ELECTRIC POWER PLANTSDaniel Fernandez & Miguel Haro 3ºA 2011-12
INDEXCONVENTIONAL ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS● Nuclear power plants● Fossil fuels thermal power plants● Hydroelectric power plantsNON-CONVENTIONAL ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS● Wind power plants & wind farms● Solar power plants● Geothermal power plants● Biomass thermal power plants● Ocean power palnts● Fresh water produced by wind turbine
CONVENTIONAL ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS
NUCLEAR ENERGY Nuclear energy is carry out thanks to the spliting of uranium atoms. In the fussion proces a lot of heat is relased, this heat is transformed in vapour steam wich moves a turbine, this movement produces electricity.
NUCLEAR ENERGY- POWER PLANTS PARTS
NUCLEAR ENERGY- POWER PLANTS PARTS Containment building: It contains the nuclear reactor, where nuclear fission takes place. It is a very safety building beacause it is made of concrete. Transformer: It is not in the nuclear power plant, but it is an important part. Cooling tower: In this part of the plant the steam is cooled falling to the bottom of the tower in liquid form.
NUCLEAR ENERGY-ADVANTAGES● They do not release contamining gases into the atmosphere, this means they do not contribute to the greenhouse effect.● They are very powerful plants; uranium release a lot of heat, consequently turbines move faster and more electricity is produced.
NUCLEAR ENERGY-DISADVANTAGES● When a nuclear accident is produced results are catastrophics. Examples: Fukushima, Japan and Chernobil, Russia.● They are very expensive plants to build.● Uranium radioactivity released remains thousands of years.
THERMAL ENERGYThermal power is carried out by heating fossil fuels in aboiler, where a water tank is. The heat produced turnthe water into gas state, this gas moves a turbineconnected to a generator. The kinetic energy of theturbine is transformed into energy by the generator
THERMAL ENERGY- POWER PLANTS PARTS● Boiler: it is a concrete building where the water container is located and where the fossil fuels are burned and transform the water into steam.● Transformer: It is not in the nuclear power plant, but it is an important part.● Cooling tower: In this part of the plant the steam is cooled falling to the bottom of the tower in liquid
THERMAL POWER PLANTS-ADVANTAGES● The fuel used is quite cheap.● It can be installed at any place refering to the existence of coal. The coal can be transported where the plant is by rail or road.● It requires less space compared to other types of power plants
THERMAL POWER PLANTS-DISADVANTAGES ● It pollutes the atmosphere due to production of large amount of smoke and fumes. ● If an accident in this plant occurs the consequenses will be catastrophics due to great fires.
HYDROELECTRIC ENERGYThis type of energy uses the huge power produced bythe water stored in dams and reservoirs, converting themovement of turbines, moved by the water, intoelectricity.
HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY-ADVANTAGES ● Inexhaustible fuel source. ● Minimal environmental impact. ● Viable source, high energy levels. ● Completely clean type of energy.
HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY-DISADVANTAGES● Smaller models depend on availability of fast flowing streams or rivers.● The construction of these plants can impact in the mobility of the biodiversity of the ecosystem (fishes, aquatic invertebrates...).
NON-CONVENTIONAL ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS
WIND ENERGYThis type of energy uses the kinetic energy produced bythe wind to make the blades of a rotor move, which arelocated at the top of a tower, the wind turbine. Thisturbine transforms the movement of the turbine intoelectricity.
WIND ENERGY-ADVANTAGESOnce the wind turbine is built the energy it producesdoes not cause greenhouse gases or other pollutants. Although wind turbines can be very tall each takes uponly a small plot of land. Wind turbines can be established in both developedand developing countries.
WIND ENERGY-DISADVANTAGESWind farms are a clean form of generating electricity,but they can only be installed in places with appropriatewind conditions.The strength of the wind is not constant.When wind turbines are manufactured some pollution isproduced.
SOLAR ENERGYSolar power is energy from the sun and without itspresence all life on earth would end. Solar energy hasbeen an important source of energy for many yearsbecause of the vast amounts of energy that are madefreely available.
SOLAR ENERGY-POWER PLANTS
SOLAR ENERGY-POWER PLANTSThere are two main types of solar power plants:Photo-thermal power plant: in this type of power plant, theheat generated by solar radiation produces steam that isused to move the rotor in the generator.Photovoltaic power plant: in these power plants, solarradiation is transformed directly into electricity by panels ofphotovoltaic cells.
SOLAR ENERGY-ADVANTAGESSolar energy is free although there is a cost in thebuilding of ‘collectors’ and other equipment.Solar energy does not cause pollution.It is estimated that the world´s oil reserves will last for 30to 40 years. On the other hand, solar energy is infinite.
SOLAR ENERGY-DISADVANTAGESSolar energy can only be used when it is daytime andsunny. Large areas of land are required to capture the sunenergy.Solar collectors, panels and cells are relatively expensiveto manufacture.
GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal energy is energy derived from the heat of theearth. The earth’s centre is a distance of approximately4500 kilometres and is so hot that it is molten.Temperatures are around 5000 degrees centigrade.Geothermal energy may be used for hot water and heatingor for the heat which generates steam, which produceselectricity.
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY-ADVANTAGES Geothermal energy generally involves low costs because it saves80% costs over fossil fuels and no fuel is used to generate thepower. Geothermal energy has helped in reducing global warming andpollution. On the other hand geothermal energy has created many jobsfor the local people.
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY-DISADVANTAGES This type of energy is not very used becuase of theunavailability of equipment, staff, infrastructure... To get geothermal energy, it requires installation of powerplants, to get steam from deep of the earth and this requires hugeinvestments. Geothermal sites can run out of steam over a period of time dueto drop in temperature.
BIOMASS ENERGYBiomass consists of all organic compounds that are produced throughnatural processes which come from forestry and agricultural waste andwaste from agri-food industries. It is subjected to different physical andchemical processes in order to produce fuel such as charcoal, alcoholand biogas.This type of fuel is burnt at biomass power plants. The steam that isgenerated moves the turbine.The waste used in these types of plants has no other potential.
BIOMASS ENERGY-ADVANTAGES Theoretically, it is an inexhaustible fuel source. Alcohols and other fuels produced by biomass areefficient, viable, and relatively clean-burning. Available throughout the world.
BIOMASS ENERGY-DISADVANTAGES It contributes to the global warming and particulatepollution because of burning fuels. It is an expensive type of energy, in terms of producingthe biomass and converting it to alcohols.In the process some energy is lost.
OCEAN ENERGYThis type of energy uses the energy from the seas and the oceans. Ituses three types of energy from the sea: The mechanical energy from the tides. The mechanical energy from the waves. The energy from the ocean´s thermal gradient.This type of energy is still in the experimental phase and their level ofproduction is still very low, however in recent years is being a worldleader in innovative renewable energy.
OCEAN ENERGY-ADVANTAGES Apart from the initial installation cost, tidal power isfree. Tidal energy doesn´t produce greenhouse gases or anyother kind of pollution. It doesn´t require any types of fuels.Electricity is produced easily.
OCEAN ENERGY-DISADVANTAGES The environment is changed for many kilometresupstream and downstream. Tides provide power for only 10 hours each day, whenthe tide is actually moving in or out. There are only a few suitable sites for tidal barrages.
Fresh water produced by wind turbine- summaryA company called Eole Water have created a new revolutionary type of windturbine, the WMS1000.It is an appliance that can produce drinking water from humid air. You willthink, and how can a wind turbine produce fresh water from the air? It ´s quiteeasy. There are only some steps to follow: First, you have to introduce intothe turbine air by a device known as an "air blower". Then, all air pickedduring this process is collected through an electric cooling compressor. Thisapparatus extracts humidity from the air, creating moisture which iscondensed and collected, producing water.
Fresh water produced by wind turbine-our opinionFrom our point of view, it could be a fabulous form to create drink water becauseit favors the climate and the environment. The most important fact is that, it willpermit poor, arid regions, where water is scarce, to obtain drink water easily andin abundance. It can produce 1000 liters of water every day, which means thatcan satisfy over 3000 thousands of people a day, so it will permit small villages tohave water for all the population. It isn´t very expensive when you compare it withthe solutions that it gives. Thanks to social organizations which help the economyof poor regions, it won´t be difficult to install one of these turbines in somecountries.We think that is the perfect solution to solve the problems that have poorcountries.