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  1. 1. ZEN EMELIE S. PUMARADA<br />
  2. 2. THREE MAJOR PROCESS<br />1st<br />BIOLOGICAL<br />2nd<br />COGNITIVE<br />SOCIOEMOTIONAL<br />3rd<br />
  4. 4. "PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES"<br /> Describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored emotion.<br />
  5. 5. CARL GUSTAV JUNG <br /> Swiss psychiatrist and founder of a neopsychoanalytic school of psychology, which he named “ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY”<br />
  6. 6. CARL GUSTAV JUNG <br /> He proposed and developed the concepts of the extroverted and introverted personality, archetypes, and the collective unconscious.<br /> He felt as if he had two separate personalities. One introverted and other extroverted. <br /> This interplay resulted in his study of integration and wholeness. <br /> His work has been influential not only in psychology, but in religion and literature as well.<br />
  7. 7. SIGMUND FREUD<br /> an Austrian neurologist  who founded the discipline of PSYCHOANALYSIS. <br />
  8. 8. SIGMUND FREUD<br />PSYCHOSEXUAL THEORY<br />“THREE STRUCTURES”<br />1. ID  Consist of instincts, w/c are an individual’s reservoir of psychic energy<br />2. EGO  Personality structure that deals w/ the demands of reality.<br />3. SUPEREGO  Structure of personality that is the moral branch of personality.<br />
  10. 10. 1st – ORAL (Birth – 1 ½)= Infant’s pleasure centers around the mouth. Chewing, sucking and bitting <br />2nd – ANAL STAGE(1 ½ - 3)=Child’s pleasure focus on anus <br />3rd – PHALLIC( 3 – 6)= Child’s pleasure focuses on the genitals. <br />4th – LATENCY (6 – Puberty) = Child represses sexual interest and develops social and intellectual skills <br />5th – GENITAL (Puberty – Onward) = A time of sexual reawakening; source of sexual pleasure becomes someone outside the family. <br />
  11. 11. ERIK ERICKSON<br /> has made a contribution to the field of psychology with his “DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY”<br />
  12. 12. ERIK ERICKSON<br />PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY<br />“EIGHT LIFE-SPAN STAGES” <br /> <br />1st - TRUST VS MISTRUST = (first yr of life)<br />A sense of trust requires a feeling of physical comfort & a minimal amount of fear & apprehension about future.<br /> <br />2nd - AUTONOMY VS SHAME & DOUBT = (1-3)<br />After gaining trust in their caregivers, infants begin to discover that behavior is their own. They start to assert their sense of independence, or autonomy<br />
  13. 13. Continuation…<br />3rd - INITIATIVE VS GUILT = (preschool yrs, 3-5)<br />Developing sense of responsibility increases initiative. While guilt feeling may arise if the child is irresponsible and is made to feel too anxious.<br />4th - INDUSTRY VS INFERIORITY = (6-puberty)<br />The danger during this stage is the development of sense of inferiority. While teachers have a special responsibility for children’s development of industry.<br />5th - IDENTITY VS IDENTITY CONFUSION = (10-20)<br />Indiviuals finding out who they are and what they are all about. As new role arrives, confusion arise.<br />
  14. 14. Continuation…<br />6th - INTIMACY VS ISOLATION = (20s-30s)<br />Facing developmental task of forming intimate relationship with others. If intimacy is not achieved; the result is isolation.<br />7th - GENERATIVITY VS STAGNATION = (40s-50s) <br />Chief concern is assist the younger generation in developing & leading useful lives. Feeling of having done nothing is stagnation.<br />8th - INTEGRITY VS DESPAIR = (60s-onward)<br />Life reflection. If one’s reflect his/her past positively; then,integrity achieved. If not, despair.<br />
  15. 15. DISTINCTION:<br />FREUD = “Psychosexual Stages”<br /> Primary motivation = “sexual in nature”<br /> Focuses in 1st 5 yrs of life.<br /> <br />ERICKSON = “Psychosocial Stages”<br /><ul><li>Primary motivation = Socially
  16. 16. Emphasized his development change throughout the human life span.</li></ul> <br />
  17. 17. "COGNITIVE THEORIES"<br />PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY  Stress the importance of children’s unconscious thought. <br />COGNITIVE THEORY Emphasize their conscious thoughts.<br /> <br />
  18. 18. THREE IMPORTANT COGNITIVE THEORIES<br />1. Piaget’s cognitive theory <br />2. Vygotsky’s sociocultural cognitive theory <br />3. and Information-processing theory (Siegler)<br />
  19. 19. JEAN PIAGET<br /> Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher known for his epistemologicalstudies with children.<br /> COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY <br />
  20. 20. JEAN PIAGET<br />COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY<br />“FOUR STAGES” <br />1st – SENSORIMOTOR = (Birth – 2)<br />The infant construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences w/ physical actions. <br />2nd – PREOPERATIONAL = (2-7)<br />The child begins to represent the world with words and images. These words and images reflect increased symbolic thinking and go beyond connection of sensory information and physical action <br />
  21. 21. Continuation…<br />3rd – CONCRETE OPERATIONAL = (7-11)<br />The child now reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into different sets. <br />4th – FORMAL OPERATIONAL = (11-Adulthood)<br />The adolescent reasons in more abstract, idealistic, and logical ways. <br />
  22. 22. LEV VYGOTSKY<br /> was a Soviet psychologist, the founder of  “SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY” <br />
  23. 23. LEV VYGOTSKY<br />SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY <br /> Is a sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development. <br /> focuses on knowledge as;<br /><ul><li> SITUATED
  24. 24. COLLABORATIVE </li></li></ul><li>ROBERT SIEGLER <br /> His research focuses on the development of problem solving and reasoning in general.<br />
  25. 25. ROBERT SIEGLER <br />INFORMATION-PROCESSING THEORY <br /> This emphasizes that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it.<br /> He says that when individuals perceive, encode, represent, store, and retrieve information, they are thinking.<br />
  26. 26. "BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORIES"<br /> Out of the behavioral tradition grew the belief that development is observable behavior that can be learned through experience with the environment.<br />
  27. 27. IVAN PAVLOV<br /> Russian physiologist best known for his discovery of the “CONDITIONED REFLEX”<br />
  28. 28. IVAN PAVLOV<br />CLASSICAL CONDITIONING<br />He became curios when he observed that dogs salivate to various sights and sounds before eating their food.<br />
  29. 29. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING:<br /> After a neutral stimulus has been paired with a stimulus that automatically produces a response, that response will be elicited by the previous neutral stimulus on its own.<br />
  30. 30. one of the most influential of American psychologists. A radical behaviorist, he developed the THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING<br />BURRHUS FREDERIC SKINNER<br />
  31. 31. BURRHUS FREDERIC SKINNER<br />OPERANT CONDITIONING <br /> the idea that behavior is determined by its consequences, be they reinforcements or punishments, which make it more or less likely that the behavior will occur again.<br /> Skinner believed that the only scientific approach to psychology was one that studied behaviors, not internal (subjective) mental processes.<br /> He denied the existence of a mind as a thing separate from the body.<br />
  32. 32.  conducted experiments using animals which he placed in a “Skinner Box”<br />
  33. 33. is best known for his famous "Bobo Doll" experiment, but is also noted for his SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY and concept of self-efficacy.<br />ALBERT BANDURA<br />
  34. 34. ALBERT BANDURA<br />SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY <br /> Holds that behavior, environment, and person/cognition are important factors of development.<br /> Focused heavily on observational learning that occurs through observing what others do.<br />
  35. 35.
  36. 36. BOBO DOLL’S EXPERIMENT<br /> studying patterns of behavior associated with aggression.<br /> Bandura hoped that the experiments would prove that aggression can be explained, at least in part, by social learning theory. <br /> The theory of social learning would state that behavior such as aggression is learned through observing and imitating others.<br />
  37. 37. -END-<br />