Program or project management process report


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Program or project management process report

  1. 1. Programme/Project Management Process By Danes Ganancial
  2. 2. Project Management proj· ect (noun) - refers to a specific plan or design; a planned undertaking. man· age· ment (noun) - is the act or art of managing: the conducting or supervising of something; judicious use of means to accomplish an end. man· age (verb) - to handle or direct with a degree of skill; to work upon or try to alter for a purpose; to achieve one's purpose
  3. 3. What is project management?
  4. 4. Project Management  Project: “A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.”  Project Management: “the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.” The body of knowledge concerned with principles, techniques, and tools used in planning, control, monitoring, and review of projects.  PMP, Project Management Professional: “the profession’s most globally recognized and respected credential”
  5. 5. What is program management?
  6. 6. Program Management  Program: “a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually.”  Program Management: “the centralized management of a program to achieve the program’s strategic benefits and objectives.” Process of managing multiple related projects at once. Where project management is often used to describe one project, program management involves multiple projects that are all related and working toward the same goal or result.
  7. 7. Program Management or Programme Management Process  is the process of managing several related projects, often with the intention of improving an organization's performance.  Key elements of the project management framework, include project stakeholders, the project management knowledge areas, common tools and techniques, and project success factors.
  8. 8. Project characteristic  Beginning and End  Agreed, well defined outputs and outcomes  Balance between time, cost and quality  Interrelated tasks grouped into phases  Temporary, often multidisciplinary project team brought together for the project  Might entail involvement of people from other units or organizations
  9. 9. The Project Manager has its role and function ...
  10. 10. Roles and Function  Steward  Researcher  Planner  Recruiter/organizer/motivator  Director/coordinator/delegator  Monitor/evaluator/documentor
  11. 11. Steward  The primary role of a development manager is to maintain the harmonious relationship between human, resource and environment. He/she should not sacrifice this delicate philosophy for profit. Recent incidents on environmental pollution that have caused debilitating sickness and death to thousands of people and other living things have been blamed on managers.
  12. 12. Researcher  As a researcher, the development manger is expected to oversee the research activities involved in carrying out the project. The immediate responsibility of a development manger is to manage the conduct of the feasibility or baseline study needed in planning a project.
  13. 13. Planner  As a planner, the development manager is expected to directly manage the operationalization of the project document. This means identifying the key indicators for each key factor found in the objectives, outputs, activities and inputs presented in the project document. This also requires determining the target beneficiaries at all levels.
  14. 14. Recruiter/organizer/motivator  The development manager is expected to recruit new staff with the desired skill, or to assign existing qualified staff to certain project activities. At the same time, the development manger should organize the staff into work teams and to see to it that the other resources or inputs for the implementation process are ready for mobilization. Besides, a development manger should motivate the project staff to work and to experience self-fulfillment, a key to project commitment.
  15. 15. Director/coordinator /delegator  The development manager should be able to clearly direct project staff in following the plan. He/she should also coordinate with partner organizations in carrying out promptly their respective plans. When needed, he/she should delegate appropriate activities to competent staff.
  16. 16. Monitor/evaluator /documentor  The development manager should be able to direct the M&E staff in carrying out tasked efficiently and effectively. The same manger should be able to show the staff that he/she makes use of hard data for policy-making, planning, and decision-making. He/she should also document the valuable development process.
  17. 17. Project management technically covers the following steps found in the management of programmes. ① Project formulation ② Project review and approval ③ Project implementation ④ Project monitoring, evaluation and reporting
  18. 18. ① Project formulation  The first step in formulating a project is to define the broad outcomes that are expected to be completed by the time the project ends.  These outcomes should be aspirational but also realistic. They should also be clear and concise. Once identified, the specific outputs and activities to achieve the outcomes must be defined.
  19. 19. ① Project formulation  The outputs and activities are the details of how the outcomes will be achieved. The project document should also include indicators – both baseline and aspirational – to allow for the monitoring and evaluation of the project and to measure results.  The document should include a clear description of how the project will be implemented, including management arrangements, costs, strategy and required inputs.
  20. 20. ① Project formulation  The project should plan for annual work plans that define the activities that will take on an annual basis to advance the achievement of the overall outcomes.  Many projects employ full time technical staff that has experience and expertise to implement such projects and to build the capacity of staff.
  21. 21. ② Project Review and Approval Just as tracking and monitoring are critical to controlling a project, so too is reviewing. One of the major causes of a project getting off track is the lack of attention to:  Formal and consistent project reviews  Setting up and using informal assessment methods.
  22. 22. ② Project Review and Approval  The focus of project reviews is to ensure that information is being shared and communicated. Where tracking and monitoring focused on the process of measuring actual project performance to the baseline, reviewing focuses on sharing that data and other related information with the project team and stakeholders throughout the project.
  23. 23. ② Project Review and Approval  As in all other areas of project management, the review process needs to be tailored to the specific project. There is no formula for defining the type and frequency of project reviews.  However, there are some minimum activities that should be performed, such as:
  24. 24.  Status meetings should be held and attended by project team members responsible for key project organization and deliverables;  Executive Reviews - as needed;  Team meetings - as needed;  Independent Reviews - as needed, will depend on the size of the project and the risk. However, each organization is encouraged to develop its own schedules and standards for quality reviews;  Technical Reviews - are driven by the life cycle being used and the particular stage of the project. For example, during system design, the reviews are concerned with the stage of the design and detailed design reviews, possible design walkthroughs, and peer reviews.
  25. 25. ② Project Review and Approval  Project Quality management ensures that there is adequate review of project deliverables at phase completion.  Approval is a formalized process ensuring that the appropriate levels of testing and review have been completed.  The process of ensuring that appropriate approvals are obtained is part of the management function and is not strictly a technical function.
  26. 26. ② Project Review and Approval  The approval process ensures that each project phase and associated deliverables is successfully completed before beginning subsequent phases.  Management gets a comprehensive view of the current project status.  Information necessary to ensure that deliverables satisfy the specific business needs of the state organization is also received.  Project approval also allows management to reassess the direction of the project, as necessary, and to provide project-planning updates, as required.
  27. 27. ② Project Review and Approval There are typically three types of approval processes. Approvals discussed in this section occur during the execution stage and include:  Project Plan and Plan Changes, at the beginning and after changes to the baseline;  Phase Reviews, at the end of each phase;  Deliverable Reviews, as they are completed and at the end of the project.
  28. 28. ③ Project Implementation Process whereby “project inputs are converted to project outputs”. May be looked at as:  Putting in action the activities of the project,  Putting into practice what was proposed in the project document (i.e. transforming the project proposal into the actual project.) and  Management of the project or executing the project intentions.
  29. 29. ③ Project Implementation  Implementation usually done by implementing agency (organization) that prepared the project and received funding for it.  Other organizations that participate in the implementation of the project by way of collaboration, say by according good working relationship, extending technical advice or seconding their staff to the project are referred to as co- operating agencies.
  30. 30. ③ Project Implementation Project Implementation phase involves:  Project activation - means making arrangements to have the project started. It involves coordination and allocation of resources to make project operational.  Project operation - is practical management of a project. Here, project inputs are transformed into outputs to achieve immediate objectives.
  31. 31. ④ Monitoring and Evaluation  Establishing project indicators and monitoring systems from the start of a programme is the best way to attain accurate measurements of the results of development programmes.  Monitoring can also be relatively cost-effective if it is integrated into technical cooperation strategies throughout the period of project implementation.
  32. 32. ④ Monitoring and Evaluation  Effective monitoring includes the use of various tools that can measure the impact and success of activities and outputs as they progress.  This can include surveys of participants, exit interviews, and informal feedback sessions with project teams and staff.  On an annual basis there should be a more formal process of dialogue amongst project staff and leaders.  Formal and independent evaluations should take place at the mid-point of the life of a project and at the end of the project term.
  33. 33. Gaps in Project Management
  34. 34. Gaps in Project Management  Inadequate operationalization of the project objectives, outputs, activities and inputs.  Lack of appropriate monitoring and evaluation system and tools before the start of the implementation process.  These two glaring gaps should be filled up by the newly appointed project manager/national project director/coordinator.
  35. 35. Filling Up the Gaps  Operationalize the project document by identifying the key factors in the four basic elements (objectives, outputs, activities and inputs) found in the project document.  Develop with the key staff the M&E system and tools for project. The approach to – and the process in developing the M&E tools are explained in chapter 8. The action planning is carefully explained in Chapter 10.
  36. 36. Project Management Process
  37. 37. The logical steps in project management are: Project Management Process
  38. 38. 1. Study carefully the project document and identify specifically the following:  Development and immediate objectives, as well as the expected effects and impacts of project  Outputs under each immediate objective  Activities under each output  Inputs needed for each activity  Outcomes at end of project  Strategy to achieve outcomes
  39. 39.  Problems and causes that justify the project  Proposed solution which is the project itself  Benefits of the project to the organization and/on beneficiaries  Objectives, which cover both the development and immediate ones  Preparation of workplan showing the immediate objectives, activities, date of implementation, venue, output, and person responsible for each activity and output. 2. Prepare a brief and simplified version of the project document including the corresponding forms and visual or audio- visual aids in preparation for a participatory workshop. Focus on the following:
  40. 40.  At least one team leader and one staff member of each team  Key staff of partner organization(s)  Some leaders or target beneficiaries The participants in the workshop should constitute the project’s major stakeholders. 3. Schedule a review, operation, monitoring and evaluation workshop, and invite about 20-25 people composed of the following:
  41. 41.  Action plan  Physical and financial monitoring form  KFIQ matrix (Key Factor Indicator Questionnaire)  Focus evaluation questionnaire 4. Conduct the workshop using the planning forms. Be sure to let the participants produce the following outputs:
  42. 42.  Directing the staff  Coordinating the partner organizations  Delegating selected activities to competent staff 5. Manage the implementation process. This is done by:
  43. 43. 6. Provide support to staff who lag behind and motive staff on continuing basis to sustain their high productivity and commitment. 7. Conduct at least a monthly meeting among key project staff and representatives of partner organizations to remind them about the workplan and the action plan.
  44. 44.  Monitor the outputs and inputs of the various activities by using the monitoring forms produced in No. 4 (Action plan, Physical and financial monitoring form, KFIQ matrix and Focus evaluation questionnaire)  Evaluate the effects of some activities such as training  Conduct mid-term internal evaluation  Conduct both internal and external evaluation 8. Monitor and evaluate the project implementation.
  45. 45. 9. Prepare periodic reports on the results of the monitoring and/or evaluation activities. 10.Provide copies of report to the funding agency, partner organizations and team leaders of the project work teams. 11.Use data monitoring and evaluation in policy-making, planning, and decision- making. 12. Conduct annual review and operation planning workshop.
  46. 46. Project Management Vs. Program Management Area Project Management Program Management Focus Single objective Business strategy Scope Narrow Wide-ranging, cross-functional Benefits Determined in advance Accrue after completion Used to make decisions Accrue during the programme Deliverables Few, clearly defined Many, many initially undefined Timescale Clearly defined Loosely defined Change To be avoided Regarded as inevitable Success Factors Time, budget, specification Mission, cash-flow, ROI (Return on Investment) Plan Specific, detailed, bounded High-level and evolving
  47. 47. Why… Why Program Management A management framework that focuses on business change objectivesEffective management of the Business Case to achieve the vision Link strategies and projects Manage and control cost Better understanding of overall risks Co-ordination and control of the complex range of activities Formal process for identifying, managing, realizing and measuring benefits Projects prioritized and integrated, providing an effective use of scarce resources Clear responsibilities for preparing for implementing business change
  48. 48. Program vs. Project Manager Program Manager Project Manager o Plans program-level activities and schedule of projects o Plans a project given the dependencies and interfaces defined by the Program Manager o Defines TOR (Terms Of Reference) for projects o Works within the defined TOR (Terms Of Reference) o Starts, stops and monitors progress of constituent projects o Runs a project, reporting to the Program Manager o Manages program level risks and issues. Delegates risks to projects o Manages project risks and issues, escalating to the Program Manager wherever necessary o Sets policies and procedures for projects o Runs project according to policies and procedures o Resolves resource conflicts o Uses assigned resources o Determines program standards o Delivers products to the defined standards
  49. 49. Project Management Tools
  50. 50. Project Component
  51. 51. Project Management Cycle
  52. 52.  Project Identification
  53. 53.  Option appraisal  Is there an identified need for this project? - Look for good entry points  What is the main objective of this project?  What are the specific benefits of the project?  Are there potential conflicts between this project and other current projects?  Will the project receive the support it requires?  If it is successful-will the benefits be measurable?  Do we have (even rough/estimated) delivery dates and a budget for it?  What are the risks for failure?
  54. 54.  Scoping the Project Gives clarity of the boundaries, objectives and success criteria of the project Consultation with relevant stakeholders upfront
  55. 55.  Assemble the Project Team
  56. 56. Project Team  Project Manager  Project Board/Steering Group Members  Team Members
  57. 57.  Stakeholder Identification and Analysis
  58. 58. Stakeholders  Individual/s, groups, institutions or firms that may have a relationship with the project  They may – directly or indirectly, positively or negatively – affect or be affected by the process and the outcomes of the project
  59. 59. Relevant Stakeholders  Beneficiaries (impact level) - Benefit from the implementation of the project  Target group/s (outcome level) - Group/entity who will be immediately and positively affected by the project  Project Partners (output level) - Those who help to implement the project
  60. 60. Target groups
  61. 61. Tool: Stakeholder Analysis  Who should contribute Who is the target group? Who are the beneficiaries? Who are the project partners?  Where assets and barriers might be Who might have a positive/negative impact on the project?  Actions to be taken before detailed planning Manage expectations
  62. 62. Tool: Stakeholder Analysis - Managing expectations
  63. 63.  Project Finance
  64. 64.  Risk Management
  65. 65. Risks  Scope related risks: Risk that the project will not meet its specifications (quality, quantity)  Schedule related risks: The project will not meet its deadlines  Cost related risks: Risks of exceeding the specified budget
  66. 66. Tool: Risk Assessment Matrix
  67. 67. Tool: Risk Management Plan
  68. 68. Milestone  Important, clearly defined events in the course of a project  End of a task  Decision taken  End of a project phase  Represent the project progress  Should take place on a specific date  Crucial to the success of the project
  69. 69. Tool: Milestone Chart
  70. 70. Tool: Milestone Report
  71. 71. Tool: Critical Path Analysis
  72. 72. Tool: Gantt Charts
  73. 73.  The Project Document
  74. 74. Tool: Project Definition form
  75. 75. Tool: Checklist  What is the rationale for the project?  Are the project objectives clear and unambiguous?  What actions need to be done?  When are those actions going to be done?  Who is going to do them?  What resources are required?  What is not going to be done?  Are outputs and outcome measurable?  If so what measures should be used?  Is everything feasible and realistic?
  76. 76. THANK YOU.
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