12 trauma – initial assessement and managementPresentation Transcript
Trauma – initial assessement and management. Paweł Grala Klinika Chirurgii Urazowej, Leczenia Oparzeń, Chirurgii Plastycznej AM w Poznaniu Kierownik Kliniki: Prof. dr hab. med. Krzysztof Słowiński
“ Trauma ” - expression comprising a spectrum of severity of mechanical violation of tissues, from a little scratch to a multiply injured patient. - also surgical intervention.
seconds to minutes minutes to hours GOLDEN HOUR several days or weeks Trauma - the leading cause of death in the first four decades of life Death from trauma has a trimodal distribution: within
Prehospital – control airway, external hemorrhage, rapid transport
Primary survey - initial assesement and resuscitation of vital functions, prioritization (based on ABC DEFG)
An organized consistent approach to the trauma patient optimal outcome. The Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) adopted by the American College of Surgeons in 1979. The primary focus of ATLS is on the first hour of trauma management - rapid assessment and resuscitation THE GOLDEN HOUR
The primary survey – life threatening conditions are identified and management is begun simultaneously!
A - Airway maintenance with cervical spine control
B - Breathing and ventilation
C - Circulation with hemorrhage control
D - Disability : neurological status
E - Exposure : completely undress the patient
Airway / Breathing All patients should be transported/treated initially with supplemental oxygen.
immobilization of the C-spine
combination of a hard collar and sandbags on opposite sides of the head
Airway / Breathing
establishing verbal contact with the patient - clear phonation by the patient establishes that the airway is patent.
further intervention depends on:
- neurologic stability
- adequacy of gas exchange and the potential for airway compromise
decreased level of consciousness is considered to be intracranial pathology until proven otherwise (drugs, alkohol)
brief neuro exam (done during the primary survey):
A - A lert
V - responds to V erbal stimuli
P - responds to P ainful stimuli
U - U nresponsive
Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS):
GCS < 8 requires definite airway intervention to prevent aspiration pneumonitis, to insure adequate oxygen delivery and to avoid hypercarbia.
If a patient is responding only to painful stimuli or is unresponsive/unconscious, the GCS is or has a high likelihood of being less than 8.
Adequacy of Gas Exchange
airway patency does not insure adequate ventilation
nature of the injury: maxillofacial trauma/airway burns - potential for airway compromise, obvious airway or chest trauma (sucking chest wounds, flail segments), cyanosis
tachypnea, use of accessory muscles of respiration or evidence of tracheal shift
Adequacy of Gas Exchange
stridor upper airway compromise.
hyperresonance to percussion/lack of air entry pneumothorax
dullness to percussion/lack of air entry hemothorax.
bowel sounds in the chest ruptured diaphragm.
Adequacy of Gas Exchange
hand over the mouth - feel for air exchange.
Insertion of a finger - sweep to clear the mouth of any foreign bodies (especially dislodged teeth) and to evaluate for evidence of maxillofacial trauma.
ABG`s - more complete picture of the patient; feedback on oxygenation, ventilation and tissue perfusion
pitfalls - a defined waiting period (institution dependent)..
Securing the Airway - endotracheal intubation (inspection of th airway, suction of blood and secretions, bag mask ventillation) - possible spinal cord or direct traumatic tracheal injuries surgical airway - translaryngeal intubation
Immediate - apnea
Emergent - hypoventilation, significant head injury, cyanosis
Urgent - burns, maxillofacial injury and cervical hematomas will likely require a secure airway to prevent upper airway obstruction; chest wall and pulmonary injuries are usually initially well compensated but may eventually require mechanical ventilation
there is often time for a history, appropriate physical exam and cervical radiographs
Securing the Airway
Blind nasotracheal intubation vs direct orotracheal intubation
Determined by the experience of the physician
Blind nasotracheal intubation:
requires a spontaneously breathing unconscious or cooperative conscious patient, unacceptable failure rate (35%) - requires 3.7 vs. 1.3 oral attempts, contraindicated if basal skull or mid-face fracture.
can precipitate epistaxis (may interfere with subsequent alternative attempts at intubation if unsuccessful).
high incidence of sinusitis if a tube is left in place greater than 72 hours.
Assume the cervical spine to be unstable until proven otherwise
up to 50% of patients sustaining C-spine trauma develop neurologic abnormalities (nerve root compression and weakness to quadri- plegia and death).
10% of patients with C-spine injury are initially neurologically intact, but develop deficits during the course of emergency care
risks of airway management
bone and soft tissue
X-ray exam: „one view is no view”, L-all 7C+Th1 (30% inj.C7Th1), AP-vertical alignment of the spinous and articular process and abnormalities in joint and disc spaces, open mouth view - integrity of the atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial joints, the odontoid process, oblique – intervert. foramina
ACS definition - a patient evaluation that identifies and catalogues all injuries after the initial resuscitation and operative intervention
2 - 50% of combined life threatening and non-life threatening injuries are missed during primary and secondary surveys
timing is institution specific (typically occurs within 24 h after admission and is repeated when the patient is awake, responsive, and able to communicate any complaints).
is a comprehensive review of the medical record with emphasis on the mechanism of injury and pertinent co-morbid factors such as age, includes the repetition of the primary and secondary surveys, a review of all laboratory data, and a review of radiographic studies with an attending radiologist