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  1. 1. Cultural views about love From: 常丹; 0701108 张雪帆
  2. 2. Chinese and other Sinic (中国的) cultures <ul><li>The traditional Chinese character for love ( 愛 ) consists of a heart (middle) inside of &quot;accept&quot;, &quot;feel&quot;, or &quot;perceive&quot;, which shows a graceful emotion. In contemporary Chinese language and culture, several terms or root words are used for the concept of &quot;love&quot;: </li></ul><ul><li>It was the Qing‘s emperor first word of name. </li></ul><ul><li>Ai ( 愛 ) is used as a verb (e.g. Wo ai ni, “I love you”) or as a noun, especially in aiqing ( 愛情 ), “love” or “romance.” In mainland China since 1949, airen ( 愛人 , originally “lover,” or more literally, “love person”) is the dominant word for “spouse” (with separate terms for “wife” and “husband” originally being de-emphasized); the word once had a negative connotation (内涵) , which it retains among many on Taiwan. </li></ul><ul><li>Lian ( 戀 ) is not generally used alone, but instead as part of such terms as &quot;being in love&quot; ( 談戀愛 , tan lian'ai—also containing ai), &quot;lover&quot; ( 戀人 , lianren) or &quot;homosexuality&quot; ( 同性戀 , tongxinglian). </li></ul><ul><li>Qing ( 情 ), commonly meaning &quot;feeling&quot; or &quot;emotion,&quot; often indicates &quot;love&quot; in several terms. It is contained in the word aiqing ( 愛情 ); qingren ( 情人 ) is a term for &quot;lover&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>In Confucianism, lian is a virtuous benevolent (仁慈的) love. Lian should be pursued by all human beings, and reflects a moral life. The Chinese philosopher Mozi developed the concept of ai ( 愛 ) in reaction to Confucian lian. Ai, in Mohism, is universal love towards all beings, not just towards friends or family, without regard to reciprocation (回报) . Extravagance and offensive war are inimical to ai. Although Mozi's thought was influential, the Confucian lian is how most Chinese conceive of love. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Persian (波斯语) <ul><li>Even after all this time </li></ul><ul><li>The sun never says to the earth &quot;you owe me&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Look what happens with a Love like that! </li></ul><ul><li>- It lights the whole Sky. (Hafiz) </li></ul><ul><li>Rumi, Hafez and Sa'di are icons of the passion and love that the Persian culture and language present. The Persian word for love is eshgh, deriving from the Arabic ishq. In the Persian culture, everything is encompassed by love and all is for love, starting from loving friends and family, husbands and wives, and eventually reaching the divine love that is the ultimate goal in life. Over seven centuries ago, Sa'di wrote: </li></ul><ul><li>The children of Adam are limbs (手足) of each other </li></ul><ul><li>Having been created of one essence. </li></ul><ul><li>When the calamity (灾难) of time afflicts (折磨) one limb </li></ul><ul><li>The other limbs cannot remain at rest. </li></ul><ul><li>If you have no sympathy for the troubles of others </li></ul><ul><li>You are not worthy to be called by the name of &quot;man&quot;. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Gănqíng ( 感情 ), the “feeling” of a relationship, vaguely (含糊的) similar to empathy (同理心) . A person will express love by building good gănqíng, accomplished through helping or working for another and emotional attachment toward another person or anything. </li></ul><ul><li>Yuanfen ( 緣份 ) is a connection of bound destinies. A meaningful relationship is often conceived of as dependent strong yuanfen. It is very similar to serendipity. A similar conceptualization in English is, &quot;They were made for each other,&quot; &quot;fate,&quot; or &quot;destiny&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Zaolian (Simplified: 早恋 , Traditional: 早戀 , pinyin: zǎoliàn), literally, “early love,” is a contemporary term in frequent use for romantic feelings or attachments among children or adolescents. Zaolian describes both relationships among a teenaged boyfriend and girlfriend, as well as the “crushes” of early adolescence or childhood. The concept essentially indicates a prevalent belief in contemporary Chinese culture that due to the demands of their studies (especially true in the highly competitive educational system of China), youth should not form romantic attachments lest (以免) their jeopardize (危害) their chances for success in the future. Reports have appeared in Chinese newspapers and other media detailing the prevalence of the phenomenon and its perceived dangers to students and the fears of parents. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Japanese <ul><li>In Japanese Buddhism, ai ( 愛 ) is passionate caring love, and a fundamental desire. It can develop towards either selfishness or selflessness and enlightenment. </li></ul><ul><li>Amae ( 甘 え ), a Japanese word meaning “indulgent (纵容,任性,放纵) dependence&quot;, is part of the child-rearing culture of Japan. Japanese mothers are expected to hug and indulge their children, and children are expected to reward their mothers by clinging and serving. Some sociologists have suggested that Japanese social interactions in later life are modeled on the mother-child amae. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ancient Greek <ul><li>Greek distinguishes several different senses in which the word love is used. For example, Ancient Greek has the words philia, eros, agape, storge and xenia. However, with Greek as with many other languages, it has been historically difficult to separate the meanings of these words totally. At the same time the Ancient Greek text of the Bible has examples of the verb agapo being used with the same meaning as phileo. </li></ul><ul><li>Agape (ἀγάπη agápē) means love in modern day Greek. The term s'agapo means I love you in Greek. The word agapo is the verb I love. It generally refers to a &quot;pure&quot;, ideal type of love rather than the physical attraction suggested by eros. However, there are some examples of agape used to mean the same as eros. It has also been translated as &quot;love of the soul&quot;. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Eros (ἔρως érōs) is passionate love, with sensual desire and longing. The Greek word erota means in love. Plato refined his own definition. Although eros is initially felt for a person, with contemplation it becomes an appreciation of the beauty within that person, or even becomes appreciation of beauty itself. Eros helps the soul recall knowledge of beauty, and contributes to an understanding of spiritual truth. Lovers and philosophers are all inspired to seek truth by eros. Some translations list it as &quot;love of the body&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Philia (φιλία philía), a dispassionate virtuous love, was a concept developed by Aristotle. It includes loyalty to friends, family, and community, and requires virtue, equality and familiarity. Philia is motivated by practical reasons; one or both of the parties benefit from the relationship. Can also mean &quot;love of the mind&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Storge (στοργή storgē) is natural affection, like that felt by parents for offspring (子孙) . </li></ul><ul><li>Xenia (ξενία xenía), hospitality (款待) , was an extremely important practice (礼仪) in Ancient Greece. It was an almost ritualized friendship formed between a host and their guest, who could previously be strangers. The host fed and provided quarters for the guest, who was only expected to repay with gratitude (感激) . The importance of this can be seen throughout Greek mythology, in particular Homer's Iliad and Odyssey. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Turkish (Shaman & Islamic) <ul><li>In Turkish the word “love” comes up with several meanings. A person can love the god, a person, the parents or the family. But that person can “love” just one person from the opposite sex which they call the word “aşk”. Aşk is a feeling for to love, as it still is in Turkish today. The Turks used this word just for their romantic loves in a romantic or sexual sense. If a Turk says that he is in love (aşk) with somebody, it is not a love that a person can feel for his or her parents; it is just for one person and it indicates a huge infatuation. (迷恋) The word is also common for Turkic languages, such as Kazakh (ғашық). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ancient Roman (Latin) <ul><li>The Latin language has several different verbs corresponding to the English word 'love'. </li></ul><ul><li>Amare is the basic word for to love, as it still is in Italian today. The Romans used it both in an affectionate sense, as well as in a romantic or sexual sense. From this verb come amans, a lover, amator, ‘professional lover’, often with the accessory notion of lechery (好色) , and amica, ‘girlfriend’ in the English sense, often as well being applied euphemistically (婉转地) to a prostitute. The corresponding noun is amor, which is also used in the plural form to indicate ‘love affairs’ or ‘sexual adventures’. This same root also produces amicus, ‘friend’, and amicitia, ‘friendship’ (often based on mutual advantage, and corresponding sometimes more closely to ‘indebtedness’ or ‘influence’). Cicero wrote a treatise (论文) called On Friendship (de Amicitia) which discusses the notion at some length. Ovid wrote a guide to dating called Ars Amatoria (The Art of Lovers), which addresses in depth everything from extramarital affairs to overprotective parents. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Complicating the picture somewhat, Latin sometimes uses amare where English would simply say to like; this notion, however, is much more generally expressed in Latin by placere or delectare, which are used more colloquially, and the latter of which is used frequently in the love poetry of Catullus. </li></ul><ul><li>Diligere often has the notion 'to be affectionate for', 'to esteem', and rarely if ever is used of romantic love. This word would be appropriate to describe the friendship of two men. The corresponding noun diligentia, however, has the meaning 'diligence' 'carefulness' and has little semantic overlap with the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Observare is a synonym for 'diligere'; despite the cognate with English, this verb and its corresponding noun 'observantia' often denote 'esteem' or 'affection'. </li></ul><ul><li>Caritas is used in Latin translations of the Christian Bible to mean 'charitable love'. This meaning, however, is not found in Classical pagan Roman literature. As it arises from a conflation with a Greek word, there is no corresponding verb. </li></ul>
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