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Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
Ventilatory support in special situations   balamugesh
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Ventilatory support in special situations balamugesh

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  • volume versus pressure controlled ventilation in ARDS have been reported but have been too small to detect any important outcome differences. Whatever mode of ventilation is used, it is now clear that
  • Transcript

    • 1. Ventilatory support in special situations Dr.Balamugesh.T, MD, DM Dept. of Pulmonary Medicine, CMC, Vellore.
    • 2. And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils and breath of life, and man become a living soul. Genesis 2:7
    • 3.
      • ARDS
      • COPD
      • Bronchial asthma
      • Bronchopleural fistula
    • 4. ARDS
      • Acute onset
      • Hypoxia- PaO2/FiO2<200
      • Bilateral infiltrates on CXR
      • Absence of left atrial hypertension
      Mortality - 26% to 74%
    • 5. Eddy Fan, JAMA. 2005;294
    • 6. “ baby lung” Eddy Fan, JAMA. 2005;294
    • 7. Ventilation Induced Lung Injury
      • Volutrauma – over distention of alveoli
      • Barotrauma – high inflation pressures
      • Atelectrauma - repetitive opening and closing of alveoli
      • Biotrauma - up-regulated cytokine release
      • Oxygen toxicity
    • 8. Ventilation in ARDS
      • Which mode?
      • How much FiO2?
      • How much PEEP?
      • How much VT?
      • Target?
      • What if refractory ARDS?
    • 9. Which mode?
      • Volume assist/control commonly used
      • Plateau-pressure goal ≤30 cm of water
      ARDS Clinical Trials Network
    • 10. How much FiO2?
      • Least FiO2 to achieve Oxygenation goal
        • PaO2 55–80 mm Hg
        • SpO2 88–95%
      • FiO2 > 60% risk of oxygen toxicity.
    • 11. How much Tidal volume? ARDS Network
      • Low tidal volume -31%
      • (6 mL/kg predicted body weight)
      • Conventional tidal volume -40%
      • (12 mL/kg)
      Mortality
    • 12. PEEP
      • Improves oxygenation by providing movement of fluid from the alveolar to the interstitial space,
      • Prevent cyclical alveolar collapse
      • Recruitment of small airways collapsed alveoli,
      • Increase in FRC
    • 13. Open Lung Ventilation (OLV)
      • Objective - maintenance of adequate oxygenation and avoidance of cyclic opening and closing of alveolar units by selecting a level of PEEP that allows the majority of units to remain inflated during tidal ventilation
      • Trade off - Hypercapnia
    • 14. PEEP….
      • The lower inflection point on the static pressure–volume curve represents alveolar opening (or “recruitment”).
      • “optimal PEEP” - The pressure just above this point, is best for alveolar recruitment
      • usually 10 to 18 mmHg
    • 15. optimal PEEP J J Cordingley, Thorax 2002;57
    • 16. How much PEEP?
      • Low PEEP(8.3±3.2 cm of water)
      • High PEEP (13.2±3.5 cm)
      • No difference in outcomes if VT- 6ml/kg and Plat. Pressure <30cm
      N Engl J Med 2004;351
    • 17. Permissive hypercapia –
      • usually well tolerated
      • Consequences
        • myocardial depression,
        • Pulmonary hypertension
        • Raised ICT
      • Increase RR
      • Judicious bicarbonate
      • Tracheal gas insufflation – to wash out dead space CO2
    • 18. Protective lung ventilation protocol from the ARDSNet study
      • Initial tidal volume – 6ml/kg
      • Plat. Pressure <30cm H 2 0
      • Oxygenation goal PaO 2 = 55 - 80 mmHg or pulse oximetry oxygen saturation 88–95%
      • I:E ratio 1:1–1:3
      • Goal arterial pH = 7.30–7.40 
        • If pH < 7.30, increase respiratory rate up to 35 breaths/min 
        • If pH < 7.30 and respiratory rate = 35, consider starting intravenous bicarbonate
    • 19. Refractory hypoxia
      • 1. Neuromuscular blocking agents (if not already in use)
      • 2. Prone position ventilation
      • 3. Recruitment maneuvers
      • 4. Inverse ratio ventilation,
      • 5. Miscellaneous –
        • nitric oxide,
        • high-frequency ventilation,
        • extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, or
        • partial liquid ventilation
    • 20. Prone position ventilation
      • Improve oxygenation
        • Better FRC
        • Recruitment of dorsal lung
        • Better clearance of secretion
        • Better ventilation-perfusion matching
      • Potential problems
        • facial oedema, eye damage
        • dislodgment of endotracheal tubes and intravascular catheters
        • Difficulty in resuscitation
      No differences in clinical outcome
    • 21. Recruitment manoeuvres
      • Sigh function in ventilators
      • By ambu bag
      • Sustained inflation or CPAP of 30-45 cm H 2 0 for 20-120 sec.
    • 22. Inverse ratio ventilation
      • Prolongation of the inspiratory time as a method of recruitment
      • Pressure control ventilation to increase the I:E ratio to 1:1 or 2:1
      • hyperinflation and the generation of intrinsic PEEP
    • 23. Obstructive lung disease
      • COPD
      • Asthma
    • 24. Indications for NIV for AE-COPD GOLD 2005
    • 25. Exclusion criteria GOLD 2005
    • 26. Indications for Invasive Mechanical Ventilation GOLD 2005
    • 27. Think twice
      • Reversibility of the precipitating event,
      • Patient’s/relative’s wishes, and
      • Availability of intensive care facilities
      • Failure to wean
      Mortality among COPD patients with respiratory failure is no greater than mortality among patients ventilated for non-COPD causes GOLD 2005
    • 28. Post-Intubation hypotension
      • Reduced venous return secondary to positive intrathoracic pressure due to bagging
      • Direct vasodilation and reduced sympathetic tone induced by sedative agents
    • 29. Mechanical ventilation
      • Avoid overcorrection of respiratory acidosis and life threatening alkalosis.
      • Prolonged expiratory time. I:E – 1:2.5 to 1:3.
      • Low Respiratory Rate- 10-14/mt.
      • Limited tidal volume
    • 30. PEEP
      • PEEPe beneficial
        • Reduce gas trapping by stenting open the airways
        • Reduce the work to trigger inspiratory flow
      • As PEEPe is applied, tidal volume will increase without an increase in airway pressure until PEEPe exceeds PEEPi
    • 31. Post extubation NIV
      • Allow early extubation
      • Prevent post extubation respiratory failure
    • 32. Asthma
    • 33. NIV in asthma
      • Few trials
      • Trial of NIV over 1–2 hours in an ICU if there are no contraindications
    • 34. NIV in acute bronchial asthma
      • FEV1<40%, PaCO2 <40mm Hg
      • Conventional medical management Vs BiPAP 15/5 for 3 hours
      Chest. 2003;123
    • 35. NIV in asthma….
        • 80% NIV group increased FEV1 by >50% as compared to baseline, vs 20% of control patients (p < 0.004)
        • alleviate the attack faster, and
        • significantly reduce the need for hospitalization.
    • 36. Endotracheal intubation
      • Absolute indications
        • Cardiopulmonary arrest and
        • Deteriorating consciousness
      • Relative
        • Progressive deterioration, hypercapnia with increasing distress or physical exhaustion
    • 37.
      • Intubation performed/supervised by experienced anaesthetists or intensivists
      • Use larger endotracheal tube
    • 38. • FiO 2 = 1.0 (initially) • Long expiratory time (I:E ratio >1:2) • Low tidal volume 5–7 ml/kg • Low ventilator rate (8–10 breaths/min) • Set inspiratory pressure 30–35 cm H2O on pressure control ventilation or limit peak inspiratory pressure to <40 cm H2O • Minimal PEEP <5 cm H2O
    • 39. Aerosol delivery
      • Metered dose inhaler (MDI) system
      • • Spacer or holding chamber
      • • Location in inspiratory limb rather than Y piece
      • • No humidification (briefly discontinue)
      • • Actuate during lung inflation
      • • Large endotracheal tube internal diameter
      • • Prolonged inspiratory time
    • 40.
      • Jet nebuliser system
      • • Mount nebuliser in inspiratory limb
      • • Consider continuous nebulisation
      • • Increase inspiratory time and decrease respiratory rate
      • • Use a spacer
      • • Stop humidification
      • • Delivery may be improved by inspiratory triggering
    • 41. Ventilator strategies in Bronchopleural fistula
    • 42.
      • Air escaping through the BPF
        • delays healing of the fistulous track
        • significant loss of tidal volume, jeopardizing the minute ventilation and oxygenation
    • 43. Measures to reduce air-leak
      • Limit the amount of PEEP
      • Limit the effective tidal volume,
      • Shorten inspiratory time,
      • Reduce respiratory rate.
      • Use of double-lumen intubation with differential lung ventilation,
    • 44. Chest tube
      • To add positive intrapleural pressure during the expiratory phase to maintain PEEP
      • Occlusion during the inspiratory phase to decrease BPF flow
    • 45. High-frequency ventilation (HFV)
      • Useful in patients with normal lung parenchyma and proximal BPF
      • Limited value in patients with distal disease and parenchymal disease.

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