The Roman Empire
Inevitably Greek culture influenced the
Roman Empire ; bakery know-how was
transformed and really flourished.
During the fourth century A.D., evidence
also emerges of the first pastry-cook’s
association or pastillarium” in those times
Records show that already in the
years 2600-2100 B.C. bread was
baked by who it is believed had
learned the skill from the
A relief representing the royal
bakery of Ramses features bread and
cakes, some of these were shaped in
the form of animals and used for
The term baking means the use of
heat in an oven to convert flour,
water, yeast, sugar and such, into
Baking is a way of preparing food by the
process of conduction, generally in a closed
In the process of baking, starch content in the
food is processed usually decreased that
provides the food a brown color which lends it
an attractive and appetizing look.
On today’s market there is a never
ending variety of the most delicious
sweets and pastries to please both the
palate and the eyes.
Baking pastries are a little more
complicated because everything is
measured to the exact amount needed
no more or less.
The baked food even lasts long. It
does not stale easily, as it contains
Caramelization of sugar is a
reaction that gives the food a
golden brown color.
Also when the baked goods are
fully cooked they are usually light
golden brown to a deep golden
Everything has to be perfect or the product being made
won’t come out the way it is suppose to be.
Cooking is much more different. It isn’t measured just
added by eye or to the taste.
• The French are Responsible for
making several pastry dough's.
• They are the ones who created Puff
Pastry which is a flour and water
dough that has butter in between
• When the dough is being baked the
dough rises because of the butter
being evaporated, the steam from the
water in the butter causes it to rise
and that were the term puff pastry
Danish pastry was
created by the
This is a yeast dough
that has butter
between each layer
and is usually eaten
for breakfast or as a
There are several
types of Danish
Pate Choux is a type of dough that is
The dough is made of flour, water, milk,
eggs, and salt.
First it is cooked in a pot and then in the
This dough is used for sweet and savory
Petit Fours are small
cakes, and cookies.
They are usually served
at wedding and big
parties or meetings.
They are many varieties
of petit fours.
Petit Fours in French
means little oven.
They are also they most
expensive because they
are so hard to decorate.
They range from $1.50-
$4.00 a piece.
BREAD FLOUR - Contains the largest
amount of protein 12 TO 14 %. Bread flour
is used for yeast raised bread because the
dough it produces has more gluten than
dough made with other flours.
TYPES OF FLOUR
ALL PURPOSE FLOUR
- Contains 10 -12% protein.This is
sometimes referred to as family flour
or general flour.
- Is blended during milling to achieve a
protein content of 10.5 percent. This
medium protein flour can be used for
all baking purposes. If using all
purpose flour in place of cake flour in
a recipe, substitute 1 cup minus 2
tablespoons all purpose flour for 1 cup
- Contains the least
percentage of protein. It
is also called as “weak
- Is a soft wheat flour that
is 7.5 percent protein. The
lower gluten content
causes products to have a
tender, more crumbly
texture that is desirable in
READY MIXED FLOUR-
Are “premixed” flour. Some ingredients
such as salt, baking powder, milk solids
and sugar have been added
Has about 6.5-7 protein and does not
form gluten. For people who do not
tolerate gluten, rice flour is an
acceptable substitute for wheat,
barley, rye or oat flours. In baked
products, 7/8 cup of non-waxy rice
flour can be used in place of 1 cup all
purpose wheat flour.
Another non-gluten forming flour is usually used
in combination with other flours. It has a mild
potato taste. For substitutions, 5/8 cup of potato
flour can be used for 1 cup of all purpose flour.
Contains 50 percent protein and is used primarily
to boost the protein content of baked goods. Soy
flour cannot form gluten and does not contain
starch. Its use in large amounts affects the taste of
baked goods and causes them to brown quickly.
An acceptable substitution is to take 2 tablespoons
flour out of each cup of flour in a recipe and add 2
tablespoons soy flour
POTATO STARCH FLOUR
is often used in combination with
wheat flour for bread. Light rye flour
can be successfully substituted for 40
percent of wheat flour in a recipe
without loss of volume. Medium and
dark rye flours should be limited to 30
percent and 20 percent, respectively, of
the total flour amount
flour may be substituted for part of the white flour in
yeast and quick bread recipes, but the volume of the
finished product will be reduced. Whole wheat flour
contains the nutritious germ and bran as well as the
endosperm of the wheat kernel. Bran particles cut
through the gluten during mixing and kneading of bread
dough, resulting in a smaller, heavier loaf. If substituting
a very coarsely ground whole wheat flour for all purpose
flour, use 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons whole wheat flour for
every cup of all purpose flour. To substitute whole wheat
flour in a white bread recipe, use half whole wheat and
half bread flour for the best results.
has a relatively high protein content, 17 percent, but
does not form gluten. Oat flour can be substituted for
as much as 1/3 of wheat flour in bread.
Corn meal is coarsely ground dried corn. Corn flour is
more finely ground corn. Both corn flour and corn
meal contain 7-8 percent protein on a dry basis.
Neither corn meal nor corn flour will form gluten. A
grainy texture in cornbread can be avoided by mixing
the cornmeal with the liquid from the recipe, bringing
to a boil, and cooling before mixing with the other
SUBSTANCES THAT PRODUCES GASES WHEN
MIXED WITH OTHER INGREDIENTS CAUSING
MIXTURES TO RISE.
These leaveners release gas into the product.
Generally, the gas released (from baking
powder) is carbon dioxide. Baking powders
come as single or double action baking
powder. A single action baking powder
gives off all its gas as soon as it is mixed
with moisture. A double action baking
powder releases only a small amount of gas
when mixed with moisture. Most is released
during the baking process. Double Action
(like Blue Ribbon) baking powder is
preferred in quantity cooking.
TYPES OF LEAVENING
produces gas for leavening when
combined with an acidic ingredient
such as vinegar, lemon juice, or
molasses. The volume of quick
breads, cookies, cakes, and some
candies depends largely on the
amount of baking soda added to the
batter or dough. Reducing the
amount of baking soda without
replacing it with another leavening
agent will reduce the volume and
lightness of the finished product.
contains baking soda and the right
amount of acid to react with it.
Batters made with double acting
baking powder rise twice; once
when dry and moist ingredients are
mixed together, and again when the
product is baked.
Sourdough is made by bacterial action.
Yeast is a plant that is used as a
leavener. Just as all plants, yeast
requires air, warmth, moisture, and
food for growth. Yeast produces an
enzyme which splits the sugar
molecule up into alcohol and carbon
Biological Leavening Agents
is a living microorganism until it is
destroyed by heat. As yeast grows and
multiplies it gives off carbon dioxide
which causes the dough to rise. Its action
is affected by the addition or deletion of
other ingredients such as salt and sugar.
Using less yeast than specified in a
recipe causes the dough to take longer to
reach the desired volume in the rising
Water and air make a product rise by
physical means. Water makes up a big
proportion of milk. Other ingredients such
as eggs and butter also have water in
them. When heated, water turns to steam.
When water changes to steam, its volume
increases by approximately 1600 times.
Steam also rises when it heats. As it rises,
the steam takes the product with it.
Physical Leavening Agents
adds flavour to a product and controls
the rate of growth of yeast. Since yeast
is a plant, its growth is affected by the
concentration of salt.
is the most recognized sweetener
in the baking world. Sugar is
available in different varieties;
white, brown, powdered and even
more exotic types, but all of these
add sweetness to a recipe. Beyond
being a sweetener, sugar actually
maintains a complex role in baked
goods. Sugar can contribute
texture, including creaminess in
frostings, crunchiness in cookies,
and tender moistness in cakes.
Sugar caramelizes when exposed
to high heat.
As with flour, eggs provide a structural
ingredient in baked foods. They are
often considered leaveners, much like
yeast or baking powder, and they assist
in binding ingredients in a recipe
together and providing a structure for
baked goods as they rise. Eggs also add
color to baked goods, such as brioche, a
golden egg-based bread. Eggs are
important thickeners in custards and
other creamy foods, and they are even
used as glazes for pastries and breads.
is pig fat
can be obtained from any part of the
pig as long as there is a high
concentration of fatty tissue.
it ideal for use in baked goods, where it
is valued for its ability to produce flaky,
moist pie crusts.
is an ingredient of prime importance
when it comes to baking. Butter is the
result of churning cream until the fat—
butter—separates from the liquid—
buttermilk. Butter adds flavor and
texture to baked goods, and can help
keep foods fresher longer. Recipes call
for melted, softened, room temperature
and even cold butter, depending on the
is made from fat or oil that is
partially hydrogenated, water,
milk solids, and salt. Vitamins and
coloring are usually added also.
The fat or oil can be of animal or
vegetable origin. Margarine has
the same ratio of fat to non-fat
ingredients as butter (80:20), and
can be used interchangeably with
are necessary in baked goods for
hydrating protein, starch and
leavening agents. When hydration
occurs, water is absorbed and the
chemical changes necessary for
structure and texture development
can take place. Liquids contribute
moistness to the texture and improve
the mouth feel of baked products.
contributes water and valuable
nutrients to baked goods. It helps
browning to occur and adds flavor.
When making yeast dough, milk
should be scalded and cooled before
adding to other ingredients. This is
done to improve the quality of the
dough and the volume of the bread.
may be used as the liquid in a recipe. Because
fruit juices are acidic, they are probably best
used in baked products which have baking
soda as an ingredient.