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500 natural sciences

  2. 2. NATURAL SCIENCES Sciences that deals with matter and energy, or with objects and processes observable in nature the term natural science refers to a rational approach to the study of the universe, which is understood as obeying rules or laws of natural origin The term natural science is also used to distinguish those fields that use the scientific method to study nature
  3. 3. Natural Sciences the phrase natural sciences is also sometimes used more narrowly to refer to its everyday usage, that is, related to natural history In this sense "natural sciences" may refer to the biological sciences and perhaps also the earth sciences, as distinguished from the physical sciences, including astronomy, physics, and chemistry.
  4. 4. History of Natural Sciences Prior to the 17th century, the objective study of nature was known as natural philosophy. Over the next two centuries, however, a philosophical interpretation of nature was gradually replaced by a scientific approach using inductive methodology. The works of Sir Francis Bacon popularized this approach, thereby helping to forge the scientific revolution.
  5. 5. History of Natural Sciences By the 19th century the study of science had come into the purview of professionals and institutions, and in so doing it gradually acquired the more modern name of natural science.
  6. 6. MATHEMATICS is the body of knowledge centered on such concepts as quantity, structure, space, and change , and also the academic discipline that studies them Benjamin Peirce called it "the science that draws necessary conclusion.” Mathematics is the science of pattern, and that mathematicians seek out patterns whether found in numbers, space, science, computers, imaginary abstractions, or elsewhere
  7. 7. Mathematics The word "mathematics" comes from the Greek (máthēma), which means learning, study, science, and additionally came to have the narrower and more technical meaning "mathematical study“.
  8. 8. History The evolution of mathematics might be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions, or alternatively an expansion of subject matter. The first abstraction was probably that of numbers. The realization that two apples and two oranges have something in common was a breakthrough in human thought. In addition to recognizing how to count physical objects, prehistoric peoples also recognized how to count abstract quantities, like time — days, seasons, years. Arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division), naturally followed.
  9. 9.  Monolithic monuments testify to knowledge of geometry. In addition to recognizing how to count physical objects, prehistoric peoples also recognized how to count abstract quantities, like time — days, seasons, years. Arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division), naturally followed. Monolithic monuments testify to knowledge of geometry.
  10. 10. Subdivisions of Mathematics Quantity Structure Space Change
  11. 11. Quantity starts with numbers first the familiar natural numbers and integers and arithmetical operations on them, which are characterized in arithmetic. The deeper properties of integers are studied in number theory.
  12. 12. Quantity As the number system is further developed, the integers are recognized as a subset of the rational numbers ("fractions"). These, in turn, are contained within the real numbers, which are used to represent continuous quantities. Real numbers are generalized to complex numbers.
  13. 13. Structure Many mathematical objects, such as sets of numbers and functions, exhibit internal structure The structural properties of these objects are investigated in the study of groups, rings, fields and other abstract systems, which are themselves such objects. This is the field of abstract algebra
  14. 14. Space The study of space originates with geometry Trigonometry combines space and numbers, and encompasses the well-known Pythagorean theorem.
  15. 15. Change Understanding and describing change is a common theme in the natural sciences and calculus. Functions arise here, as a central concept describing a changing quantity. The rigorous study of real numbers and real- valued functions is known as real analysis, with complex analysis the equivalent field for the complex numbers.
  16. 16. Major Fields in Mathematics Discrete mathematics - is the common name for the fields of mathematics most generally useful in theoretical computer science. This includes computability theory, computational complexity theory, and information theory.
  17. 17.  Applied mathematics - considers the use of abstract mathematical tools in solving concrete problems in the sciences, business, and other areas. - An important field in applied mathematics is statistics, which uses probability theory as a tool and allows the description, analysis, and prediction of phenomena
  18. 18. Sir Isaac Newton (1643- Euclid,Greek 1727), an inventor ofmathematician, 3rd infinitesimal calculus. century BC
  19. 19. ASTRONOMY AND ALLIED SCIENCES• Is the scientific study ofcelestial objects•literally means "law of the stars"•and is derived from the Greek ,from the words (astron, "star")and (nomos, "laws or cultures").•It is concerned with theevolution, physics, chemistry,meteorology, and motion ofcelestial objects, as well as theformation and development of theuniverse.
  20. 20. Astronomy is one of the oldest sciences. Astronomers of early civilizations performed methodical observations of the night sky, and astronomical artifacts have been found from much earlier periods. the invention of the telescope was required before astronomy was able to develop into a modern science. It has included disciplines as diverse as astrometry, celestial navigation, observational astronomy, the making of calendars, and even astrology
  21. 21.  Since the 20th century, the field of professional astronomy split into observational and theoretical branches. Observational astronomy is focused on acquiring and analyzing data, mainly using basic principles of physics. Theoretical astronomy is oriented towards the development of computer or analytical models to describe astronomical objects and phenomena. The two fields complement each other, with theoretical astronomy seeking to explain the observational results, and observations being used to confirm theoretical results.
  22. 22.  As civilizations developed, astronomical observatories were assembled and ideas on the nature of the universe began to be explored. early astronomy actually consisted of mapping the positions of the stars and planets, a science now referred to as astrometry.
  23. 23. notable astronomical discoveries the obliquity of the ecliptic was estimated as early as 1000 BC by the Chinese. The Chaldeans discovered that lunar eclipses recurred in a repeating cycle known as a saros. In the 2nd century BC, the size and distance of the Moon were estimated by Hipparchus.
  24. 24. During the Middle Ages… observational astronomy was mostly stagnant in medieval Europe, at least until the 13th century Astronomers during that time introduced many Arabic names that are now used for individual stars.
  25. 25. During the Renaissance.. Scientific revolution Nicolaus Copernicus proposed a heliocentric model of the solar system. His work was defended, expanded upon, and corrected by Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler. Galileo innovated by using telescopes to enhance his observations.
  26. 26. Observational astronomy information is mainly received from the detection and analysis of visible light or other regions of the electromagnetic radiation
  27. 27. Subfield of astronomy for specific astronomical objects Solar astronomy Planetary science
  28. 28.  Stellar •Galactic astronomy astronomy And Extragalactic astronomy•Cosmology
  29. 29. Biology Biology •from Greek: bio, "life"; and •logos, "speech" lit. "to talk about life“ • also referred to as the biological sciences, which is the scientific study of life.
  30. 30. Biology encompasses a set of disciplines that examines phenomena related to living organisms. The scale of study can range from sub-component biophysics up to complex ecologies. is concerned with the characteristics, classification and behaviors of organisms, as well as how species were formed and their interactions with each other and the natural environment.
  31. 31. Biological fields they are grouped by the type of organism being studied botany, the study of plants zoology, the study of animals microbiology, the study of microorganisms.
  32. 32. Further divided fields forBiology  based on the scale at which organisms are studied  Based on the methods used to study them  biochemistry examines the fundamental chemistry of life  molecular biology studies the complex interactions of systems of biological molecules
  33. 33. Further divided fields forBiology cellular biology examines the basic building block of all life, the cell physiology examines the physical and chemical functions of the tissues and organ systems of an organism ecology examines how various organisms and their environment interrelate.
  34. 34. History of Biology The biological fields of botany, zoology, and medicine date back to early periods of civilization while microbiology was introduced in the 17th century with the invention of the microscope. In 19th century, biology became a unified science; once scientists discovered commonalities between all living things it was decided they were best studied as a whole
  35. 35. Some key developments in the science of Biology were the discovery of genetics Darwins theory of evolution through natural selection the germ theory of disease the application of the techniques of chemistry and physics at the level of the cell or organic molecule.
  36. 36. Modern Biology is divided into sub-disciplines by the type of organism and by the scale being studied. Molecular biology is the study of the fundamental chemistry of life Cellular biology is the examination of the cell; the basic building block of all life
  37. 37. Modern Biology Physiology looks at the internal structure of organism Ecology looks at how various organisms interrelate.
  38. 38. Chemistry
  39. 39. Chemistry from Egyptian kēme (chem), meaning "earth" is the science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter, as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions Chemistry is the study of interactions of chemical substances with one another and energy
  40. 40. Chemistry the scientific study of interaction of substances called chemical substances that are constituted of atoms or the subatomic components that make up atoms: protons, electrons and neutrons
  41. 41. History The genesis of chemistry can be traced to the widely observed phenomenon of burning that led to metallurgy- the art and science of processing ores to get metals The greed for gold led to the discovery of the process for its purification, even though, the underlying principles were not well understood -- it was thought to be a transformation rather than purification.
  42. 42.  Historically, modern chemistry evolved out of alchemy following the chemical revolution (1773). Chemistry is a physical science related to studies of various atoms, molecules, crystals and other aggregates of matter whether in isolation or combination, which incorporates the concepts of energy and entropy in relation to the spontaneity of chemical processes.
  43. 43. Disciplines within Chemistry are traditionally grouped by the type of matter being studied or the kind of study These include inorganic chemistry, the study of inorganic matter organic chemistry, the study of organic matter biochemistry, the study of substances found in biological organisms
  44. 44.  physical chemistry, the energy related studies of chemical systems at macro, molecular and submolecular scales analytical chemistry, the analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of their chemical composition and structure neurochemistry the chemical study of the mind
  45. 45. Physics• is the science studying the concept of matter and itsmotion as well as space and time• the science that deals with concepts such as force,energy, mass, and charge.• is an experimental science, and it is the objective ofphysicists to understand some quality of the natural world
  46. 46. Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and through its modern subfield of astronomy, it may be the oldest of all During the last two millennia, these sciences became more distinct; physics emerged as a modern science in the 17th century
  47. 47. The core theories of physics are: classical mechanics Electromagnetism relativity Thermodynamics quantum mechanics optics.
  48. 48. Classical mechanics is a model of the physics of forces acting upon bodies It is often referred to as "Newtonian mechanics" after Isaac Newton and his laws of motion
  49. 49. Electromagnetism  describes the interaction of charged particles with electric and magnetic fields.  It can be divided into electrostatics, the study of interactions between charges at rest, and electrodynamics, the study of interactions between moving charges and radiation
  50. 50. Relativity is a generalization of classical mechanics that describes fast- moving or very massive systems
  51. 51. Quantum Mechanics is the branch of physics treating atomic and subatomic systems and their interaction with radiation in terms of observable quantities.
  52. 52. Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic physical properties of matter. is by far the largest field of contemporary physics
  53. 53. Atomic, molecular, and optical Atomic, molecular, and optical physics (AMO) is the study of matter-matter and light-matter interactions on the scale of single atoms or structures containing a few atoms.
  54. 54. Earth Science also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth including geology, geophysics, hydrology, meteorology, physical geography, oceanography, and soil science.
  55. 55. History the theory of plate tectonics in the 1960s, which has had a similar impact on the Earth sciences as the theory of evolution had on biology 19th century, paleontology, blossomed 20th century, the growth of other disciplines like geophysics
  56. 56.  Earth sciences today are closely linked to climate research and the petroleum and mineral exploration industries The major historic disciplines use physics, geology, geography, meteorology, mathematics, chemistry and biology to build a quantitative understanding of the principal areas or spheres of the Earth system.
  57. 57.  Geology describes the rocky parts of the Earths crust (or lithosphere) and its historic development. Major subdisciplines are mineralogy and petrology,geochemistry, geomorphology, paleontology, stratigraphy, structural geology, engineering geology Geophysics and Geodesy investigate the figure of the Earth, its reaction to forces and its magnetic and gravity fields Geophysicists explore the Earths core and mantle as well as the tectonic and seismic activity of the lithosphere
  58. 58.  Soil science covers the outermost layer of the Earths crust that is subject to soil formation processes (or pedosphere). Major subdisciplines include edaphology and pedology Oceanography and hydrology (includes limnology) describe the marine and freshwater domains of the watery parts of the Earth (or hydrosphere). Major subdisciplines include hydrogeology and physical, chemical, and biological oceanography.
  59. 59.  Glaciology covers the icy parts of the Earth (or cryosphere). Atmospheric sciences cover the gaseous parts of the Earth (or atmosphere) between the surface and the exosphere (~1000 km). Major subdisciplines are meteorology, climatology, atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics
  60. 60. PALEONTOLOGY (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils This includes the study of body fossils, tracks ( ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilized fasces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Studies of prehistoric hominids, their culture and their behaviors are the purview of two other disciplines, archaeology and paleoanthropology.
  61. 61. The major subdivisions ofpaleontology  include paleozoology (animals),  paleobotany (plants)  micropaleontology (microfossils).  Paleozoologists may specialize in invertebrate paleontology, which deals with animals without backbones
  62. 62.  in vertebrate paleontology, dealing with fossils of animals with backbones, including fossil hominids ( paleoanthropology). Micropaleontologists study microscopic fossils, including organic-walled microfossils whose study is called palynology.
  63. 63. Developing Specialties inPaleontology paleobiology, paleoecology, ichnology (the study of tracks and burrows) and taphonomy (the study of what happens to organisms after they expire). Major areas of study include the correlation of rock strata with their geologic ages and the study of evolution of lifeforms.
  64. 64.  The primary economic importance of paleontology lies in the use of fossils to determine the age and nature of the rocks that contain them or the layers above or below.
  65. 65. Paleozoology also spelled as palaeozoology (Greek: paleon = old and zoon = animal), is the branch of paleontology or paleobiology dealing with the recovery and identification of multicellular animal remains from geological (or even archeological) contexts, and the use of these fossils in the reconstruction of prehistoric environments and ancient ecosystems
  66. 66. Botany Botany
  67. 67. Botany is the scientific study of plant life. As a branch of biology, it is also called plant science(s), phytology, or plant biology. Botany covers a wide range of scientific disciplines that study plants, algae, and fungi including: structure, growth, reproduction, metabolism, development, diseases, and chemical properties and evolutionary relationships between the different groups
  68. 68. History The study of plants and botany began with tribal lore, used to identify edible, medicinal and poisonous plants, making botany one of the oldest sciences. From this ancient interest in plants, the scope of botany has increased to include the study of over 550,000 kinds or species of living organisms.
  69. 69.  Historically, botany covers all organisms that were not considered to be animals. Some of these "plant-like" organisms include fungi (studied in mycology), bacteria and viruses (studied in microbiology), and algae (studied in phycology). Most algae, fungi, and microbes are no longer considered to be in the plant kingdom. However, attention is still given to them by botanists, and bacteria, fungi, and algae are usually covered in introductory botany courses.
  70. 70.  The study of plants has importance for a number of reasons. Plants are a fundamental part of life on Earth. They generate the oxygen, food, fibres, fuel and medicine that allow higher life forms to exist. Plants also absorb carbon dioxide through photosynthesis, a minor greenhouse gas that in large amounts can effect global climate. It is believed that the evolution of plants has changed the global atmosphere of the earth early in the earths history and paleobotanists study ancient plants in the fossil record.
  71. 71.  Scope of botany - human nutrition - fundamental life processes - medicine and materials - environmental changes
  72. 72. Subdisciplines of Botany Agronomy —Application of plant science to crop production Bryology —Mosses, liverworts, and hornwarts Economic botany —The place of plants in economics Ethnobotany —Relationship between humans and plants Forestry —Forest management and related studies
  73. 73.  Horticulture—Cultivated plants Paleobotany—Fossil plants Palynology—Pollen and spores Phycology - Algae Phytochemistry—Plant secondary chemistry and chemical processes Phytopathology—Plant diseases
  74. 74.  Plant anatomy—Cell and tissue structure Plant ecology—Role of plants in the environment Plant genetics—Genetic inheritance in plants Plant morphology— Structure and life cycles Plant physiology—Life functions of plants Plant systematics— Classification and naming of plants
  75. 75. Zoology Zoology (from Greek: zoion, "animal"; and logos, "knowledge") is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals.
  76. 76. Subfields of Zoology Comparative anatomy studies the structure of animals The physiology of animals is studied under various fields including anatomy and embryology The common genetic and developmental mechanisms of animals and plants is studied in molecular biology, molecular genetics and developmental biology Ethology is the study of animal behavior.
  77. 77. History of ZoologyPre-scientific zoology Humans have been fascinated by the other members of the animal kingdom throughout history. In early Europe, they gathered up and treasured stories of strange animals from distant lands or deep seas, such as are recorded in the Physiologus, in the works of Albertus Magnus (On Animals), and others. These accounts were often apocryphal and creatures were often described as "legendary." This period was succeeded by the age of collectors and travellers, when many of the stories were actually demonstrated as true when the living or preserved specimens were brought to Europe.
  78. 78. 16th century developments Scientific zoology really started in the 16th century with the awakening of the new spirit of observation and exploration but for a long time ran a separate course uninfluenced by the progress of the medical studies of anatomy and physiology
  79. 79. 17th century developments In the 17th century, the lovers of the new philosophy, the investigators of nature by means of observation and experiment, banded themselves into academies or societies for mutual support and intercourse. The first founded of surviving European academies, the Academia Naturae Curiosorum (1651) especially confined itself to the description and illustration of the structure of plants and animals;
  80. 80. `17th century  A little later the Academy of Sciences of Paris was established by Louis XIV  The influence of these great academies of the 17th century on the progress of zoology was precisely to effect that bringing together of the museum-men and the physicians or anatomists which was needed for further development.
  81. 81. 19th century developments Development of the microscope - It was not until the 19th century that the microscope, was applied to the study of animal structure, and accomplished for zoology its final and most important service. The perfecting of the microscope led to a full comprehension of the great doctrine of cell structure and the establishment of the facts Developments in other sciences impacting zoology
  82. 82. Zoology Since 1859: Darwin and Theory of Evolution in 1859, Charles Darwin placed the whole theory of organic evolution on a new footing, by his discovery of a process by which organic evolution can occur, and provided observational evidence that it had done so. This changed the attitudes of most exponents of the scientific method. Darwins discoveries revolutionized the zoological and botanical sciences, by introducing the theory of evolution by natural selection as an explanation for the diversity of all animal and plant life. Timeline
  83. 83. subtopics DDC LCNatural Sciences and Mathematics 500 QMathematics 510 QAAstronomy and Allied Sciences 520 QBPhysics 530 QCChemistry and Allied Sciences 540 QDEarth Sciences 550 QEPaleontology; Paleozoology 560 QELife Sciences: Biology 570 QHPlants 580 QKAnimals 590 QZ
  84. 84. Reference Sources on Astronomy: Bibliographies Abstract Journals Encyclopedias and dictionaries Handbooks Atlases Stars Navigations chronology
  85. 85. Reference Sources AstronomyBibliography Drake, Milton. Almanacs of the United States. N.Y., Scarecrow, 1962. 2v. - a listing of more than 14,000 almanacs published from 1963 to 1850, arranged by state and then chronologically.
  86. 86. Astronomy Abstract Journals Sky and Telescope. Cambridge, Sky Pub. Corp., Harvard College Observatory, 1941- .V1- Monthly. - excellent source for general current information. Contains review articles on current events, monthly star maps and calendars, review on important professional and amateur meetings.
  87. 87. Astronomy  Encyclopedias and Dictionaries Rudaux, Lucien and Vancouleurs, G. de. Larousse encyclopedia of astronomy. 2d ed. N.Y., Prometheus, 1959. 506p. Il. - a profusely illustrated treatise on astronomy. Nonalphabetical. Kleczek, Josip. Astronomical Dictionary. N.Y., London, Academic Pr.; Praha, Pub. House of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, 1961. 972p.
  88. 88. Biological SciencesBibliographyPeriodicals U.S. Library of Congress. Science and Technology Division. Biological Sciences Serial Publications. 1950-1954Indexes Biological and Agricultural Index, a Cumulative Subject Index to Periodicals in the Fields of Biology, Agriculture and Related Sciences. 1964-Abstract Biological Abstracts From the World’sjournals Biological Research Literature. 1926-Dictionaries A Dictionary of Biology, Abercrombie, Michael, Hickman, C.J. 1962-Encyclopedia The Encyclopedia of Microscopy. Clark, George Linderberg. 1961-s
  89. 89. Biological sciences reference sourcesStyle manuals Conference Of Biological Editors. Committee On Form And Style. Style Manual For Biological Journals. 1964-History A Hundred Years of Biology. Dawes, Ben. 1952-
  90. 90. Natural history reference sourcesBibliographies Bibliography of American Natural History. Meisel, Max. 1769-1865-Handbooks Handbooks on American Natural History, V.1-. 1942-
  91. 91. BotanyBibliographies Bibliographies of Botany; A Contribution Toward Bibliotheca Bibliographica. 1909-Abstract Journal and Torrey Botanical Club. Index toIndexes American Botanical Literature. 1888-Dictionaries American Join Committee on Horticultural Nomenclature. Standardized Plant Names. 1942-Directories International Directory of Botanical Gardens. Howard, Richard a. 1963-Biography Biographical Index of Deceased British and Irish Botanists. Britten, James. 1931-
  92. 92. BotanyHandbooks Gray’s Manual of Botany: 8th Centennial Edition. Gray, Asa. 1950- Flora Manual of Cultivated Plants Most Commonly Grown in the Continental United States and Canada. Bailey, Liberty Hyde. 1949. Fungi A Dictionary of the Fungi. Ainsworth, Geoffrey Clough. 1961 Mosses Mosses With a Hand Lens; Guide to the Common Mosses and Liverworts of the U.S. Trees Handbook of the Trees of the Northern States and Canada East of the Rocky Mountains.Hough, Romeyn Beck. 1907.
  93. 93. ZoologyGuides Guides to the Literature of the Zoological Sciences. Smith, Roger Cletus. 1962.Abstract journals U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Aand indexes Wildlife Review. 1952.Dictionaries A dictionary of zoology. Leftwich, A. W. 1963.
  94. 94. Chemistry reference sources:Guides Division of Chemical Literature. Searching the Chemical Literature. American Chemical Society. 1961.Bibliographies Selected Bibliography of Chemistry. Bolton, Henry Carrington. 1904.Dissertations Committee on Professional Training. Directory of Graduate Research. American Chemical Society. 1953.Periodical Chemical abstracts. List of periodicals withabbreviations key to library files. 1961.Encyclopedias The Encyclopedia of Chemistry. Clark, George Linderberg. 1957.
  95. 95. Chemistry Reference Sources;Dictionaries Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 6th Ed. By Arthur and Elizabeth Rose.Handbooks Handbooks of Chemistry and Physics; A Ready-reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data. 1964. Selby, Samuel M.Directories Chemical Sources. Directories Pub. Co. 1958.Biography Chemical Who’s Who. 1956. By Winfield Scott Downs.
  96. 96. Earth sciences…Geology guides The Literature of Geology. Mason, Brian. 1953.Bibliographies American Geological Institute. Visual Education Committee, Directory of Geosciences Films by Wakefield Dort.1962.Dissertations Bibliography of Theses Written for Advanced Degrees in Geology and Related Sciences. Chronic, John and Chronic, Halka. 1958.Abstract journals Geological abstracts, v.1-6.1953-58. Quarterly.
  97. 97. Earth sciences reference sources..Encyclopedias and Geology and Earth Sciences SourceHandbooks Book for Elementary and Secondary Schools. Robert Heller.. 1962.Dictionaries Dictionary of geological terms. American geological institute. 1962.Directories Directory of Geosciences Departments in the Colleges and Universities of U. S. And Canada.1952.History The Founders of Geology. Sir Archibald Geiki.1962.
  98. 98. Paleontology reference sources:Bibliography Bibliography of Vertebrate Paleontology and Related Subjects.1947.Fossil indexes Index of Generic Names of Fossil Plants. 1820-1950.Directories Paleontologi Catalogus Bio- bibliographicus. Kalman Lambrecht. 1938.Handbooks The Fossil Book: a Record of Prehistoric Life. Fenton, Caroll Lane. 1958.
  99. 99. Mathematics reference sources..Guides Guide to the Literature of Mathematics and Physics Including Related Works on Engineering Science.. Park , Nathan Grier. 1958.Bibliography Bibliography of Basic Texts and Monographs on Statistical Methods. 1945-1960.Current American Mathematical Society. New Publications. Providence. 1961.Abstract journals Statistical Theory and Method Abstracts. Edinburgh
  100. 100. THANK YOU! Prepared by: Dang Brazal