially  build  and  maintain  larger   networks  for  catalyzing  interdisciplinary  collaborations,  multisite  research,  and  inter-­‐ institutional  partnerships.”  Academic  inquiry  is  grounded  in  a  culture  of  experimentation  and   collaboration  and  social  media  provides  unparalleled  opportunities  to  engage  with  other   scholars  and  researchers  worldwide.  Further,  the  authors  suggest  that  “academics  can   choose  to  ignore  the  current  culture  or  attempt  to  build  an  online  network  of  resources,   colleagues,  and  authorship.  Only  by  doing  the  latter  is  it  possible  to  distinguish   authoritatively  between  the  hype  and  the  potential  of  Web  2.0  technologies.”  Separating   out  the  facts  from  fiction  will  be  crucial  to  the  successful  application  of  social  media  to   scholarly  information  practices.  As  web  2.0  is  introduced  more  generally  into  academic  life,   social  media  will  become  increasingly  ubiquitous,  especially  with  the  recent  rise  of  web-­‐ enabled  mobile  devices.  At  the  very  least,  academics  who  seek  engagement  with  others  in  
    • Hooker  -­‐  12   these  digital  spaces  will  appreciate  the  affordances  of  the  tools  and  be  able  to  discern   potential  applications  for  their  work.   The  introduction  of  information  technologies  introduces  many  challenges,  not  only  for   academic  librarians  but  for  faculty  and  students  university-­‐wide.  Freire  (2008),  for  example,   takes  a  practical  look  at  the  challenges  of  adoption  of  Web  2.0  in  university  settings.  He   advocates  for  the  adoption  of  new  technologies  at  the  university  and  notes  that  “applying   methods  for  collaborative  and  active  learning  are  essential  approaches  to  attain  these   objectives,  and  the  web  2.0  could  be  an  instrumental  and  strategic  tool  in  their   development”  (Anderson,  2007  cited  in  Freire,  2008).  Freire  states  that  adopting  these  social   technologies  presents  some  political  problems  in  addition  to  the  purely  technological,   notably  that  as  the  university  confronts  “important  technological,  managerial  and  human   barriers  …an  adaptive  strategy  is  needed  that  could  be  designed  from  previous  experiences   of  educational,  research  and  business  organizations.”  Though  the  affordances  of  social   media  can  be  shown  easily  in  theory,  bureaucratic  obstacles  and  poor  institutional   awareness  will  continue  to  be  constraints  for  academic  librarians.   To  date,  the  Joint  Information  Systems  Committee  (JISC)  has  produced  some  of  the   most  important  foundational  documents  about  social  media  in  academic  contexts.  An   important  and  perhaps  seminal  review  of  eleven  UK  universities  (Franklin  &  van  Harmelen,   2007)  illustrates  some  trends  that  should  be  of  interest  to  academic  communities  in  North   America.  For  example,  the  authors  found  that  only  one  academic  institution  in  the  UK  had  a   set  of  guidelines  in  place  to  guide  the  use  of  social  media  and  blogging  tools.  They  argue  that  
    • Hooker  -­‐  13   institutions  should  respond  to  web  2.0  at  a  broader  strategic  level  as  well  as  through  the  use   of  specific  policies.  Another  JISC  study  published  in  2009  (Committee  of  Inquiry  into  the   Changing  Learner  Experience)  showed  a  close  integration  between  social  media  and  today's   learners  in  institutions  of  higher  learning.  Increasingly,  the  tools  that  form  part  of  web  2.0   are  used  in  conjunction  with  teaching  students  and  faculty.  They  argue  that  more  research  is   needed  to  support  changes  in  technology  and  to  promote  correct  behaviours  that  are   needed  to  use  social  media  responsibly.  The  authors  say  that  “higher  education  has  a  key   role  in  helping  students  refine,  extend  and  articulate  the  diverse  range  of  skills  they  have   developed  through  their  experience  of  Web  2.0  technologies.  It  not  only  can,  but  should,   fulfill  this  role,  and  it  should  do  so  through  a  partnership  with  students  to  develop   approaches  to  learning  and  teaching.”  This  statement  is  a  clear  call  to  seek  a  practical  way   forward  and  as  universities  worldwide  undertake  initiatives  to  meet  the  information  literacy   needs  of  learners,  it  will  be  increasingly  important  for  academic  libraries  to  devise  strategies   to  promote  social  media  and  to  ensure  its  effective  use  by  the  academy.   As  academic  libraries  continue  to  cultivate  scholarly  information  practices  and  the   values  inherent  in  web  2.0,  they  should  be  ready  to  apply  social  tools  to  their  service  delivery   models.  This  means  that  librarians  must  learn  how  to  educate  users  in  a  media-­‐saturated   age  and  how  to  assess  media  in  the  21st  century.  (This  is  one  of  the  reasons,  I  understand,   SLAIS  approached  Giustini  (2009)  about  creating  a  course  on  social  media  because  of  its   importance  for  information  professionals.)  In  the  following  section,  I  highlight  a  number  of   other  trends  that  are  germane  to  the  academic  library  and  those  in  higher  education  as  a  
    • Hooker  -­‐  14   way  to  examine  newer  ways  to  access  information  in  the  digital  age  –  which,  of  course,  is  a   central  role  of  academic  libraries  around  the  world.   Academic library 2.0 Given  the  enthusiasm  for  Library  2.0  (Chad  &  Miller,  2005),  it  is  surprising  that   academic  libraries  fall  behind  their  public  library  counterparts  in  dealing  with  the   governance  of  social  media.  Governments  and  businesses  have  begun  their  planning  in  an   effort  to  establish  rules  of  social  media  usage  because  they  so  often  seem  to  blur  personal   and  professional  boundaries.  Conversely,  academic  libraries  are  somewhat  reluctant,  it   would  seem,  in  their  overall  approach  to  navigating  these  boundaries.  Despite  pockets  of   innovation  they  do  not  exhibit  any  where  near  the  same  level  of  interest  or  curiosity  in   dealing  with  issues  relating  to  digital  identity  or  online  reputation  management.  In  fact,   despite  some  very  well-­‐documented  surveys  of  academic  libraries’  use  of  social  media,  some   initiatives  are  undertaken  with  little  or  no  awareness  of  how  social  tools  are  implicated  in   public  relations  and  risk  management.  Social  media  usage  brings  risk  for  businesses  and   organizations  in  both  the  private  and  public  sectors.  Compounding  this  problem  is  the  lack  of   quantifiable  evaluation  and  assessment  methods  for  social  media  programs.  However,  the   issues  surrounding  information  behaviour  and  practice  in  the  university  have  now  reached  a   point  where  academic  libraries  must  take  a  more  proactive  role  to  ensure  the  ongoing   integrity  of  their  university’s  web  presence.   Though  the  concept  of  “Library  2.0”  has  been  well-­‐debated  in  the  blogosphere,  there   has  been  significantly  less  debate  around  its  academic  counterpart  -­‐  “Academic  Library  2.0”.  
    • Hooker  -­‐  15   Academic  libraries  are  united  in  their  desire  to  use  technology  wisely  but  seem  less  inclined   to  mention  the  need  to  master  social  media  as  part  of  an  emerging  set  of  technical   competencies.  This  reflects  a  number  of  difficulties  such  as  the  integration  of  new  tools  into   library  information  technology  infrastructure;  a  general  lack  of  IT  support  for  tools  ‘in  the   cloud’;  and,  despite  the  ubiquity  of  social  media  usage  in  society  as  a  whole,  the  lack  of  an   articulated  model  that  would  account  for  the  resources  academic  librarians  need  to   implement  to  be  effective  or  innovative.  Somehow,  the  academic  discourse  has  remained   muted  and  out  of  touch  by  comparison  with  what  is  happening  in  public  libraries,  business   and  government  –  but  it  must  be  said  that  this  is  slowly  changing   Back  in  2006,  for  example,  Michael  Habib  devised  a  conceptual  model  for  Web  2.0  in   the  academic  library  for  his  Master’s  thesis  in  library  and  information  science.  In  fact,  he   used  the  Library  2.0  framework  to  define  a  specific  niche  for  academic  libraries  that  would   see  the  blending  of  traditional  functions  with  a  renewed  emphasis  on  social  tools  (based  on   the  rise  of  digitally  literate  learners  and  faculty  in  the  21st  century).  Habib  stakes  out  a   position  for  the  academic  library  that  would  blend  together  physical  and  digital  spaces  as   well  as  merge  library  data  with  collective  intelligence,  cloud  computing  and  Web  2.0  tools.   Habib's  work  provides  the  basis  for  a  new  model  that  outlines  the  requirements  of  academic   libraries  but  is  now  several  years  out  of  date.  Indeed  many  of  Habib’s  arguments  cannot   account  for  technologies  that  have  emerged  since  their  writing.  For  example,  Twitter   (http://twitter.com/)  was  just  being  released  at  the  time  of  Habib’s  research  (Malik,  2006).   LibraryThing  (http://www.librarything.com/)  is  another  example  of  a  social  networking  tool  
    • Hooker  -­‐  16   that  has  gained  considerable  momentum  and  academic  library  attention  since  2006   (LibraryThing,  n.d.).   Building  on  concepts  of  Academic  Library  2.0,  Liu  (2008)  more  recently  examined  many   Association  of  Research  Libraries  (ARL)  homepages  to  explore  integration  of  social  media.   She  found  that  most  information  on  “academic  library  homepages  still  focuses  on  library   functions,  requires  numerous  pathways  for  access…  [and]  few  current  academic  library  Web   sites  offer  opportunities  for  users  to  create  and  share  user-­‐generated  content.”  User   interaction  and  participation  should  be  a  core  value  of  social  media  for  academic  librarians.   Liu,  in  fact,  recommends  a  series  of  conceptual  designs  for  increasing  user-­‐inclusion  and   engagement  but  cautions  that  her  recommendations  are  merely  “what  users  might  want”.   Liu  successfully  incorporates  Library  2.0  concepts  into  an  academic  library  context  but  her   paper  is  limited  to  library  home  pages.  Xu  et  al.  (2009)  conducted  a  similar  review  of  New   York  state  universities’  use  of  social  media  but  do  not  use  their  findings  to  create  a  new   conceptual  model  for  academic  libraries  beyond  a  rearranging  of  familiar  concepts.   Social  networking  sites  (SNS)  were  among  the  first  social  media  to  be  recontextualized   for  academic  libraries.  For  example,  Charnigo  &  Barnett-­‐Ellis  (2007)  conducted  a  survey  to   gauge  academic  librarians'  awareness  of  Facebook  because  at  that  time  it  was  only  available   for  university  students.  Since  that  time,  Facebook  has  been  opened  to  the  public,  and  a  rapid   growth  of  older  users  has  become  noticeable  (Kirkpatrick,  2009).  A  repetition  of  this  study   would  be  useful  today  in  order  to  account  for  Facebook’s  increased  publicity  in  the  past  year   and  their  shifting  demographics.    
    • Hooker  -­‐  17   Chu  &  Meulemans  (2008)  also  examine  SNS  and  describe  the  challenges  and  potential   benefits  of  establishing  a  library  presence  on  two  services,  MySpace  and  Facebook.  The   authors  examine  the  two  different  networks  but  repeatedly  conflate  the  two  services  as  a   kind  of  hybrid  entity  “MySpace/Facebook.”  This  method  does  not  account  for  research  that   reveals  two  very  distinct  networks  in  Myspace  and  Facebook  (e.g.  boyd,  2007),  and  makes  it   difficult  to  draw  usable  conclusions  from  their  results.     In  terms  of  raising  awareness  of  social  media  in  an  academic  library,  Gross  &  Leslie   (2008)  describe  the  process  of  familiarizing  academic  library  staff  with  social  media  following   their  implementation  of  a  “Learning  2.0”  program  based  on  Blowers  (2006).  Gross  &  Leslie   describe  their  program  and  report  that  staff  liked  the  concept;  however,  their  article  does   not  attempt  to  conceptualize  a  broader  model  or  argue  for  implementing  guidelines  for  the   use  of  social  media  in  libraries  more  generally.  It  must  be  said  that  raising  awareness  of   social  media  is  only  the  first  step  in  encouraging  its  implementation  and  assessment  in  the   academic  library.   The  difficulties  of  articulating  a  generic  Library  2.0  model  are  most  convincingly   demonstrated  by  a  study  conducted  at  Kent  State  University  undergraduates  and  their   familiarity  with  web  2.0  tools  (Burhanna,  Seeholzer  &  Salem  Jr.,  2009).  In  the  study,  students   shared  their  perceptions  about  how  the  university  library  could  use  social  media  to  meet   their  informational  needs.  Interestingly,  the  authors  started  with  the  erroneous  assumption   that  digital  natives  possess  heightened  awareness  of  social  media.  However,  they  found   surprising  differences  between  their  users  and  those  paragons  of  technology  discussed  in  
    • Hooker  -­‐  18   the  literature.  Bullen  et  al.  (2009)  found  similar  results  about  college  students  at  the  British   Columbia  Institute  for  Technology.  It  may  in  fact  be  possible  that  these  two  studies  are   merely  exceptions  to  the  rule  but  it  serves  as  a  useful  reminder  that  technological  initiatives   should  always  be  undertaken  first  by  doing  a  proper  analysis  of  local  users.     In  a  general  sense,  measuring  technological  skills  in  users  is  a  big  challenge  in   developing  effective  library  programs.  Adapting  to  changes  in  the  delivery  of  content  is   another  challenge  with  respect  to  social  media  within  institutional  culture.  Joint  (2009)   describes  a  range  of  difficulties  of  successfully  implementing  web  2.0  initiatives  in  academic   libraries  in  terms  of  copyright  concerns  and  inadequate  computing  skills.  However,  moving   from  more  traditional  methods  of  user  engagement  to  participatory  web  2.0  models  has   measurable  benefits  for  information  professionals.  Kalfatovic  et  al.  (2009)  describes  the   Smithsonian  Institution’s  decision  to  provide  photographs  from  their  digital  collections  via  a   collaborative  Flickr  space  they  call  ‘The  Commons’.  Initially,  they  thought  that  providing   photographs  on  Flickr  would  create  an  increase  of  use  of  the  Smithsonian’s  website  but  little   traffic  was  ultimately  seen  in  that  direction.  The  collaborative  space  on  Flickr,  however,   provided  the  Smithsonian  with  a  space  outside  its  homepage  in  which  to  connect  with  users   and  to  discover  that  “each  additional  consumer  of  the  products  of  the  Commons  adds  to  the   commensurable  experience  of  each  and  all  users.”  The  communal  interaction  and   collaboration  among  Flickr  users  and  the  institutions  in  the  Commons  project  increased   value  and  engagement  for  all  but  required  a  major  shift  in  the  Smithsonian’s  self-­‐concept   and  comfort  in  using  alternative  social  spaces.  
    • Hooker  -­‐  19   The  continual  shifts  in  the  digital  landscape  in  the  past  few  years  have  created   disruptions  of  various  kinds  for  academic  libraries.  One  disruption  is  the  changing  sense  of   place  that  inevitably  occurs  when  academic  libraries  use  social  spaces  to  deliver  services  to   their  users.  Many  library  programs  using  social  media  are  reported  in  the  literature  but,  for   example,  it  is  not  always  clear  to  users  what  the  benefits  of  searching  a  catalogue  by  ‘tag   cloud’  or  other  social  cataloguing  feature  could  be.  Due  to  the  deviations  in  how  information   is  presented  in  these  new  spaces,  which  also  typically  occur  outside  traditional  library  sites,   users  and  librarians  alike  may  feel  a  sense  of  dislocation  from  their  usual  library  experience.   Clearly,  this  is  where  institutional  branding  is  important;  services  need  to  be  provided  to   entice  users  in  social  media  spaces  but  balanced  against  the  need  to  make  users  aware  of   the  digital  assets  of  the  library.  Innovative  services  delivery  using  social  media  in  academic   libraries  should  still  mean  that  users  feel  connected  to  their  libraries  when  they  find   themselves  in  external  digital  locations.  To  bring  program  planning  and  institutional   guidance  closer  together,  I  examined  a  growing  body  of  strategic  planning  documents  to   understand  how  the  needs  of  users,  libraries  and  institutions  can  be  aligned  with  the   objectives  of  the  university  as  a  whole.     Strategic planning The  use  of  social  media  in  higher  education  is  now  well-­‐established  in  the  professional   literature.  What  is  still  up  for  debate  is  whether  academic  librarians  and  their  institutions  will   accept  the  shifts  in  attitudes  brought  on  by  social  media  or  whether  the  associated  tools  will   be  viewed  as  inconsistent  with  institutional  goals.    Institutional  and  professional  cultures  are  
    • Hooker  -­‐  20   difficult  to  change,  and  my  intention  with  this  directed  study  is  not  to  require  a  shift  in   institutional  approaches  towards  social  media.  McNichol  (2005),  however,  says  that  the  lack   of  a  culture  of  “outcomes  assessment”  in  UK  academic  libraries  is  creating  a  number  of   difficulties.  For  example,  academic  librarians  make  the  assumption  that  university  libraries   are  central  to  higher  education  but  do  not  work  to  justify  their  relevance  in  the  event  of   shifting  institutional  needs.  Without  a  more  concerted  effort  to  move  the  academic  library   model  toward  emerging  web  technologies  and  practices,  academic  librarians  risk  losing  their   central  place  within  the  modern  university.   Some  planning  literature  has  identified  additional  concerns  with  organizational   resistance  to  change.  O'Connor  and  Au  (2009)  argue  “for  the  future  library  to  survive  and   prosper,  the  continuous  alignment  of  its  strategic  direction  with  the  demands  of  the   environment  is  vital,  especially  when  the  speed  of  changes  is  rapid,  and  the  scope,   extensive.”  The  popularity  and  pervasiveness  of  social  media  qualifies  as  rapid  and  extensive   change.  Korte  and  Chermack  (2007)  state  that  “recognizing  the  power  of  underlying   assumptions  and  systematically  challenging  these  assumptions  is  critical  to  foster  an   adaptive,  vital  organization”  and,  moreover,  developing  detailed  plans  to  prove  or  disprove   the  effectiveness  traditional  institutional  views  is  one  effective  way  of  doing  so.     In  some  of  the  most  recent  literature,  the  emergence  of  social  media  on  the  web  is   indeed  driving  a  change  in  strategic  planning  efforts.  Allard  (2009)  drafts  a  model  of  “World   2.0”  that  advocates  for  library  managers  to  understand  the  implications  of  social  media  for   strategic  planning.  Close  to  home,  a  librarian  at  the  Vancouver  Public  Library,  Cahill  (2009)  
    • Hooker  -­‐  21   discusses  the  development  of  a  digital  branch  at  VPL  and  explains  in  detail  how  strategic   plans  is  driving  their  support  for  web  2.0  activities.  Foundations  for  social  media  policies   have  been  written  into  the  job  descriptions  for  two  web  librarian  positions,  for  example,   which  were  created  as  a  result  of  their  strategic  initiatives.   In  the  United  States,  other  specific  strategic  planning  initiatives  in  libraries  include  the   creation  of  a  working  group  called  SPLAT  (Special  Projects  Library  Action  Team)  to  support   collaborative  online  initiatives  in  Idaho  libraries  (Cordova  et  al.,  2009).  This  model,  similar  to   the  approach  discussed  by  Gross  and  Leslie  (2008)  above,  encourages  staff  experimentation   which  is  then  followed  by  written  reflection.  Reed  and  Signorelli  (2008)  recognize  the   importance  of  staff  training  in  their  study  where  “library  staff  and  library  users  find   themselves  immersed  in  a  Web  2.0  world  and  need  assistance  in  learning,  using,  and  coping   with  new  technology”.  Unfortunately,  they  do  not  mention  the  importance  of  establishing   manuals  and  documentation  that  will  help  libraries  cope  with  how  to  use  these  technologies.   In  Canada,  one  of  the  more  successful  strategic  planning  efforts  regarding  social  media   and  technological  literacy  originated  at  McMaster  University  in  Hamilton,  Ontario4.  The   University  Librarian  at  McMaster,  Jeffrey  Trzeciak  (2008),  describes  the  “transformation”  of   McMaster  University  Library  from  “a  very  traditional  academic  library  to  innovative,  user-­‐ centred  partner  in  teaching,  learning  and  research.”  He  notes  that  “we  moved  from  a  model   based  on  transaction-­‐based  services  to  one  based  on  pedagogy  and  learning  services.”  The   re-­‐positioning  of  the  academic  library  within  the  learning  community  as  a  place  that  values                                                                                                                For  a  list  of  other  Canadian  Association  of  Research  Library  planning  documents,  see  Appendix  D.   4
    • Hooker  -­‐  22   the  educational  experience  embodies  the  collaborative  spirit  of  Web  2.0.  Its  focus  on   innovative  practice  and  technological  developments  has  made  McMaster  Library  a  leader  in   technologies  and  raised  its  profile  within  the  academic  library  community  in  Canada.   Unfortunately,  institutions  must  always  prioritize  and  evaluate  new  and  existing   programs.  In  the  face  of  shrinking  budgets,  librarians  do  not  always  have  the  support   necessary  to  balance  their  existing  job  duties  with  the  rapidly  proliferating  technologies  on   the  web.  However,  as  digital  information  spaces  and  behaviours  shift  as  a  result  of  online   interaction,  academic  library  strategies  must  also  shift  and  adapt. Social media library policy The  urgent  need  for  establishing  social  media  guidelines  and  policy  stems  from  stories   of  misuse  and  perceived  problems  associated  with  so-­‐called  illegal  and  even  nefarious  online   activities.  For  example,  in  late  2009,  a  Prince  Edward  Island  teen  threatened  on  Facebook  to   shoot  his  classmates  (Canadian  Press,  2009).  Also,  in  2008,  a  chemistry  student  at  Ryerson   University  was  expelled  for  establishing  a  Facebook  study  group  (Morrow,  2008).  This  caused   a  public  relations  problem  for  Ryerson  and  seemed  to  be  characterized  in  the  media  as  an   older  generation  being  in  direct  conflict  with  a  savvy  digital  and  younger  one.  In  a  broader   societal  sense,  there  have  been  a  series  of  public  relations  nightmares  for  organizations  both   public  and  private;  for  example,  what  happens  when  an  American  Domino's  Pizza  employee   posts  a  video  to  YouTube  of  himself  tainting  a  pizza  ready  for  delivery  (Kiley,  2009)?  Twitter   has  seen  its  own  backlash,  notably  from  a  FedEx  email  confronting  a  consultant  about  an   unflattering  tweet  (Shankman,  2009).  The  list  goes  on.  
    • Hooker  -­‐  23   Despite  the  risks,  businesses  and  libraries  alike  are  beginning  to  see  the  benefits  of   promoting  their  brands  through  interactive  and  user-­‐focused  media.  However,  a  lack  of   awareness  and  even  confusion  persists  around  what  information  is  private  and  public  in   social  media  and  even  what  it  means  to  be  “social”  in  digital  spaces.  The  academic  library  is   one  of  the  few  institutions  that  can  teach  media  skills  at  reference  desks  and  in  information   workshops.  As  the  risks  to  our  users  and  their  online  identities  grow  in  the  social  media  age,   detailed  guidelines  and  practices  will  be  needed  to  steer  students  toward  trouble-­‐free  web   and  digital  interactions  during  their  education  and  into  their  professional  careers.     Moving  beyond  the  strategic  plan  and  into  a  discussion  of  local  policy  development  is  a   difficult  transition  for  most  organizations  to  make.  Policy  development  is  dependent  on   institutional  priorities  and  whether  a  culture  exists  that  promotes  certain  desirable  attitudes   and  behaviours.  Without  the  support  of  the  institution  at  large,  it  is  difficult  to  imagine   responsible  use  of  social  media  among  students,  let  alone  faculty  or  staff.  It  is  also  difficult  to   establish  the  appropriate  level  of  experimentation  online  versus  strict  rules-­‐based  guidance.   Given  the  potential  for  confusion,  misunderstanding  or  lack  of  awareness,  it  is  critical  that   academic  libraries  review  their  computer  policies  and  guidelines  accordingly  to   accommodate  social  media.   Although  not  specifically  geared  to  academic  libraries,  Kroski  (2009)  is  one  of  the  few   librarians  to  mention  the  necessity  of  writing  coherent  policies  to  support  social  media  usage   in  libraries.  The  article  she  published  in  School  Library  Journal  focuses  on  the  school  library   community,  which  seems  to  have  its  own  peculiar  challenges  that  relate  to  an  academic  
    • Hooker  -­‐  24   model.  School  libraries  have  their  own  online  presence  to  create  but  young  learners  -­‐-­‐  their   primary  patrons  –  also  have  to  be  instructed  about  how  to  present  themselves  in  digital   spaces  if  they  wish  to  do  so.  Concern  for  learners  is  an  emerging  issue  for  academic  libraries   as  well  because  university  students  of  all  ages  engage  in  online  activities  which  may  have  an   impact  at  some  point  later  in  their  professional  lives  if  they  are  not  careful  (e.g.   Careerbuilder.com,  2009).     Despite  the  impact  that  social  media  participation  has  on  users  and  institutions,  Kroski   (2009)  was  unable  to  find  many  existing  policies  for  school,  college  or  public  libraries.  Many   existing  social  media  policies  focus  on  blogging  alone,  likely  because  it  is  the  most  common   tool  used  by  libraries,  and  surely  one  of  the  most  accepted.  Some  libraries  Kroski  identifies   establish  rules  for  patrons,  without  mentioning  any  guidelines  for  the  publication  of  content   by  staff.  Social  media  policies  in  the  corporate  realm,  however,  are  more  specific  and   detailed.  Corporate  policy  seems  to  stem  from  confusion  about  appropriate  use  (e.g.  van   Grove,  2009)  or  due  to  greater  adoption  rates  of  social  media  in  businesses  such  IBM,  Intel   or  HP.  Regardless,  their  institutional  guidelines  outline  social  media  practice  and  encourage   positive  and  constructive  social  media  use  as  much  as  possible.   Policy recommendations One  seminal  example  for  social  media  policy  is  IBM's  Social  Computing  Guidelines,   which  was  originally  drafted  on  a  wiki  in  2005  (IBM,  n.d.  cited  in  Kroski,  2009).  IBM's   guidelines  include  a  general  outline  of  conduct  and  a  detailed  discussion  of  why  these  
    • Hooker  -­‐  25   policies  are  in  place.  The  most  salient  point  comes  early:  IBM  encourages  its  users  to   participate  online  to  learn.   “As  an  innovation-­‐based  company,  we  believe  in  the  importance  of  open  exchange  and   learning―between  IBM  and  its  clients,  and  among  the  many  constituents  of  our  emerging   business  and  societal  ecosystem.  The  rapidly  growing  phenomenon  of  user-­‐generated  web   content―blogging,  social  web-­‐applications  and  networking―are  emerging  important  arenas   for  that  kind  of  engagement  and  learning”  (IBM,  n.d.).     Kroski  (2009)  takes  this  IBM  document  to  heart  in  her  proposal  for  library  policies.  She   says  that  “a  social  media  policy  doesn’t  have  to  be  long  or  read  like  a  tyrannical  list  of  rules.   But  a  few  guidelines  can  go  a  long  way  toward  helping  people  use  social  media  wisely.”  As   more  and  more  libraries  venture  into  social  media,  or  continue  with  their  existing   programming,  it  is  critical  that  they  consider  their  in-­‐house  practices  at  a  time  where  library   budgets  and  programs  are  under  increased  scrutiny.   The  British  Broadcasting  Corporation  (BBC)  has  a  detailed  social  media  policy  that   helps  to  highlight  the  concerns  about  presenting  unbiased  and  newsworthy  content  by   employees  while  encouraging  exploration.  While  academics  may  not  be  accountable  to   taxpayers  in  the  same  way,  many  of  the  concerns  at  the  Crown’s  broadcaster,  such  as  bias   and  organizational  identity,  are  similar  in  nature  to  a  public  university.  The  BBC  lists   guidelines  and  scenarios  of  responsible  usage  of  social  media  without  being  overly  restrictive   and  without  discouraging  innovation  and  experimentation.  They  also  provide  separate   guidelines  for  personal  use  (BBC,  2008b)  as  well  as  professional  (BBC,  2008a).  A  helpful,   detailed  approach  one  that  is  not  needlessly  restrictive  should  be  the  overall  approach  for   academic  libraries  writing  their  own  social  media  guidelines.  For  more  specific  examples  in  
    • Hooker  -­‐  26   the  corporate  realm,  there  is  a  large  database  of  social  media  policies  publically  available  on   the  web  (Boudreaux,  n.d.).   Conclusion and recommendations This  directed  study  has  given  me  an  opportunity  to  examine  social  media  usage  in   academic  libraries  and  within  the  larger  context  of  trends  in  information  technologies,   higher  education  and  lifelong  learning.  The  timely  aspect  of  this  study  is  what  mechanisms   can  be  developed  to  encourage  academic  librarians  to  develop  a  shared  understanding  of  a   way  forward  while  adapting  to  the  inevitable  cultural  changes  that  have  been  brought  about   by  social  media.  In  evaluating  the  literature  on  social  media  in  Canadian  and  American   academic  libraries  and  the  programs  developed  within  those  organizations,  it  seems  obvious   that  academic  librarians  are  at  a  critical  juncture.  Guidelines  for  using  and  integrating  social   media  need  to  written  before  the  tools  can  find  acceptance  in  academic  libraries.  By  taking  a   proactive  approach  to  justify  and  codify  social  media  practices  through  better  planning  and   policy  development,  the  academic  library  can  begin  the  process  of  bridging  a  gap  between   experimental  projects  taken  on  by  personally-­‐motivated  librarians  and  clearly  outlined  web   media  strategies.  Current  literature  does  not  fully  capture  the  strategic  potential  for  social   media  in  academic  libraries,  and  it  may  now  be  necessary  to  establish  best  practice   frameworks  and  model  planning  documents  in  order  to  provide  more  innovative  and   effective  supports  for  this  critical,  emerging  area.   As  a  result  of  undertaking  this  investigation,  I  have  been  able  to  identify  a  number  of   projects  or  logical  next  steps  (recommendations)  that  can  be  taken  in  conjunction  with  other  
    • Hooker  -­‐  27   ideas  as  part  of  a  graduated  approach  to  responding  to  social  media.  Academic  libraries   should  consider  the  following  in  responding  to  the  advent  of  social  media  within  their   organizations,  namely:     1) Consider  an  in-­‐house  training  program  for  library  staff,  perhaps  in  partnership  with   academic  information  technology  (IT)  units,  about  social  media  and  how  to   recognize  the  impact  of  web  2.0  in  scholarly  communication;   2) Consider  hiring  an  emerging  technology  librarian,  or  seconding  an  available   academic  librarian  to  a  project,  whose  main  responsibility  would  be  to  monitor   social  media,  disseminate  its  benefits  and  keep  academic  librarians  apprised  of  key   developments;     3) Consider  a  committee  of  ‘early  adopter’  academic  librarians  who  serve  as  leaders   in  their  institutions  and  share  best  practices  with  faculty  and  students  accordingly.   The  challenge  of  adopting  social  media  in  the  academic  library  is  not  new,  but  only   now  are  librarians  and  scholars  beginning  to  tackle  the  advanced  management  of  social   medial  programming  head  on.  Further  research  on  new  learners  and  information  literacy  will   bolster  the  evidence  needed  for  librarians  to  begin  shifting  institutional  culture.  Additionally,   the  sharing  of  professional  practice  is  always  recommended,  no  matter  the  channel.   However,  the  onus  is  now  on  the  librarians,  managers  and  institutions  to  prepare  the  way   forward  for  social  media  in  the  academic  library.  Our  users  are  changing  along  with  their   information  practices,  and  the  time  has  come  to  bridge  the  information  gap  between  library   experimentation  and  established  service.  We  can  either  meet  our  users  out  there  to   collaborate,  or  wait  endlessly  for  their  return.
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    • Hooker  -­‐  33   Appendices Appendix A: Directed Study Schedule, Fall 2009 Sep  08  –  Sep  12  (1  week)   • Project  outlining  and  discussions   • LIBR  559M:  Module  1   Sep  13  –  Sep  26  (2  week)   • Literature  review:  social  media  in  higher  education   • LIBR  559M:  Modules  1/2   Sep  27  –  Oct  03  (1  week)   • Literature  review:  Social  media  as  learning  tools   • Planning  meeting  held  with  Dean     • LIBR  559M:  Module  2     Oct  04  –  Oct  10  (1  week)   • Literature  review:  Social  media  in  academic  libraries   • LIBR  559M:  Module  3   Oct  11  –  Oct  24  (2  weeks)   • Threading  research,  reviewing  articles  for  narrative   description   • Planning  meeting  held  with  Dean   • Writing  of  Directed  Study  draft  begins   • LIBR  559M:  Modules  3/4   Oct  25  –  Oct  31  (1  week)   • Environmental  scan:  Social  media  policy   • 1st  Directed  Study  draft  submitted  for  review     • LIBR  559M:  Module  4   • “Social  Cataloguing”  wiki  entry  (LIBR  559M)  and   article  (JCHLA)  completed   Nov  01  –  Nov  07  (1  week)   • Environmental  scan:  CARL  Strategic  Plans   • Addition  of  Strategic  planning  literature  to  draft   • Weekly  planning  meetings  begin   • LIBR  559M:  Module  5   Nov  08  –  Nov  14  (1  week)   • 2nd  draft  of  directed  study  completed   • Weekly  planning  meeting   • LIBR  559M:  Module  5   Nov  15  –  Nov  21  (1  week)   • 3rd  draft  of  whole  essay  completed   • Weekly  planning  meeting   • LIBR  559M:  Module  6  
    • Hooker  -­‐  34   Nov  22  –  Nov  28  (1  week)   • Final  draft  of  paper  for  review  by  Dean   • Weekly  planning  meeting   • LIBR  559M:  Module  6   Nov  30  –  Dec  2   • Final  paper  sent  to  Dr.  Mary  Sue  Stephenson   • LIBR  559M:  Final  presentations:  Directed  study,  and   TOTS  session  slides   • Project  Completed  
    • Hooker  -­‐  35   Appendix B: Selected Search Concepts and Sources Social  media  concept  mapping  (Academic  Search  Complete)   • DE  “SOCIAL  computing”   • DE  “SOCIAL  media”   • DE  “SOCIAL  bookmarks”   • DE  “SOCIAL  networks”   • DE  “SOCIAL  network  theory  (Communication)”   • DE  “WEB  2.0”   • DE  “BLOGS”   • DE  “WEB  publishing”   • DE  “WIKIS  (Computer  science)”   • DE  “WEB  analytics”   • DE  “WEB  sites”   • DE  “BOOKMARKS  (Web  sites)”   • DE  “ONLINE  chat  groups”   • DE  “SCHOLARLY  Web  sites”   • DE  “WEB  portals”   • DE  “LIBRARY  2.0”   • DE  “INTERNET  users”   Social  media  concept  mapping  (ERIC)   • DE  “Electronic  Publishing”   • DE  “Web  Sites”   • DE  “Web  Based  Learning”   • DE  “Web  Based  Instruction”   • DE  “Computer  Mediated  Communication”   • DE  “Online  Courses”   • TX  “social  media”   • TX  “web  2.0”   Social  media  concept  mapping  (LISTA)   • DE  “WORLD  Wide  Web”   • DE  “WEB  2.0”   • DE  “BLOGS”   • DE  “Web  Publishing”   • DE  “WEB-­‐Based  Instruction”  
    • Hooker  -­‐  36   • DE  “WIKIS  (Computer  Science)   • DE  “LIBRARY  Web  Sites”   • DE  “SOCIAL  Bookmarks”   • DE  “SOCIAL  Computing”   • DE  “SOCIAL  Informatics”   • DE  “Library  2.0”   • DE  “ACADEMIC  libraries  -­‐-­‐  Effect  of  technological  innovations  on”   Academic  Library  concept  mapping  (Academic  Search  Complete/LISTA)   • DE  “ACADEMIC  libraries”   • DE  “ACADEMIC  libraries  –  Departmental  libraries”   • DE  “AFRICAN  American  academic  libraries”   • DE  “BIBLE  college  libraries”   • DE  “COMMUNITY  college  libraries”   • DE  “FRATERNITY  libraries”   • DE  “JUNIOR  college  libraries”   • DE  “NURSING  school  libraries”   • DE  “PHARMACY  school  libraries”   • DE  “PRIVATE  school  libraries”   • DE  “TEACHERS  college  libraries”   • DE  “TECHNICAL  college  libraries”   • DE  “THEOLOGICAL  seminary  libraries”   • DE  “UNDERGRADUATE  libraries”   Professional  Development  concept  mapping  (ERIC)   • DE  “Professional  Development”   • DE  “Professional  Training”   • DE  “Staff  Development”   • DE  “Faculty  Development”   • DE  “Teacher  Improvement”   • DE  “Professional  Continuing  Education”   • DE  “Professional  Education”  
    • Hooker  -­‐  37   Appendix C: Works Consulted Alexander,  B.  (2008).  Web  2.0  and  emergent  multiliteracies.  Theory  into  Practice,  47(2),   150-­‐160.     Angus,  E.,  Thelwall,  M.,  &  Stuart,  D.  (2008).  General  patterns  of  tag  usage  among  university   groups  in  Flickr.  Online  Information  Review,  32(1),  89-­‐101.       Bell,  S.  J.  (2007).  Building  better  academic  libraries  with  web  2.0  technology  tools.  Library   Issues,  28(2),  1-­‐4.     Berkeley,  L.  (2009).  Media  education  and  new  technology:  A  case  study  of  major  curriculum   change  within  a  university  media  degree.  Journal  of  Media  Practice,  10(2/3),  185-­‐197.     Booth,  C.  (2008).  Developing  Skype-­‐based  reference  services.  Internet  Reference  Services   Quarterly,  13(2/3),  147-­‐165.     Bordeaux,  A.,  &  Boyd,  M.  (2007).  Blogs,  wikis  and  podcasts:  Social  software  in  the  library.   Serials  Librarian,  52(3/4),  263-­‐269.     Braender,  L.  M.,  Kapp,  C.  M.,  &  Yeras,  J.  (2009).  Using  web  technology  to  teach  students   about  their  digital  world.  Journal  of  Information  Systems  Education,  20(2),  145-­‐153.     Camihort,  K.  M.  (2009).  Students  as  creators  of  knowledge:  When  Wikipedia  is  the   assignment.  Athletic  Therapy  Today,  14(2),  30-­‐34.     Caverly,  D.  C.,  &  Ward,  A.  (2008).  Techtalk:  Wikis  and  collaborative  knowledge  construction.   Journal  of  Developmental  Education,  32(2),  36-­‐37.     Chew,  I.  (2009).  Librarians  2.0:  Sowing  padi  in  (the)  SEA.  Program:  Electronic  Library  &   Information  Systems,  43(3),  275-­‐287.     Chretien,  K.,  Goldman,  E.,  &  Faselis,  C.  (2008).  The  reflective  writing  class  blog:  Using   technology  to  promote  reflection  and  professional  development.  JGIM:  Journal  of   General  Internal  Medicine,  23(12),  2066-­‐2070.     Chu,  S.  K.  E.  A.  (2009).  Using  wikis  in  academic  libraries.  Journal  of  Academic  Librarianship,   35(2),  170-­‐176.     Churchill,  D.  (2009).  Educational  applications  of  web  2.0:  Using  blogs  to  support  teaching   and  learning.  British  Journal  of  Educational  Technology,  40(1),  179-­‐183.     City  uni  turns  the  twitter  generation  professional.  (2009).  Information  World  Review,  (257),   03-­‐03.     Collis,  B.,  &  Moonen,  J.  (2008).  Web  2.0  tools  and  processes  in  higher  education:  Quality   perspectives.  Educational  Media  International,  45(2),  93-­‐106.    
    • Hooker  -­‐  38   Cooke,  N.  A.  E.  A.  (2009).  Library  instruction  2.0.  Public  Services  Quarterly,  5(2),  114-­‐124.     Cooper,  J.  D.,  &  May,  A.  (2009).  Library  2.0  at  a  small  campus  library.  Technical  Services   Quarterly,  26(2),  89-­‐95.     Costa,  C.  (2007).  A  professional  development  weblog:  Supporting  work-­‐based  learning  in  a   TAFE  library.  Australian  Library  Journal,  56(1),  36-­‐55.     George,  A.  S.  (2007).  Imagining  Tomorrow's  Future  Today.  EDUCAUSE  Review,  42(6),  106-­‐ 126.       Glazer,  H.  (2009).  Clever  outreach  or  costly  diversion?  College  &  Research  Libraries  News,   70(1),  11-­‐19.     Godwin,  P.  (2009).  Library  2.0  and  information  literacy:  An  overview.  Refer,  25(1),  8-­‐10.     Greenhow,  C.,  Robelia,  B.,  &  Hughes,  J.  E.  (2009).  Response  to  Comments:  Research  on   Learning  and  Teaching  With  Web  2.0:  Bridging  Conversations.  Educational  Researcher,   38(4),  280-­‐283.  doi:  10.3102/0013189X09336675     Haupt,  J.  E.  A.  (2007).  From  zero  to  wiki:  Proposing  and  implementing  a  library  wiki.  Journal   of  Web  Librarianship,  1(1),  77.     Hazari,  S.,  North,  A.,  &  Moreland,  D.  (2009).  Investigating  pedagogical  value  of  wiki   technology.  Journal  of  Information  Systems  Education,  20(2),  187-­‐198.     Hedreen,  R.  C.,  Johnson,  J.  L.,  Lundy,  M.  A.,  Burnette,  P.,  Perryman,  C.,  Van  Den  Brekel,  G.,   et  al.  (2008).  Exploring  virtual  librarianship:  Second  life  library  2.0.  Internet  Reference   Services  Quarterly,  13(2/3),  167-­‐195.     Higdon,  J.,  &  Topaz,  C.  (2009).  Blogs  and  wikis  as  instructional  tools:  a  social  software   adaptation  of  Just-­‐in-­‐Time  teaching.  College  Teaching,  57(2),  105-­‐110.       Hinton,  M.  J.  (2008).  Reading  the  academic  library  blog  through  the  lens  of  genre  theory:  A   preliminary  discussion.  Internet  Reference  Services  Quarterly,  13(4),  347-­‐361.     Holmes,  K.,  &  Dubinsky,  E.  (2009).  Integration  of  Web  2.0  Technologies  in  the  Translational   Research  Environment.  Medical  Reference  Services  Quarterly,  28(4),  309-­‐335.   doi:10.1080/02763860903249027.   Horwath,  J.  (2007).  Social  tools:  More  than  just  a  good  time?  Partnership:  The  Canadian   Journal  of  Library  &  Information  Practice  &  Research,  2(1),  1-­‐7.     James,  D.  E.  A.,  Garrett,  M.,  &  Krevit,  L.  (2009).  Discovering  discovery  tools  evaluating   vendors  and  implementing  web  2.0  environments.  Library  Hi  Tech,  27(2),  268-­‐276.     Knobel,  M.,  &  Lankshear,  C.  (2009).  Wikis,  digital  literacies,  and  professional  growth.  Journal   of  Adolescent  &  Adult  Literacy,  52(7),  631-­‐634.    
    • Hooker  -­‐  39   Kroski,  E.  E.  A.  (2007).  The  social  tools  of  web  2.0:  Opportunities  for  academic  libraries.   Choice:  Current  Reviews  for  Academic  Libraries,  44(12),  2011-­‐2021.     Law,  D.  (2009).  Academic  digital  libraries  of  the  future:  An  environment  scan.  New  Review  of   Academic  Librarianship,  15(1),  53-­‐67.     Lee,  M.  J.  W.,  Miller,  C.,  &  Newnham,  L.  (2008).  RSS  and  content  syndication  in  higher   education:  Subscribing  to  a  new  model  of  teaching  and  learning.  Educational  Media   International,  45(4),  311-­‐322.     Lehavot,  K.  (2009).  “MySpace”  or  yours?  the  ethical  dilemma  of  graduate  students'  personal   lives  on  the  internet.  Ethics  &  Behavior,  19(2),  129-­‐141.     Linh,  N.  C.  E.  A.  (2008).  A  survey  of  the  application  of  web  2.0  in  Australasian  university   libraries.  Library  Hi  Tech,  26(4),  630-­‐653.     Magolda,  P.  M.,  &  Platt,  G.  J.  (2009).  Untangling  web  2.0's  influences  on  student  learning.   About  Campus,  14(3),  10-­‐16.     Maloney,  E.  J.  (2007).  What  web  2.0  can  teach  us  about  learning.  Chronicle  of  Higher   Education,  53(18),  B26.     McGrail,  J.  P.,  &  McGrail,  E.  (2009).  What's  wrong  with  copyright:  Educator  strategies  for   dealing  with  analog  copyright  law  in  a  digital  world.  Innovate:  Journal  of  Online   Education,  5(3),  6-­‐11.     Minocha,  S.  (2009).  A  study  on  the  effective  use  of  social  software  by  further  and  higher   education  in  the  UK  to  support  student  learning  and  engagement.  Bristol,  England:  JISC.   Retrieved  from  http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/projects/effective-­‐use-­‐of-­‐ social-­‐software-­‐in-­‐education-­‐finalreport.pdf     Myhill,  M.  E.  A.,  Shoebridge,  M.  E.  A.,  &  Snook,  L.  E.  A.  (2009).  Virtual  research   environments  -­‐  a  web  2.0  cookbook?  Library  Hi  Tech,  27(2),  228-­‐238.     Nackerud,  S.,  &  Scaletta,  K.  (2008).  Blogging  in  the  academy.  New  Directions  for  Student   Services,  (124),  71-­‐87.     Neal,  J.  G.  (2009).  What  do  users  want?  What  do  users  need?  W(h)ither  the  academic   research  library?  Journal  of  Library  Administration,  49(5),  463-­‐468.     Neuhaus,  C.,  Neuhaus,  E.,  &  Asher,  A.  (2008).  Google  Scholar  goes  to  school:  The  presence   of  Google  Scholar  on  college  and  university  web  sites.  Journal  of  Academic  Librarianship,   34(1),  39-­‐51.     Norton,  P.,  &  Hathaway,  D.  (2008).  On  its  way  to  K-­‐12  classrooms,  web  2.0  goes  to  graduate   school.  Computers  in  the  Schools,  25(3/4),  163-­‐180.    
    • Hooker  -­‐  40   Olson,  W.  (2009).  Where  did  you  get  that  keychain?  City  Journal.  Retrieved  October  17,   2009,  from  http://www.city-­‐journal.org/2009/eon1016wo.html   Oxford,  S.  (2009).  Being  creative  with  web  2.0  in  academic  liaison.  Library  &  Information   Update,  8(5),  40-­‐41.     Reichardt,  R.  (2008).  How  may  I  help  thee?  Let  me  count  the  2.0  ways.  Internet  Reference   Services  Quarterly,  13(2/3),  271-­‐280.     Reinhardt,  W.,  Ebner,  M.,  Beham,  G.,  &  Costa,  C.  (2009).  How  People  are  using  Twitter   during  Conferences.  In  V.  Hornung-­‐Prahauser  &  M.  Luckmann  (Eds.),  Creativity  and   Innovation  Competencies  on  the  Web  (pp.  145-­‐156).  Presented  at  the  5th  EduMedia   conference,  Salzburg,  Austria.  Retrieved  from  http://lamp.tu-­‐ graz.ac.at/~i203/ebner/publication/09_edumedia.pdf   Rhoades,  E.  B.,  Friedel,  C.  R.,  &  Morgan,  A.  C.  (2009).  Can  web  2.0  improve  our   collaboration?  Techniques:  Connecting  Education  and  Careers,  84(1),  24-­‐27.     Robertson,  M.  J.,  &  Jones,  J.  G.  (2009).  Exploring  academic  library  users'  preferences  of   delivery  methods  for  library  instruction.  Reference  &  User  Services  Quarterly,  48(3),  259-­‐ 269.     Ronan,  J.,  Reakes,  P.,  &  Ochoa,  M.  (2006).  Application  of  reference  guidelines  in  chat   reference  interactions:  A  study  of  online  reference  skills.  College  &  Undergraduate   Libraries,  13(4),  3-­‐23.     Sennyey,  P.,  Ross,  L.,  &  Mills,  C.  (2009).  Exploring  the  future  of  academic  libraries:  A   definitional  approach.  Journal  of  Academic  Librarianship,  35(3),  252-­‐259.     Smith,  L.  (2007).  Elsevier  dips  toe  in  web  2.0  water.  Information  World  Review,  (240),  2-­‐02.     So,  H.,  Lossman,  H.,  Lim,  W.,  &  Jacobson,  M.  J.  (2009).  Designing  an  online  video  based   platform  for  teacher  learning  in  Singapore.  Australasian  Journal  of  Educational   Technology,  25(3),  440-­‐457.     Sperring,  D.  (2008).  Libraries,  the  Internet,  web  2.0  and  library  2.0.  One-­‐Person  Library,   25(2),  5-­‐6.     Stephens,  M.,  &  Collins,  M.  (2007).  Web  2.0,  library  2.0,  and  the  hyperlinked  library.  Serials   Review,  33(4),  253-­‐256.     Väljataga,  T.,  &  Fiedler,  S.  (2009).  Supporting  students  to  self-­‐direct  intentional  learning   projects  with  social.  Journal  of  Educational  Technology  &  Society,  12(3),  58-­‐69.     Villano,  M.  (2008).  Taking  the  "A"  out  of  asynchronous.  Campus  Technology,  21(11),  38-­‐40.    
    • Hooker  -­‐  41   West,  R.,  Wright,  G.,  Gabbitas,  B.,  &  Graham,  C.  (2006).  Reflections  from  the  introduction  of   blogs  and  RSS  feeds  into  a  preservice  instructional  technology  course.  TechTrends:   Linking  Research  &  Practice  to  Improve  Learning,  50(4),  54-­‐60.     Wright,  G.,  van  der  Heijden,  K.,  Burt,  G.,  Bradfield,  R.,  &  Cairns,  G.  (2008).  Scenario  planning   interventions  in  organizations:  An  analysis  of  the  causes  of  success  and  failure.  Futures,   40(3),  218-­‐236.  doi:  10.1016/j.futures.2007.08.019    
    • Hooker  -­‐  42   Appendix D: Selected Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL) Strategic Plans Dalhousie  University  Libraries   • http://www.library.dal.ca/About/Documents   McGill  University  Library  and  Collections   • http://www.mcgill.ca/library/library-­‐about/general/   McMaster  University  Library     • http://library.mcmaster.ca/mission   University  of  Alberta  Libraries   • http://www.library.ualberta.ca/aboutus/strategicplan/   University  of  British  Columbia  Library   • http://www.library.ubc.ca/home/planning/   University  of  Calgary  Libraries  and  Cultural  Resources   • http://lcr.ucalgary.ca/publications   University  of  Manitoba  Libraries   • http://www.umanitoba.ca/libraries/publications/   University  of  Ottawa  Library   • http://www.biblio.uottawa.ca/content-­‐page.php?g=en&s=biblio&c=abt-­‐ strategiq   University  of  Regina  Library   • http://www.uregina.ca/library/about/mission.shtml   University  of  Saskatchewan  Library   • http://library.usask.ca/aboutLibrary   University  of  Toronto  Libraries  
    • Hooker  -­‐  43   • http://discover.library.utoronto.ca/general-­‐information/about-­‐the-­‐ library/mission-­‐statement   University  of  Victoria  Libraries   • http://library.uvic.ca/site/about/ulo.html      
    • Hooker  -­‐  44   Appendix E: Example Social Media Policy Blogging   Blogging  is  a  very  public  way  of  sharing  your  ideas.  Remember  that  you  are   representing  the  institution,  especially  if  you  are  using  the  institutional  blogging  platform.  If   it  is  a  personal  blog,  make  a  clear  statement  that  the  views  expressed  on  your  blog  are  your   own  and  are  not  associated  with  your  employer.  Blog  posts  are  generally  best  if  kept   somewhere  between  400-­‐600  words,  and  contain  links  to  appropriate  content  to  heighten   interactivity  with  readers.  Make  sure  when  configuring  your  blog  to  make  the  RSS  feed  easily   available,  and  to  provide  clear  links  back  to  the  library  home  page.     Twitter     Twitter  is  one  of  the  most  popular,  rising  social  media  tools  in  2009.  However,  it  has  its   own  challenges.  For  example,  if  your  tweets  are  public  remember  that  they  are  “broadcast”   when  composing  tweets.  Remember  that  much  of  Twitter's  value  lies  in  your  ability  to  share   information  and  to  be  publicly  findable.  Twitter's  value  comes  from  a  good  balance  of   professional  resource  sharing  and  a  reasonable  dose  of  personality.  Avoid  mechanical  linking   with  only  titles,  and  always  strive  to  add  value  to  your  network.  Express  opinions  politely,   and  participate  in  constructive  conversation.     If  you  have  a  personal  Twitter  account,  it  is  OK  to  advocate  and  share  library  resources   with  your  network,  but  ensure  that  you  have  stated  that  this  account  represents  your  views,   and  not  the  library's.  If  you  manage  a  library  Twitter  account,  use  your  best  judgment  to  
    • Hooker  -­‐  45   ensure  that  you  are  sharing  library  specific  resources  on  the  feed,  and  to  keep  things   relevant  or  connected  to  your  department  when  possible.   Facebook   With  the  ability  to  use  Facebook  as  a  library's  homepage,  it  is  easy  to  establish  a  non-­‐ invasive  presence  on  this  service.  Pages  can  be  created  to  represent  different  library   departments  but  ensure  that  a  page  you  create  does  not  overlap  with  another  pages.  Seek  a   fan  base,  and  provide  regular  new  links  and  wall  posts,  but  avoid  sending  too  many  updates   that  will  be  broadcast  to  everyone's  News  Feed.  Again,  use  your  best  judgment,  and  think   about  how  much  you  would  like  to  see  coming  from  your  library  on  Facebook.   Other  services   Experiment  with  other  services  that  you  deem  necessary  or  are  interested  in  gauging   value  for  your  department.  If  the  service  turns  out  to  be  useful,  seek  to  establish  a  best  use   case  for  your  team,  draft  use  guidelines  for  other  staff,  and  involve  other  team  members  and   supervisors  as  appropriate.  If  the  service  is  deemed  to  be  not  useful  for  you  or  your  library's   purpose,  seek  to  delete  your  account.  Remember  that  an  unused  or  outdated  profile  sends  a   negative  message  to  our  users.   General  social  media  etiquette:  When  establishing  a  library  service  within  a  service's   community,  seek  out  other  librarians  that  use  the  service  to  connect  with,  and  glean  best   practices  from.  Critically  evaluate  the  service,  and  seek  to  formulate  a  list  of  the  service's  
    • Hooker  -­‐  46   benefits.  This  need  not  be  a  formal  list,  but  be  prepared  to  share  reasons  that  you  think  a   particular  social  media  tool  is  worth  your  time.   Monitoring     If  you  are  participating  in  social  media,  be  sure  to  periodically  search  popular  search   engines  and  social  media  sites  (e.g.  Google,  Twitter  Search,  Delicious)  for  mentions  of  your   library's  name  or  services.  Respond  to  posts  as  necessary.  Remember  social  media  are  about   being  social!  Don't  be  afraid  to  comment  or  participate  in  discussions,  but  do  keep  in  mind   who  you  are  speaking  for  or  about  when  online.  Use  your  conversational  instincts.  Don't  say   anything  online  you  wouldn't  say  out  loud  to  a  group  of  your  peers  and  supervisors.