Instructors As Transformational Leaders In The Classroom

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  • 1. Instructors: Transformational Leaders in the Classroom Catherine E. West, MA Communication Management
  • 2. Objectives  Relate student learning outcomes to instructor key performance expectations  List specific instructor actions affecting cognitive learning, affective learning, and student motivation to learn  Identify forms of feedback in the classroom creating student intrinsic motivation
  • 3. Training Goals  We want to become Transformational Leaders in the classroom.  We want to inspire intrinsic motivation in our students.  We want to understand how our actions as instructors affect learning and student motivation in the online classroom.
  • 4. Cognitive Learning, Affective Learning and Motivation to Learn
  • 5. What is Cognitive Learning?  “Cognitive learning is about enabling people to learn by using their reason, intuition and perception. This technique is often used to change peoples' behaviour. But people's behaviour is influenced by many factors such as culture, upbringing, education and motivation. Therefore cognitive learning involves understanding how these factors influence behaviour and then using this information to develop learning programmes.” (Martin, 2006, para 3)
  • 6. What is Affective Learning?  “Affective learning outcomes involve attitudes, motivation, and values. The expression of these often involves statements of opinions, beliefs, or an assessment of worth.” (Miller, 2005)
  • 7. Motivation “Energizes Behavior and Gives it Direction” (Huang, 2003)  Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation driving an individual to succeed for internal, personal reasons rather than external, extrinsic reasons such as grades or recognition. (Zaharias, 2009, para 1)
  • 8. “Transforming the existing order of things as well as addressing the students’ needs for meaning and development” (Bolkan & Goodboy, 2009, p.297)
  • 9. What does it mean to be a Transformational Leader in the classroom?  Effectively manage your classroom  “Facilitate maximum student involvement”  “Enhance student learning” (Bolkan & Goodboy, 2009, p.296)
  • 10. Traits of Transformational Leaders  “More concerned with student empowerment than classroom control strategies”  Perceived as being more effective and rated as better performing by their students  “Exhibits the synthesis of three components: charisma, individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation” (Bolkan & Goodboy, 2009, p.297)
  • 11. Charismatic Leaders  “Considered to be dynamic, hard- working, confident, attractive, competent, and successful”  “A sub-component of charisma is inspiration” (Bolkan & Goodboy, 2009, p.297)
  • 12. Individualized Consideration  “Associated with instructors who treat students different according to their individual needs and capabilities”  “Related to thoughtfulness for others and the mentorship of students” (Bolkan & Goodboy, 2009, p.297)
  • 13. Intellectual Stimulation  “Associated with instructors that stimulate extra effort among their students by forcing their students to rethink ideas they may have never questioned before” (Bolkan & Goodboy, 2009, p.297)
  • 14. Outcomes of Transformational Leadership  Cognitive Learning, Affective Learning, and Motivation  “Extra effort from students”  Increased student perception of instructor effectiveness  Increased student satisfaction with instructors as leaders (Bolkan & Goodboy, 2009, p.298)
  • 15. Overall  “Transformational Leadership is positively related to student learning outcomes, student participation and perceptions of teacher credibility” (Bolkan & Goodboy, 2009, p.301)
  • 16. Practicing Immediate Behavior, Utilizing Affective Feedback and Instilling Intrinsic Motivation in Students: “The difference between knowing and teaching is communication” (Edwards & Helvie-Mason, 2010, p.175)
  • 17. What is Immediate Behavior?  “Immediacy Behaviors represent instructors’ attempts to reduce the social distance between themselves and their students” (p.42)  Immediacy Behavior includes both nonverbal and verbal behaviors  Nonverbal Immediacy: eye contact, smiling, movement around the classroom  Verbal Immediacy: speaking examples, “such as including personal examples, using humor, providing and inviting feedback, addressing students by name” (p.43) (Arbaaugh, 2001)
  • 18. How Can Instructors Demonstrate Immediacy in the Virtual Environment?  “Use humor  Encourage discussion and feedback  Address students by name in text-based discussion  Emoticons  Audio clips” (Arbaaugh, 2001, p.44)
  • 19. Achieving Immediacy in the Discussion Board  “Relying simply on asking questions in the discussion board will not yield results” (Arbaaugh, 2001, p.46)  “Instructors can influence student interaction by: 1. Providing personal examples of the class material 2. Demonstrating a sense of humor about the course material and or the web based course experience 3. Inviting students to receive feedback from them and from each other” (Arbaaugh, 2001, p.46) 4. Responding quickly, often and always in a friendly tone  Encouraging student discussion in the classroom, even if it is not course related, creating a more collective classroom effort.  Stay in touch with your students by asking them how the course is going and how they feel about the class so far. (Conway, Easton, & Schmidt, 2005)
  • 20. Affective Feedback = Immediate Feedback  “Feedback must be conveyed in a positive, encouraging and non-critical way in order to facilitate learners’ motivation” (Zaharias, 2009, para 30)  Relatively subtle differences in wording of written messages have been proven to effect student motivation and perceptions (Katt & Collins, 2007)
  • 21. Immediacy in Written Cues  “‘I thought’ or ‘I feel’  Include the student’s name or use a personal pronoun “you” or “your”  Give provisional feedback versus certain feedback: Your conclusion could have been stronger (provisional) versus conclusion is weak (certain)” (Katt & Collins, 2007, para 6)
  • 22. Immediacy in Written Cues  Provisionality is a form of verbal immediacy that can be achieved in the online classroom  Immediate and provisional feedback requires 48% more words than non- immediate, certain feedback  Cast written feedback in terms that are participatory, disclosing and provisional (Katt & Collins, 2007)
  • 23. Immediate Feedback  Provisional feedback is less likely to warrant defensive responses from students.  Students receiving immediate and provisional critique reported higher state motivation and higher affective learning (Katt & Collins, 2007)
  • 24. Enhancing Feedback  Provide regular, individualized feedback  “Include both positive reinforcement and concrete suggestions for improvement”  “It is important to acknowledge sincere efforts made”, provide precise, informative feedback regarding current performance  “Encourage an emphasis on progress” (Huang, 2003, para 11)
  • 25. Examples of Affective, Immediate Feedback  Marcy, I feel your paper was well researched since you used notable sources like The Journal of American Medical Association, instead of Wikipedia. I thought your sentence structure was exceptional and liked how you used an advanced vocabulary. I feel your APA format could be stronger in your next assignment.  Tom, I feel like you have an amazing understanding of the Endocrine System! You got almost every question in that section correct! Your understanding of the Senses could be stronger for the final. Let me know if you want to discuss the Senses more in depth. You can reach me on my cell to arrange a good time to re-cap some of the things you may still be working to master. I can see you developing as a scholar and think you should be commended on your progress! I look forward to talking to you soon and seeing you in class.
  • 26. What Types of Feedback are Important to the Students? 1. Specific Feedback: “Students have the most positive attitude toward interactions which can provide them with specific feedback or information on tasks” 2. Affective Feedback: “Students ranked affective interaction as the second most preferred type of interaction. This indicates that when they learn online, in addition to content-oriented feedback, students like to have motivational and emotional support” 3. Collaborative Interaction: “The presence in the classroom discussions and the virtual office” (Hao and Lui, 2006, para 13)
  • 27. Applying Transformational Leadership and Immediate Behaviors in Virginia College Classrooms: Producing Desired Student Learning Outcomes
  • 28. Instructor Key Performance Expectations  In every move, ask yourself the three most important questions for a Transformational Leader: Am I being charismatic? Am I providing Individualized Consideration? Am I creating Intellectual Stimulation?  Respond Quickly and Consistently!  Provide immediate and provisional feedback in the grade book and on student assignments. Remember, students feel feedback is most important when it hosts concrete examples and provides emotional support and motivation, not just right or wrong answers or “Good Job”!  In the discussion board, offer authentic participation by providing personal experience examples, using humor, and utilizing individualized consideration in your responses. It is important to be seen in the discussion. As an instructor you need to exhibit presence in your course.
  • 29. Instructor Key Performance Expectations  Post Weekly Announcements bridging course material and inspiring an aspect of intellectual stimulation.  Work towards adapting your engagement opportunities for then needs of each class. Pay attention to what works and what does not.  Make time to reach out to students and exercise individualized consideration  Implement an environment for intrinsic motivation through immediate classroom behaviors.
  • 30. Work Cited  Arbaaugh, J. B. ( 2001). How instructor immediacy behaviors affect student satisfaction and learning in web-based courses. Business Communication Quarterly, 64(4), 42-64.  Bolkan, S. and Goodboy, A (2009). Transformational leadership in the classroom: Fostering student learning, student participation, and teacher credibility. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 36(4), 296-306.  Conway, R., Easton, S. and Schmidt, W. ( 2005). Strategies for enhancing student interaction and immediacy in online courses. Business Communication Journal, 68(1), 23-35.  Edwards, J. and Helvie-Mason, L. (2010). Technology and instructional communication: Student usage and perceptions of virtual office hours. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 6(1), 174-186.  Frisby, B. and Myers, S. (2008). The relationship among perceived instructor rapport, student participation, and student learning outcomes. Texas Speech Communication Journal, 33(1), 27-34.  Hao, Y. and Liu, M. (2006). Students’ attitudes toward online interaction. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 10(4), 75-79.  Hess, J. and Smythe, M. (2001). Is teacher immediacy actually related to student cognitive learning? Communication Studies, 52(3), 197-220.
  • 31. Works Cited, continued  Huang, L. (2003). Ten pointers for enhancing learners’ motivation. Business Communication Quarterly, 66(4), 88-96.  Katt, J. and Collins, S. (2007). Achieving immediacy with written cues. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 11(2), 91-97.  Martin, S. (2006). Definition of cognitive learning. Retrieved May 12, 2010, from http://ezinearticles.com/?Definition-of-Cognitive-Learning&id=365039  Miller, M. (2005). Teaching and Learning in Affective Domain. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved May 12, 2010, from http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/  Zaharias, P. (2009). Usability in the context of e-learning: A framework augmenting ‘traditional’ usability constructs with instructional design and motivation to learn. International Journal of Technology and Human Interaction, 5(4), 37-50.