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  • 1. Water Main / Extensions Service Line Installation Valves & Hydrants Fereshteh Doost, P.E. Fuss & O’Neill, Inc. (860)-646-2469 Ext. 5295 June 2010
  • 2. Products
    • Pipe, Fitting, Valves, etc. – Latest edition of AWWA Standard.
    • All pipe, paints, linings, coating, for potable water must meet NSF/ANSI Standard 61 Criteria.
    • Material shall stand internal and external pressure and force while in service.
    • Material shall be protected against internal and external corrosion.
    • Non metallic buried pipe shall include a tracer wire, detection tape.
  • 3. Pipe Materials
    • Material Size Length
    • Gray Cast Iron Pipe (CIP) 3” - 54” 12’, 16’, 18’, 20’
    • Ductile Iron Pipe (DIP) 4” - 64” 18’, 20’
    • Steel Pipe (SP) 4” - 96” 40’
    • Asbestos Cement Pipe (ACP)* 4” - 42” 10’ - 13’
    • Reinforced Concrete Pipe (RCP) 60”- 144” 8’ - 24’
    • Plastic Pipe PVC C-900 4” - 12” 20’ - 40’
    • *No longer used.
  • 4. Separation & Layout
    • 10 feet horizontally from sewer, edge to edge
    • 18” vertically above sewer, crown to invert
    • Loop Water Main
    • Avoid Dead-End if possible
    • Routinely Flush Dead-End
  • 5. Water Main Installation
    • In accordance with AWWA Standard.
    • All materials shall be kept clean.
    • Plug open ends.
    • 4.5’ to 5’ minimum cover (prevent freezing)
    • Insulation for pipes passing above or below culvert and bridge.
    • Shut off valve at both sides of bridge.
    • Thrust block and/or restrained joints, to prevent joint separation (bends, tee, hyd. Reducer, caps)
  • 6. Restrained Joints
  • 7. Concrete Thrust Blocks
  • 8. Water Main Extension
    • Need to understand existing configuration
    • Materials of existing main is very important
    • Need to be careful not to contaminate existing main (HPC testing is very helpful)
    • Can be done under 2 circumstance
      • Dry tap
      • Wet tap
  • 9. Dry Tap
    • Need to be able to isolate the portion of main to be extended
    • Make sure valves available to isolate the area work
    • Some leakage of valves is okay, but can hinder progress
    • Be cautious when dealing with asbestos cement or transite
    • Thrust restraints should be designed accordingly
  • 10. Dry Tap (cont.)
    • If connection is in form of a tee, make sure tee assembly is complete prior to cutting main
    • Notify customers of the potential interruption in service
    • Should begin any extension with a new gate or butterfly valve
  • 11. Wet Tap
    • Typically a tapping sleeve & valve is used
    • Disinfect sleeve and valve interiors with bleach prior to installation
    • Sleeve is bolted onto existing main
    • Existing main is then live tapped
    • Gate valve is closed to allow removal of the tapping machine at completion of tap
    • Outside diameter of existing main is critical
    • Thrust restraint should be designed accordingly
  • 12. Wet Tap Example
  • 13. Water Services
    • For this section we will deal with domestic services under normal pressures (up to 100 lbs.)
    • AWWA Standard C800 outlines water services
    • Fire services are an issue in commercial areas and will not be discussed in detail
  • 14. Water Service Components
    • There are 4 basic components to most services
      • Corporation Stop
      • Service Pipe
      • Curb Stop
      • Water Meter
  • 15. Water Service Installation Details
  • 16. Typical Service Connection
  • 17. Service Valves
  • 18. Corporation Stop
    • Provide a means of shutting off water while installing service
    • Typically made of bronze
    • Typically not provided with service box
    • Usually a ball valve type
    • Always attached directly to the water main
    • Corporation is usually mounted in the 2:00 position (between 1:00 – 2:00 position)
  • 19. Corporation Stop (cont.)
    • Two ways to attach stop to water main
      • Direct tap
        • Involves tapping the corporation stop directly to the main
        • Usually this applies to small stops tapped to metal pipe
        • Metallic pipe is usually required on main line
        • Not used for high pressure applications
      • Saddle tap
        • For plastic pipe, corporation is often attached using a pipe saddle
        • Typically used with larger (2” and larger) taps
        • The saddle provide structural backing for the tap
        • Corporation is then attached to the saddle
        • High pressure applications
  • 20. Service Saddle
  • 21. Service Pipe
    • Most common material is copper (type K)
    • Plastic, steel, and iron pipe can be used
    • Lead had been used, but should be removed when found
    • Pipe extends from corporation to curb stop, then into home to meter
  • 22. Service Pipe (cont.)
    • Typical sizes are between 5/8-inch to 2-inch in diameter for a domestic service
    • Services can be as 2-inches and larger for fire services
    • It is not uncommon for multiple homes to be fed from a single service
    • Each service should be equipped with curb stop to allow shut-off without interrupting other customers
  • 23. Curb Stop
    • Provides a means of shutting off water after completion of water service construction
    • Typically located at the property line
    • Usually defines break in ownership
      • Utility usually owns from main to curb stop
      • Private owner owns from the curb stop into the home
  • 24. Curb Stop (cont.)
    • Typically made of bronze
    • Provided with service box
    • Operating key is usually between 1 to 2-inch depending on the service size
    • Usually a ball valve type
    • Direction of opening valve should be utility standard (can be provided in either direction)
  • 25. Typical Curb Stop
  • 26. Water Meters
    • The final component of the service is the meter
    • Provides the utility a means of charging consumer for water used
    • There are many types of meters available
    • Meters can be remotely read
    • Meter readings can also be transmitted directly to billing office
  • 27. Appurtenances
    • Shut-off valves – determined by public water system (PWS)
    • Air-release valve at high point to release and remove air.
    • Blow-offs at low point where sediment accumulates.
    • Flushing device location by (PWS)
      • - Flushing device shall not be directly connected to any sewer.
      • - Flushing device shall have minimum velocity of 2.5 fps
  • 28. Valves
    • The most common valve in a distribution system is a gate valve (AWWA C500, C509, or C515)
    • Gate valves are used to isolate portions of the system
    • For 16-inch and larger diameter pipes, butterfly valves are often used (AWWA C504)
    • Usually 1,000 foot spacing is used
  • 29. Gate Valve
  • 30. Gate Valves
    • The direction to open the valve is critical
    • Valve body can be either ductile or cast iron
    • Valves are usually epoxy coated (AWWA C550)
    • Typically provide a “cluster” at each intersection
    • The two basic types of gate valves are
      • Resilient wedge (AWWA C509)
      • Double disk (AWWA C500)
  • 31. Gate Valves (cont.)
    • Resilient Wedge
      • Stops flow using a rubber encapsulated iron wedge
      • Used for diameters less than 14-inches
      • For >14-inch double disks can be used although RW can still be used
      • Bypass typically used on gate valves > 16-inches
      • Manufacturer recommends not testing against a resilient wedge valve
      • When newly installed, operate (open and close) several times to insure proper sealing
  • 32. Resilient Wedge Gate Valve Section
  • 33. Gate Valves (cont.)
    • Double Disk
      • Stops flow using a double metal disk mechanism
      • Its use is being phased out
      • Use today is typically limited to diameters over 14-inch
      • Bypass typically required on installations > 16-inches
  • 34. Gate Valves (cont.)
    • Gate valves are used for smaller pipe
      • Less expensive compared to butterfly valves for small pipe (<= 12-inch)
      • Many turns to open (3 x diameter + 3): for 8-inch it would take (3 x 8 + 3 =) 27 turns to open
    • Mechanical joints need to be restrained
    • Pressure force on large diameter gates make opening difficult
    • Gates are accessed using a gate box
    • Wrenches for opening gates should be standard for a given utility
  • 35. Gate Valve Section View
  • 36. Butterfly Valves
    • More expensive compared to gate valves for smaller pipe, but more economical for larger pipe – 16-inch or greater
    • Cracking valve equalizes pressure; assists in opening
    • ¼ turn will open or close the valve
    • Mechanical joints are preferred
    • Buried valve is accessed using gate box
    • Bypass valves typically not required
  • 37. Typical Butterfly Valve
  • 38. Hydrants
    • AWWA Standard C502 & C503 outlines hydrants
    • There are 2 basic types: wet or dry barrel
    • Hydrant assembly is composed of the following
      • Anchor tee
      • Branch piping (6-inch diameter)
      • Gate valve
      • Hydrant
    • Thrust restraint is a major concern for hydrants
    • All joints from tee to hydrant should be restrained
  • 39. Hydrants (cont.)
    • AWWA recommends spacing hydrants <500 feet
    • Direction of opening the hydrant should match gate opening direction
    • Hydrants are usually located at the back of sidewalk
    • Do not locate hydrants too close to structures, poles, etc. (can’t get to hydrant during fire)
    • Try to place at property line to prevent interference with future drives, walkways.
  • 40. Typical Hydrant Section View
  • 41. Typical Hydrant Installation
  • 42. Hydrant Operation
    • Operator needs to understand hydrant operation
      • In New England, hydrants are dry barrel type
      • Dry barrel hydrants are often equipped with drain ports to drain barrel
      • Drain ports are not allowed in some jurisdictions (Maine)
      • Do not throttle with hydrant, use gate valve
      • Not fully closing hydrant can cause scouring of base through drain ports
      • Closing hydrant too quickly can cause water hammer and possible break
      • Be careful of final couple of turns
  • 43. Hydrant at Dead End
  • 44. Hydrant Operation (cont.)
    • Operator’s understanding (cont.)
      • If hydrant needs to be throttled, use gate valve
      • When operating always either fully open or close the hydrant
      • Never stand in front of hydrant cap when pressurizing; stand behind hydrant in case cap ‘blows” off
  • 45. Hydrants (cont.)
    • Air release valves should be installed at high points to bleed entrained air. Hydrants have been used in lieu of air release valves with mixed results
    • Hydrants located at low points can be used to flush deposited materials
    • Smaller diameter flushing hydrants also available
  • 46. Reference Materials
    • AWWA Standards
    • NFPA
    • Water Distribution System Operation and Maintenance, fourth edition
    • State Guidelines and Policies for Public Water Systems
    • Ten State Standards
  • 47. Questions?