Long term effects of exercise on cv & energy systems
LONG TERM EFFECTSOF EXERCISE ON THEBODY SYSTEMSPhysiology of Fitness Andrew Roberts
Long Term Effects of Exercise onthe Body Systems What body systems As you exercise do we mean? regularly your body1. Cardiovascular adapts – you become fitter – more able to2. Respiratory cope with the3. Energy systems demands of exercise.4. Muscular We are going to look5. Skeletal at what changes occur in the heart, lungs, muscle,6. CREMS skeleton and energy systems.
Learning Outcomes Identify the 5 main body systems that are affected by long term exercise Describe 3 key changes to the cardiovascular system after long term exercise (e.g. after 6 weeks) Identify 2 changes to the energy systems as an adaptation to long term exercise Examine and record our current level of cardiovascular fitness
Long Term Effects of Exercise onthe Cardiovascular SystemW is the hat TaskCV system? In pairs list what aspects of theThe heartand blood cardiovascular system may changevessels ofthe as a result of regular long termcirculatory exercise?system In fours, compare results and see if you can add to your original list.
Heart Cardiac HypertrophyThe heart increases in its size and blood volume.The wall of the left ventricle thickens ..why? to increase the strength potential of its contractions In sedentary, middle aged individuals it may be as high as 100 beats/min. Normal heart Elite endurance rate (HR) 60- athlete’s HR 80 beats / min 28 – 40 bpm
CV system cont... Increase in Stroke In untrained individuals Volume stroke volume at rest itSV = The amount of blood that averages 50-70ml/beat can be pumped by the heart increasing up to 110- per beat. 130ml/beat beat duringThis means the heart can now pump more blood per minute. intense, physicalWhy is this beneficial? activity.Increased blood flow allows for In elite athletes resting faster and more efficient stroke volume averages delivery oxygen and nutrients 90-110ml/beat increasing to as much as 150-220ml/beat
CV system cont...Increased Cardiac Untrained REST MAX EXERCISE Output (CO) SV 60ml/beat 120ml/beat SV X HR = CO X X XAs SV and HR increase HR 70 beats/min 130 beats/ min during exercise CO will = = = increase. CO 4200ml/min 15600ml/minIn a trained heart both SV and HR have increased capacity. Elite REST MAX EXERCISESV does increase to a SV 100ml/beat 200ml/beat point – however the significant increases in X X X CO are caused by a HR 40 beats/ min 180 beats/ min bigger increases in = = = heart rate CO 4800ml/min 36000ml/min
CV system cont...Discussion Eg An untrained student’s heart rate was measured at 140bpm while running 6mph on the treadmill After 6 weeks of exercise (running for 30 mins 3 times per week) I would expect HR to decrease increase 1. Why? 2. What physiological changes would have occurred?
CV system cont... Decreased resting Capillarisation heart rate Capillary networksWith regular training your increase to your cardiac resting HR falls. and skeletal muscle.Also your HR returns to This improves blood normal quicker after supply to the active exercise. muscles and improves the muscles’ efficiencyHow could you measure these improvements over your 6 week program?
CV system cont... Increase in Blood Reduction in Volume Resting Blood Your blood volume is the Pressure amount of blood What are the 2 measurements circulating in your body of BP? It increases as an 1. Systolic adaptation to regular 2. Diastolic exercise Research shows that the quicker your BP returns to normal the It increases as a result fitter you are. of capillarisation How could you measure this? Regular exercise can contribute to lowering BP.
CV system cont... Decreased Increased Aerobic Recovery Time Fitness HR recovery is a This occurs as a result of measure of how much what kind of training? your HR falls the first Aerobic training e.g.? minute after exercise. Running, cycling... Fit people can recover Aerobic fitness refers to endurance, or the ability to more quickly. How? sustain work for prolonged The CV system has adapted periods. and become more efficient How can you measure an through the demands of improvement in aerobic regular exercise fitness?
RecapTASK In pairs, recall at least 3 key changes to your CV system as a result of long term exercise? 1. Cardiac hypertrophy 2. Increased SV 3. Increased CO 4. Decreased resting HR 5. Capillarisation 6. Increase in blood volume 7. Reduction in resting BP 8. Decreased recovery time 9. Increased aerobic fitness
Long Term Effects of Exercise on theEnergy SystemTask In pairs Exercise can cover a wide range of meanings ....what exercise are we considering? On a flip chart write exercise in the middle and jot down what exercise means to you. Type Intensity Frequency Duration
Long Term Effects of Exercise on theEnergy Systems Type Intensity Frequency Duration What systems does our body use to supply energy to our muscles? ATP-CP 1-10 secs Lactic Acid energy system 10s – 2mins Aerobic Energy system 2 mins +
Long Term Effects of Exercise on theEnergy Systems At cellular level Increased use of fat muscles need what as an energy source to contract? ATP Fat combustion powers What adaptations may almost all exercise at occur at cellular level ? 25% of aerobic power.1. Increase in level of Fat oxidation increases if enzymes for aerobic and exercise extends to long anaerobic systems. periods as glycogen depletes2. Increase in size of mitochondria. Trained athletes burn more fat as fuel than non-trained athletes.
Long Term Effects of Exercise on theCV & Energy SystemsPaired Task Identify 2 changes to the energy systems as an adaptation to long term exercise Describe 3 key changes to the CV system and how you may examine record those changes before and after a 6 week training program