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Kontagious Kids
 

Kontagious Kids

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    Kontagious Kids Kontagious Kids Presentation Transcript

    • Kontagious Kids: Keeping Children and Day Care Staff Healthy
    • H1N1 “Swine” Flu
    • H1N1 “Swine” Flu
      • Person-to-person, not pig-to-human
      • Pandemic
      • Type of influenza A virus
      • Similar to flu virus that infects pigs
      • Spread same way as seasonal flu; coughing, sneezing, fomites
    • Transmission
      • Similar to seasonal flu; coughing, sneezing, touching contaminated surface
      • Spreads easily between people
      • Recommended to stay home from work/school if infected to avoid spread
      • Face masks of limited value; do not block viral agents
    • Symptoms
      • Similar to other flus
      • Chills/fever
      • Coughing
      • Headaches
      • Muscle/joint pain
      • Sore throat
      • Fatigue
      • Runny nose
    • High Risk Groups
      • People older than 65
      • Children younger than 5
      • Pregnant women
      • Folks with underlying medical conditions;
        • Asthma
        • Diabetes
        • Obesity
        • Heart disease
        • Decreased immune response
    • Vaccination Recommendations
      • Pregnant women
      • Household contacts and caregivers for children < 6 months of age
      • Healthcare and emergency medical services personnel
    • Vaccination Recommendations
      • 6 months to 18 years
        • Close contact; schools, daycare
        • 5-11 years has highest infection rate
      • 19 through 24 years
        • Live, work, study in close proximity
        • Mobile population
      • 25 through 64 who have health conditions associated with a higher risk of complications
        • As mentioned previously
    • Vaccination Recommendations
      • Those over 65?
        • Carry some antibody protection
        • Similar to flu circulating in the 20’s through 50’s
        • Have lower infection rates
    • Prevention
      • Difficult to contain
      • WHO states that containment is not a feasible option
      • Focus on decreasing the effects of the virus
      • No recommendations on closing borders or restricting travel
      • Stay home when sick; reschedule travel plans if possible
    • Prevention
      • Cover nose/mouth when you cough/sneeze
      • Wash hands afterwards
      • Avoid touching eyes, nose, mouth
      • Avoid close contact with sick individuals
      • CDC recommends staying home 24 hours after fever subsides
    • H1N1 and Children
      • Keep them home when sick, especially when symptomatic
      • Keep them away from other children
      • Call family physician first; don’t run to the ER
      • Kids can catch H1N1 in the ER
    • H1N1 in Children
      • Emergency attention should be considered:
        • Breathing difficulties
        • Bluish or gray skin color
        • Decreased fluid intake
        • Irritability
        • Lethargy
    • Treatment
      • OTC remedies;
        • Fluid intake
        • Soup to relieve congestion
        • Pain relief
    • Treatment
      • Antiviral medications
        • Tamiflu
        • Relenza
        • Use for folks in high-risk groups
        • Healthy people don’t need it
    • Common Cold & Flu
    • Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
    • RSV
      • Major cause of lower respiratory tract infections during infancy & childhood
      • No vaccine available
      • Treatment is oxygen
      • Usually produces mild symptoms
      • Virus is ubiquitous; avoidance of infection is not possible
    • RSV Treatment
      • Oxygen is the only thing that works in severe cases
      • Often indistinguishable from the common cold
    • RSV Prevention
      • Just like the common cold, wash your hands often
    • Strep Throat
      • Most common bacterial cause of sore throat
      • Common in children 5-15
      • Can lead to Rheumatic Fever; treat with antibiotics (penicillin or amoxicillin)
      • Scarlet Fever – allergy to Strep toxin
    • Strep Throat
      • 2-5 day incubation
      • Rapid onset
      • Resolves in about a week, with or without antibiotics
    • Signs/Symptoms
      • Fever >101
      • White draining patches on the throat
      • Swollen, tender lymph glands in the neck
      • Headache
      • Stomach pain
      • Loss of appetite
      • Nausea
    •  
    • Diagnosis
      • Culture of throat
      • Rapid tests; not always accurate
      • Culture any negative rapid tests
    • Prevention
      • Contagious until antibiotics kick in (24-48 hours)
      • Stay home for at least a day after antibiotics have been started
      • Change your toothbrush; reinfection
      • Wash hands often
      • Clean utensils
      • Re-occurring strep? Possible carrier?
    • MRSA
    • MRSA
      • Staphylococcus Aureus bacteria
      • Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics
      • Open wounds, invasive devices
      • Weakened immune systems; children and the elderly
    • MRSA
      • Colonizes the anterior nares
      • Carried asymptomatically by healthy folks
      • Treated with sulfa-drugs or clindamycin
      • Vancomycin
      • VRSA; rare
    • What is MRSA
      • Strain of Staphylococcus Aureus
      • Resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics
      • Penicillins and cephalosporins
      • Last line of defense is Vancomycin
    • MRSA Fast Facts
      • In the USA, 95 million people carry S. Aureus
      • 2.5 million thought to carry MRSA
      • Increased outbreaks in locker rooms and gymnasiums
    • Signs/Symptoms
      • Skin and soft tissue infections
      • Red bumps, resemble pimples or boils
      • Open into painful pus-filled boils
      • Can become systemic , toxic shock and necrotizing pneumonia & fasciitis
    • Treatment
      • Sulfa drugs have some effectiveness
      • Vancomycin is the last drug of choice
      • Linezolid is a newer drug with good effectiveness too
    • Prevention of MRSA
      • Proper handwashing
      • Alcohol-based hand sanitizers near patient beds/care areas
      • Chlorhexidine solution for proper handwashing
    • Rotavirus
    • Rotavirus
      • Leading single cause of diarrhea among infants and young children
      • Transmitted via fecal-oral route
      • Infects cells of the small intestine
      • Entertoxin
      • Severe diarrhea
      • Death via dehydration
    • Rotavirus Epidemiology
      • 2.7 million cases in USA annually
      • 60,000 hospitalizations
      • 37 deaths
    • Signs/Symptoms
      • Vomiting
      • Diarrhea, 4-8 days
      • Low-grade fever
      • 2-day incubation once infected before signs/symptoms appear
    • Detection and Diagnosis
      • Enzyme immunoassay
      • Test kits, rapid sensitive and specific
    • Treatment
      • Management of symptoms
      • Maintain hydraytion
      • Water, Pedialyte, IV solutions
    • Prevention
      • Handwashing to prevent spread; not entirely effective
      • Vaccination
      • Rotarix by GlaxoSmithKline
      • RotaTeq by Merck
      • Taken orally, contain disabled live virus
    • Hepatitis A
    • Hepatitis A
      • Highly contagious liver infection
      • Contaminated food, water
      • Fecal/oral route
      • Close contact with infected persons
      • No treatment required
      • Most recover completely without any permanent liver damage; immunity thereafter
    • Signs/Symptoms
      • No signs/symptoms
      • Fatigue
      • Nausea/vomiting
      • Abdominal pain
      • Loss of appetite
      • Low-grade fever
      • Dark urine
    • Prevention
      • Contain spread
      • Handwashing
      • Vaccination
      • Havrix or Vaqta
      • Twinrix, hepatitis A & B vaccine
    • Salmonella
    • Salmonella
      • Causes enteritis
      • Self-limiting, no antibiotics required
      • Can cause severe illness in infants and children
      • Over 40,000 cases reported each year in the USA
    • Sources of infections
      • Unclean food; institutional & restaurant kitchens
      • Excretions from infected individuals
      • Polluted water
      • Unhygienically thawed food
      • Meat, poultry, eggs, milk
      • Tortoises and snakes
    • Signs/Symptoms
      • Nausea, diarrhea, chills, fever, abdominal cramps
      • 8-72 hour incubation; sign/symptoms disappear in 4-7 days
      • Primary concern in children is dehydration, and containment
    • Prevention
      • Wash hands after handling raw eggs and meats, poultry
      • Separate these foods from ready-to-eat foods
      • Clean utensils, cutting boards and counter tops
      • Clean kitchen surfaces with paper towels
    • Escherichia Coli
    • E. Coli
      • Most strains are harmless
      • O157:H7 causes food poisoning
      • Enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic strains are common
      • Gastroenteritis, UTI and neonatal meningitis
    • Food Sources
      • Ground beef
      • Vegetables grown in cow manure, or washed in contaminated water
      • Non-pasteurized fruit juices
    • Signs/Symptoms
      • Stomach cramps
      • Vomiting and diarrhea
      • Sometimes a bloody stool
    • Prevention
      • Cook ground beef thoroughly
      • Wash vegetables thoroughly
      • Wash hands after preparing these foods
      • Wash hands after caring for someone with E. Coli enteritis
    • Shigella
    • Shigella
      • Causative agent of dysentary
      • Fecal-oral route once again
      • Destruction of intestinal epithelium
      • Cell-to-cell spread
    • Signs/Symptoms
      • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever
      • Stomach cramps, flatulence
      • Bloody stool containing mucus and/or pus
      • 2-4 day incubation
      • Self-limiting
      • Antibiotics in severe cases; shorten symptoms
    • Shigellosis
      • Occurs typically during summer months
      • Usually affects kids 2-4 years old; rarely younger than 6 months
      • Dehydration is a problem in children; Pedialyte
      • Very contagious; just need 10 cells
      • Good handwashing practices prevent spread
    • Shigellosis
      • Cleaning toilets
      • Clean diaper changing areas
      • Disposal of diapers
      • Handling foods
      • Isolation of kids with Shigellosis
    • Handwashing
      • Single most important procedure for preventing the spread of biological contamination
      • Prevents illness at home, school, work
      • Key prevention tools in healthcare, daycare and public facilities & schools
    • Handwashing – When to wash?
      • Hands are visibly dirty
      • Before eating
      • Before touching eyes, nose or mouth
      • Before and after handling/preparing food
      • Before dressing a wound, giving medicine
      • Before inserting contact lenses
    • Handwashing – When to wash?
      • After contact with blood/bodily fluids
      • After using the restroom
      • After changing diapers
      • After touching animals or pets
      • After coughing, sneezing, using a tissue
      • Wash more frequently when someone in the household is ill
    • Proper Handwashing Technique
    • Proper Handwashing Technique
    • Wash Your Hands: The Right Way When washing hands with soap and water: Wet your hands with clean running water and apply soap. Use warm water if it is available. Rub hands together to make a lather and scrub all surfaces. Continue rubbing hands for 15-20 seconds. Need a timer? Imagine singing &quot;Happy Birthday&quot; twice through to a friend. Rinse hands well under running water. Dry your hands using a paper towel or air dryer. If possible, use your paper towel to turn off the faucet. Always use soap and water if your hands are visibly dirty
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