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Chap 7   danae
 

Chap 7 danae

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  • Why is memory important? Instructors might use this question to introduce the importance of memory and memory research. It might also serve as a prompt for a reflective paper, for small group/class discussions, or as a prompt for the instructor to discuss the obvious and not-so-obvious responses to this question. IM: Three Phases of Memory Activity
  • What is the role of attention? Again, it might be useful for students to think about how little they remember due, in part, to attentional mechanisms. IM: Divided Attention Activity
  • What is the role of attention? Again, it might be useful for students to think about how little they remember due, in part, to attentional mechanisms. IM: Divided Attention Activity
  • Activity/Demonstration: Additional examples of this may help students understand differences between the levels of encoding. For example, insert a picture (like the barking dog described in the text) and have students identify the various levels of processing. IM: Activity Handout 8.1: How Do you see a House?
  • Activity/Demonstration: There exist a lot of great activities that illustrate the self-referencing effect.
  • IM: Activity Handout 8.2: The Story of E=mc 2
  • IM: Activity Handout 8.2: The Story of E=mc 2
  • Note: To aid their encoding, it might be useful to tell students that the three distinct memory systems differ in terms of (1) the amount of information that can be stored and (2) the length of time the information is stored.
  • Activity/Demonstration: Reenactments of Sperling’s study are available online and can easily be incorporated into this PowerPoint set. IM: Sensory Memory Activity
  • Activity/Demonstration: Instructors may want to incorporate an in-class demonstration of memory span either before or after presentation of this slide.
  • IM: Activity Handout 8.3: Chunking
  • IM: Activity Handout 8.4: What Type of Memory Is It ?
  • IM: Serial Position Effect Activity
  • IM: Flashbulb Memory Activity
  • Activity/Demonstration: You have the opportunity to stage an “event” in the classroom and subsequently ask students to describe and/or identify your accomplice. IM: Activity Handout 8.5: Were They Really Eyewitnesses
  • Activity/Demonstration: You have the opportunity to stage an “event” in the classroom and subsequently ask students to describe and/or identify your accomplice. IM: Activity Handout 8.5: Were They Really Eyewitnesses
  • IM: Prospective Memory Activity
  • IM: Encoding Failure Activity
  • IM: Encoding Failure Activity
  • IM: Prospective Memory Activity
  • IM: Activity Handout 8.6: Mnemonic Devices
  • IM: Alzheimer’s Disease Activity
  • Note: Instructors may use the learning objectives presented on this slide or the following two slides to summarize the chapter material.

Chap 7   danae Chap 7 danae Presentation Transcript

  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7 Memory
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Preview  The Nature of Memory  Memory Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval  Forgetting  Study Tips  Memory and Health and Wellness
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Ted Talk Ted Talk
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The Nature of Memory  Definition: retention of information or experience over time  “Through memory, we weave the past into the present and establish a foundation for the future…” Three Phases (Steps) of Memory (ESR)  1. encoding  2. storage  3. retrieval
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Encoding: Sensory Input  To begin the process of memory encoding we need to pay attention to information…
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Attention What is the role of attention?  selective attention (not notice other things)  divided attention- multitasking (texting and driving)  sustained attention- vigilance (studying)  Research indicates that even though we feel confident that we can multitask- it actually impedes our ability to pay attention adequately.  Pg 209 Glenn, 2010 – texting in class
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Encoding: Levels of Processing Encoding occurs on a continuum…  shallow processing  intermediate processing  deep processinging - meaningful  The more deeply we process, the better the memory (Howes, 2006)
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Encoding: Elaboration  Within deep processing, the more extensive the processing, the better the memory (Terry, 2009)  Elaboration can enhance memory  Creating numerous mental connections  vivid examples  self-referencing effect (relate to own experience)
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Encoding: Imagery  One of the most powerful ways to make memories distinctive is to use mental imagery (Murray, 2007 etc)  image codes (highly detailed and distinctive) are stored as both  superior to verbal codes (words or labels) alone
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Encoding Study Tips  How can you use this information to enhance your memory for the material in this class?
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Memory Storage Atkinson-Shiffrin Theory (1968) pg212 3 Separate Memory Storage Systems (SM, STM, LTM)
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Storage: Sensory Memory  very brief duration (miliseconds) echoic (auditory) memory iconic (visual) memory
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Storage: Short-Term Memory  attention: moves sensory memory  STM  limited duration (about 30 seconds)  limited capacity (7 ± 2) (phone numbers)
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Storage: Short-Term Memory How can we improve/remember more for STM?  chunking  grouping items into a unit  rehearsal  conscious repetition of information  prolongs STM duration indefinitely
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Working Memory – An Alternative to STM Is Atkinson-Shiffrin’s theory too simplistic? Baddeley’s Model of Working Memory Pg 215 Active Memory System – allows us to hold information temporarily as we perform cognitive tasks  phonological loop - speech (Assistant)  visuospatial working memory – visual and spatial (Assistant)  central executive - integrates (Boss)  CE can pull from long term memory as well
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Storage: Long-Term Memory pg216  relatively permanent with “unlimited” capacity  explicit long-term memory (declarative) facts and events  implicit long-term memory (nondeclarative) experiential learning  Page 218 examples
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Storage: Explicit LTM Subtypes of Explicit Memory episodic autobiographical memories semantic knowledge about the world
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Storage: Implicit LTM  nondeclarative memory  affected by a past experience without consciously recalling it  procedural memory - skills  classical conditioning – automatic associations  Priming – pulling prior knowledge to make it easier to remember
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Memory: Location  Connectionist Networks (Parallel Distributed Processing PDP)  is diffuse  circuits of neurons  neurotransmitter involvement  long-term potentiation
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Memory: Brain Structure pg 223 Explicit Memory  hippocampus, frontal lobes, amygdala Implicit Memory  cerebellum, temporal lobes, hippocampus
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Memory: Brain Structures
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Retrieval: Serial Position Effect …tendency to recall items at beginning and end of a list more readily than those in middle Primacy Effect Recency Effect
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Serial Position Effect Graph pg 224 When it is time for the final exam, which information from your class do you think it would be best to brush up on, and why?
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Retrieval: Special Cases  autobiographical memories  Episodic memory  Episodic bump (adults remember what? Pg 227)  emotional memories  flashbulb memories – emotionally sig event  traumatic events  repressed memories
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. False Memory Recovery?  childhood sexual abuse, other events  recovered or discovered memories?  difficult to separate accurate and inaccurate memories  How should courts of law deal with “discovered” memories?
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Eyewitness Testimony Distortion – memory fades Bias – ethnic distinctions Inaccuracy - faulty More scientific approaches to trial evidence ?
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Future Memory  prospective memory  remembering to do something in the future content – remembering what to do timing – remembering when to do it Study Skil – Improving Prospective Memory: Planner! Other Ideas??
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Forgetting: Memory Failure  Ebbinghaus – psychologist, self- studies  encoding failure – never entered LTM (who is on the dollar bill, 5 dollar?)  Interference theory  proactive interference - previous  retroactive interference – later  Pg 233
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Forgetting: Memory Failure  encoding failure – never entered LTM  What is to the right of Washington’s Head on a dollar bill?  Is “The United States of America” above or below Washington’s head?
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Forgetting: Memory Failure  decay theory  passage of time  forgetting  tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon  can retrieve some information but not all
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Amnesia…  amnesia  anterograde amnesia (ante=before) inability to store new information and events OR  retrograde amnesia (retro=past) inability to retrieve past information and events 50 First Dates
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Study Tips – Encoding pg 235  give undivided attention  process deeply  make associations  use imagery  encode early and often
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Study Tips - Retrieval  redo notes  talk to others  test yourself  ask yourself questions  rest and eat well
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Memory and Health and Wellness Roles of Autobiographical Memories  learn from our experience  Form the core of our personal identity  bond with others Memory and Aging  indicator of brain functioning  activity inoculates against mental decline  both physical and mental activity are important in maintaining a sharp mind
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Summary  Identify three phases of memory.  Explain how memories are encoded.  Discuss the three stages of memory storage.  Summarize how memories are retrieved.  Describe how the failure of encoding and retrieval are involved in forgetting.  Evaluate study strategies based on an understanding of memory.  Discuss the multiple functions of memory in human life.
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Summary Encoding  attention, levels of processing, elaboration, and imagery Storage  sensory, short-term, and long-term memory Retrieval  serial position, retrieval cues, types of memory
  • © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Summary Forgetting  encoding failure, retrieval failure, interference, decay, amnesia Study Tips  encoding, storage, retrieval Memory and Health and Wellness  autobiographical memory, memory and aging