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Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins

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This powerpoint details sources of carbs, fats and proteins. Used in Foods 1 classes

This powerpoint details sources of carbs, fats and proteins. Used in Foods 1 classes

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  • 1. Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins Nutrients that Provide Calories
  • 2. Carbohydrates
    • Carbohydrates are the major components of most plants.
    • Plants make carbohydrates on their own through photosynthesis.
    • Separated into two categories
      • Simple
      • Complex
  • 3. Functions of Carbohydrates
    • Main source of energy
    • Spare protein from being burned so it can be used to build and repair
    • Dietary fiber can help lower blood cholesterol
    • Part of connective tissues, some hormones and enzymes and genetic material.
  • 4. Sources
    • Grains (wheat, corn, etc)
    • Rice
    • Beans
    • Sugars
      • Honey
      • Cane sugar
      • Molasses
  • 5. Nutrition of Carbohydrates
    • Provide 4 calories per gram
    • Main source of body’s energy
    • Body uses carbs before calories from protein and fat.
  • 6. Simple Carbohydrates
    • Sugars
      • Natural
      • Refined
  • 7. Sugars (Simple Carbohydrates)
    • Divided into two categories
      • Single sugars (monosaccharide)
      • Double sugars (disaccharides)
    • Names of sugars usually end in –ose
    • Monosaccharide's are the building blocks of complex carbs
  • 8. Monosaccharide's
    • Glucose (also called dextrose)
      • Body’s main source of energy
      • Body converts other sugars into glucose for use by the body
      • Found in fruits and honey
    • Fructose
      • Sweetest natural sugar
      • Found in honey and fruit
    • Galactose
      • Not found alone in nature
      • Linked to glucose to make lactose (milk sugar)
  • 9. Disaccharides
    • Sucrose
      • Cane sugar
      • Combination of glucose and fructose
    • Maltose
      • Does not occur in nature
    • Lactose
      • Natural only in milk
  • 10. Complex Carbohydrate
    • Also known as polysaccharides
    • Starch
    • Fiber
  • 11. Starch
    • Made up of many glucoses linked together
    • Found only in plant foods
    • Found in grains
      • Wheat, corn, rice, rye, barley, and oats
    • Thickens liquids when heated (gelatinization)
  • 12. Fiber
    • Edible but not digestible
    • Fiber moves through the body unchanged
    • Two categories
      • Soluble (swells in water)
      • Insoluble (does not swell as much)
    • Found in dried beans, peas, lentils,
    • Also found in the peelings of fruits and vegetables.
  • 13. Fiber continued
    • Found in whole grains.
    • Whole grains include
      • Endosperm
      • Bran
      • germ
  • 14. Dietary recommendations
    • 130 grams each day for children and adults.
    • Use sugars in moderation.
    • Women need at least 38 grams of carbohydrates from fiber a day.
    • Men need at least 25 grams of carbohydrates from fiber a day.
  • 15. Fats (Lipids)
    • Include:
      • Fats (Solid at room temperature)
      • Oils (Liquid are room temperature)
      • Cholesterol
      • Lecithin
  • 16. Functions
    • Account for 15-25% of body weight
      • 50% of fat stores are right under skin
    • Fat provides 9 calories per gram
  • 17. Sources
    • Margarine (Saturated)
    • Butter (Saturated)
    • Oils (unsaturated)
    • Fast foods
    • Baked goods
    • Meats (mostly saturated)
    • Dairy products
  • 18. Types of Fats
    • Saturated fat (worst for you)
      • Found in animal foods
      • Some vegetable oils are high in saturated fat
        • Coconut, palm kernel, and palm oil
    • Mono-unsaturated
      • Olive oil , canola oil, and peanut oil
    • Poly-unsaturated (best for you)
      • Safflower, corn, soybean, sesame, and sunflower oil
  • 19. Trans fats
    • Naturally occur in meat and dairy foods
    • Most come from hydrogenated fat
      • Artificially solidified oil
      • Found in margarine, shortening
      • Has a longer shelf life
      • Makes unsaturated fats, saturated
  • 20. Cholesterol
    • Found in animal products
    • High levels in blood can lead to heart problems
  • 21. Dietary recommendations
    • No more than 20-35% of calories should come from fats
    • Less than 10% of calories should come from saturated fat
    • You should consume no more than 300 milligrams of cholesterol a day.
  • 22. Protein
    • Building block of cells
    • Made up of long chains of amino acids
    • 20 different kinds of amino acids
    • 9 amino acids must come from food
      • Essential amino acids
  • 23. Function of Protein
    • Protein is a part of every cell in your body
    • Build and maintain body tissues
    • Needed most during pregnancy and infancy
    • Also needed for healing after surgery or infections
    • Found in hormones, and all antibodies
    • Transport minerals, vitamins, fats and oxygen through body
    • Maintain acid base balance and water balance in body
  • 24. Sources of Protein
    • Complete Proteins
      • Meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products
    • Incomplete
      • Beans
      • Rice
      • Grains
  • 25. Incomplete proteins
    • Combine Beans with grains
      • Beans and rice
    • Combine a grain with a small amount of a full protein food
      • Mac and cheese
      • Pork and egg fried rice
  • 26. Dietary recommendations
    • Between .85 and 1.5 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight
    • Varies based on age, and based on whether a person is pregnant or lactating
  • 27. Sources
    • Drummond, Karen, and Lisa Brefere. Nutrition for Food Service and Culinary Professionals . Fifth. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and sons, 2004. Print.