Psych ch 5

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  • Psych ch 5

    1. 1. CHAPTER 5
    2. 2. CHAPTER 5Sensation & Perception
    3. 3. WHAT IS A SENSE?
    4. 4. WHAT IS A SENSE?A system that transmits information to the brain, e.g. sight,touch, taste, sound, and smell
    5. 5. WHAT IS A SENSE?A system that transmits information to the brain, e.g. sight,touch, taste, sound, and smellThe senses convert characteristics of the physical world intonervous system activity, thereby allowing us to “sense” theworld around us
    6. 6. WHAT IS A SENSE?A system that transmits information to the brain, e.g. sight,touch, taste, sound, and smellThe senses convert characteristics of the physical world intonervous system activity, thereby allowing us to “sense” theworld around usSensation IS NOT the same as perception (subjectiveexperience of sensations)
    7. 7. SENSATION IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH WE RECEIVE INFORMATION FROM THE ENVIRONMENT.
    8. 8. SENSATION IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH WE RECEIVE INFORMATION FROM THE ENVIRONMENT.What kind of information?
    9. 9. SENSATION IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH WE RECEIVE INFORMATION FROM THE ENVIRONMENT.What kind of information?A stimulus is a detectable input from the environment:
    10. 10. SENSATION IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH WE RECEIVE INFORMATION FROM THE ENVIRONMENT.What kind of information?A stimulus is a detectable input from the environment:1. Light—vision
    11. 11. SENSATION IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH WE RECEIVE INFORMATION FROM THE ENVIRONMENT.What kind of information?A stimulus is a detectable input from the environment:1. Light—vision2. Sound—hearing
    12. 12. SENSATION IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH WE RECEIVE INFORMATION FROM THE ENVIRONMENT.What kind of information?A stimulus is a detectable input from the environment:1. Light—vision2. Sound—hearing3. Chemicals—taste and smell
    13. 13. SENSATION IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH WE RECEIVE INFORMATION FROM THE ENVIRONMENT.What kind of information?A stimulus is a detectable input from the environment:1. Light—vision2. Sound—hearing3. Chemicals—taste and smell4. Pressure, temperature, pain—sense of touch
    14. 14. SENSATION IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH WE RECEIVE INFORMATION FROM THE ENVIRONMENT.What kind of information?A stimulus is a detectable input from the environment:1. Light—vision2. Sound—hearing3. Chemicals—taste and smell4. Pressure, temperature, pain—sense of touch5. Orientation, balance—kinesthetic senses
    15. 15. ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION (STIMULI) EXISTS IN MANY FORMS:
    16. 16. ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION (STIMULI) EXISTS IN MANY FORMS:A physical stimulus must first be introduced. For example:air vibrations, gases, chemicals, tactile pressures
    17. 17. ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION (STIMULI) EXISTS IN MANY FORMS:A physical stimulus must first be introduced. For example:air vibrations, gases, chemicals, tactile pressuresOur senses respond to a limited range of environmentalstimuli. For example, we cannot hear sound of frequenciesabove 20,000 Hz, even though dogs can hear them.
    18. 18. SOME PHYSICAL STIMULI THAT OUR BODIES ARE SENSITIVE TO:
    19. 19. SOME PHYSICAL STIMULI THAT OUR BODIES ARE SENSITIVE TO:Light as experienced through vision
    20. 20. SOME PHYSICAL STIMULI THAT OUR BODIES ARE SENSITIVE TO:Light as experienced through visiona. Visible light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
    21. 21. SOME PHYSICAL STIMULI THAT OUR BODIES ARE SENSITIVE TO:Light as experienced through visiona. Visible light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum.b. Properties of light {Intensity (experienced as brightness);Wavelength (experienced as hue);Complexity orpurity (experienced as saturation)
    22. 22. SOME PHYSICAL STIMULI THAT OUR BODIES ARE SENSITIVE TO:Light as experienced through visiona. Visible light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum.b. Properties of light {Intensity (experienced as brightness);Wavelength (experienced as hue);Complexity orpurity (experienced as saturation)Sound as experienced through audition
    23. 23. SOME PHYSICAL STIMULI THAT OUR BODIES ARE SENSITIVE TO:Light as experienced through visiona. Visible light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum.b. Properties of light {Intensity (experienced as brightness);Wavelength (experienced as hue);Complexity orpurity (experienced as saturation)Sound as experienced through auditionProperties of sound {Intensity (influences mainly loudness); Frequency (influences mainly pitch); Waveform (influences mainly timbre); As noted above, there is not a one-to-one relationship between physicalproperties and perceptual experience. For example, intensity can also influence perception of pitch.
    24. 24. SENSORY PROCESSES ARE THE INITIAL STEPS TO PERCEPTION
    25. 25. SENSORY PROCESSES ARE THE INITIAL STEPS TO PERCEPTION 1. Transduction is the process of converting energy of a stimulus into neural activity. The stimulus is recoded as a neural pattern.
    26. 26. SENSORY PROCESSES ARE THE INITIAL STEPS TO PERCEPTION 1. Transduction is the process of converting energy of a stimulus into neural activity. The stimulus is recoded as a neural pattern. 2. Transduction can be affected by our experiences, such as through adaptation; a constant level of stimulus results in a decreased response over time. With continued exposure, the neural response to the stimulus may change. Adaption is also perceptual, not just sensory.
    27. 27. SENSATION
    28. 28. SENSATIONBegins with sensory receptors (specialized cells that respond to particular types of energy)
    29. 29. SENSATIONBegins with sensory receptors (specialized cells that respond to particular types of energy)Three types of sensory receptors: Photoreceptors (activated by electromagnetic energy), Chemoreceptors(respond to chemical substances), Mechanoreceptors (respond to mechanical energy)
    30. 30. SENSATIONBegins with sensory receptors (specialized cells that respond to particular types of energy)Three types of sensory receptors: Photoreceptors (activated by electromagnetic energy), Chemoreceptors(respond to chemical substances), Mechanoreceptors (respond to mechanical energy)Absolute threshold (the minimum intensity of a stimulus that will stimulate a sense organ to operate) variesby individual due to unique response factors
    31. 31. SENSATIONBegins with sensory receptors (specialized cells that respond to particular types of energy)Three types of sensory receptors: Photoreceptors (activated by electromagnetic energy), Chemoreceptors(respond to chemical substances), Mechanoreceptors (respond to mechanical energy)Absolute threshold (the minimum intensity of a stimulus that will stimulate a sense organ to operate) variesby individual due to unique response factorsHabituation, a simple type of learning, refers to the tendency of neurons to become less sensitive toconstant or familiar stimuli
    32. 32. SENSATIONBegins with sensory receptors (specialized cells that respond to particular types of energy)Three types of sensory receptors: Photoreceptors (activated by electromagnetic energy), Chemoreceptors(respond to chemical substances), Mechanoreceptors (respond to mechanical energy)Absolute threshold (the minimum intensity of a stimulus that will stimulate a sense organ to operate) variesby individual due to unique response factorsHabituation, a simple type of learning, refers to the tendency of neurons to become less sensitive toconstant or familiar stimuliJust noticeable difference (JND) refers to receptor cells’ ability to detect subtle changes in stimulus strength
    33. 33. SENSATIONBegins with sensory receptors (specialized cells that respond to particular types of energy)Three types of sensory receptors: Photoreceptors (activated by electromagnetic energy), Chemoreceptors(respond to chemical substances), Mechanoreceptors (respond to mechanical energy)Absolute threshold (the minimum intensity of a stimulus that will stimulate a sense organ to operate) variesby individual due to unique response factorsHabituation, a simple type of learning, refers to the tendency of neurons to become less sensitive toconstant or familiar stimuliJust noticeable difference (JND) refers to receptor cells’ ability to detect subtle changes in stimulus strengthThe relationship of sensation to change in stimulus strength is known as Weber’s Law
    34. 34. SIGHT
    35. 35. SIGHT
    36. 36. SIGHTOur most dominant sense with more of our brain involved insight than any other sense
    37. 37. SIGHTOur most dominant sense with more of our brain involved insight than any other senseHuman sight is the sensation of reflected electromagneticradiation; the light’s wavelength is seen as color; the light’samplitude is experienced as brightness or intensity
    38. 38. HOW DO OUR EYES WORK?
    39. 39. HOW DO OUR EYES WORK?Sclera: mostly “white part” of eye that provides protection and structure
    40. 40. HOW DO OUR EYES WORK?Sclera: mostly “white part” of eye that provides protection and structureThe cornea refracts light into the iris; specialized, transparent portion of the sclera through which lightenters
    41. 41. HOW DO OUR EYES WORK?Sclera: mostly “white part” of eye that provides protection and structureThe cornea refracts light into the iris; specialized, transparent portion of the sclera through which lightentersThe iris is the pigmented muscle that gives the eye its color and regulates the size of the pupil. The musclesof the iris control the amount of light entering the eye.
    42. 42. HOW DO OUR EYES WORK?Sclera: mostly “white part” of eye that provides protection and structureThe cornea refracts light into the iris; specialized, transparent portion of the sclera through which lightentersThe iris is the pigmented muscle that gives the eye its color and regulates the size of the pupil. The musclesof the iris control the amount of light entering the eye.The pupillary reflex opens and closes the pupil, the opening in iris
    43. 43. HOW DO OUR EYES WORK?Sclera: mostly “white part” of eye that provides protection and structureThe cornea refracts light into the iris; specialized, transparent portion of the sclera through which lightentersThe iris is the pigmented muscle that gives the eye its color and regulates the size of the pupil. The musclesof the iris control the amount of light entering the eye.The pupillary reflex opens and closes the pupil, the opening in irisThe lens focuses the image onto the retina; lens is the transparent, shape-changing convex structure thatfocuses images on the retina. The lens must accommodate in order to focus on a specific object. The ciliarymuscles relax for objects in the distance and constrict, which thickens the lens, for close items.
    44. 44. HOW DO OUR EYES WORK?Sclera: mostly “white part” of eye that provides protection and structureThe cornea refracts light into the iris; specialized, transparent portion of the sclera through which lightentersThe iris is the pigmented muscle that gives the eye its color and regulates the size of the pupil. The musclesof the iris control the amount of light entering the eye.The pupillary reflex opens and closes the pupil, the opening in irisThe lens focuses the image onto the retina; lens is the transparent, shape-changing convex structure thatfocuses images on the retina. The lens must accommodate in order to focus on a specific object. The ciliarymuscles relax for objects in the distance and constrict, which thickens the lens, for close items.The retina, layer containing two types of photoreceptors—rods and cones—that transduce light energy toelectrochemical energy. Rods are most sensitive to low levels of light and cones are sensitive to high lightlevels of light and are responsible for color vision and vision acuity. Cones are most concentrated in thefovea, the center of the field of vision
    45. 45. HOW DO OUR EYES WORK?Sclera: mostly “white part” of eye that provides protection and structureThe cornea refracts light into the iris; specialized, transparent portion of the sclera through which lightentersThe iris is the pigmented muscle that gives the eye its color and regulates the size of the pupil. The musclesof the iris control the amount of light entering the eye.The pupillary reflex opens and closes the pupil, the opening in irisThe lens focuses the image onto the retina; lens is the transparent, shape-changing convex structure thatfocuses images on the retina. The lens must accommodate in order to focus on a specific object. The ciliarymuscles relax for objects in the distance and constrict, which thickens the lens, for close items.The retina, layer containing two types of photoreceptors—rods and cones—that transduce light energy toelectrochemical energy. Rods are most sensitive to low levels of light and cones are sensitive to high lightlevels of light and are responsible for color vision and vision acuity. Cones are most concentrated in thefovea, the center of the field of visionThe optic nerve extends from the eye, across the optic chiasm (the junction of the two optic nerves wherefibers from the nasal sides of the two retinas cross, but the nerve fibers from the peripheral sides of the tworetinas do not cross to the other side of the brain leading to the result that the left half of the world isrepresented in the right hemisphere of the brain and vice-versa) to the cerebral hemisphere
    46. 46. HOW DO OUR EYES WORK?Sclera: mostly “white part” of eye that provides protection and structureThe cornea refracts light into the iris; specialized, transparent portion of the sclera through which lightentersThe iris is the pigmented muscle that gives the eye its color and regulates the size of the pupil. The musclesof the iris control the amount of light entering the eye.The pupillary reflex opens and closes the pupil, the opening in irisThe lens focuses the image onto the retina; lens is the transparent, shape-changing convex structure thatfocuses images on the retina. The lens must accommodate in order to focus on a specific object. The ciliarymuscles relax for objects in the distance and constrict, which thickens the lens, for close items.The retina, layer containing two types of photoreceptors—rods and cones—that transduce light energy toelectrochemical energy. Rods are most sensitive to low levels of light and cones are sensitive to high lightlevels of light and are responsible for color vision and vision acuity. Cones are most concentrated in thefovea, the center of the field of visionThe optic nerve extends from the eye, across the optic chiasm (the junction of the two optic nerves wherefibers from the nasal sides of the two retinas cross, but the nerve fibers from the peripheral sides of the tworetinas do not cross to the other side of the brain leading to the result that the left half of the world isrepresented in the right hemisphere of the brain and vice-versa) to the cerebral hemisphereThere are no rods or cones at the blind spot where the optic nerve leaves the eye.
    47. 47. HEARING
    48. 48. HEARING
    49. 49. HEARINGThe sensation and perception of sounds
    50. 50. HEARINGThe sensation and perception of soundsSounds are pressure changes or waves passing through theair
    51. 51. HEARINGThe sensation and perception of soundsSounds are pressure changes or waves passing through theairSound frequency is perceived as loudness and frequency aspitch
    52. 52. HOW DO OUR EARS WORK?
    53. 53. HOW DO OUR EARS WORK?The outer ear directs sound down the auditory canal to the tympanic membrane,the vibrations from which pass through a series of small bones in the middle earcalled the ossicles
    54. 54. HOW DO OUR EARS WORK?The outer ear directs sound down the auditory canal to the tympanic membrane,the vibrations from which pass through a series of small bones in the middle earcalled the ossiclesThe ossicles magnify the eardrum’s vibrations and transmit them to the inner earvia the oval window
    55. 55. HOW DO OUR EARS WORK?The outer ear directs sound down the auditory canal to the tympanic membrane,the vibrations from which pass through a series of small bones in the middle earcalled the ossiclesThe ossicles magnify the eardrum’s vibrations and transmit them to the inner earvia the oval windowThe cochlea is a snail-shaped fluid-filled structure lined with the basilarmembrane
    56. 56. HOW DO OUR EARS WORK?The outer ear directs sound down the auditory canal to the tympanic membrane,the vibrations from which pass through a series of small bones in the middle earcalled the ossiclesThe ossicles magnify the eardrum’s vibrations and transmit them to the inner earvia the oval windowThe cochlea is a snail-shaped fluid-filled structure lined with the basilarmembraneThe basilar membrane is covered with stereocilia that connect with the auditorynerve
    57. 57. SMELL(OLFACTORY SYSTEM)
    58. 58. SMELL(OLFACTORY SYSTEM)Detects airborne chemicals that we experience as an odor
    59. 59. SMELL(OLFACTORY SYSTEM)Detects airborne chemicals that we experience as an odorOlfactory receptors in the mucus membrane (olfactoryepithelium) at the roof of the nasal cavity connect to theolfactory nerve and feed into the brain
    60. 60. SMELL(OLFACTORY SYSTEM)Detects airborne chemicals that we experience as an odorOlfactory receptors in the mucus membrane (olfactoryepithelium) at the roof of the nasal cavity connect to theolfactory nerve and feed into the brainWe have receptors that are sensitive to thousands ofairborne chemicals, but what we experience as an odor isusually a pattern of responses to a variety of chemicals
    61. 61. HOW DOES THE NOSE WORK?
    62. 62. HOW DOES THE NOSE WORK?Olfactory cells carry information to the olfactory bulb. The olfactory bulb activates the prefrontal cortex.
    63. 63. HOW DOES THE NOSE WORK?Olfactory cells carry information to the olfactory bulb. The olfactory bulb activates the prefrontal cortex.Olfactory receptor neurons have a life cycle of about 30 days and are continually created.
    64. 64. HOW DOES THE NOSE WORK?Olfactory cells carry information to the olfactory bulb. The olfactory bulb activates the prefrontal cortex.Olfactory receptor neurons have a life cycle of about 30 days and are continually created.Olfactory cells in the olfactory epithelium are stimulated by gases dissolved in the fluid covering themembrane.
    65. 65. HOW DOES THE NOSE WORK?Olfactory cells carry information to the olfactory bulb. The olfactory bulb activates the prefrontal cortex.Olfactory receptor neurons have a life cycle of about 30 days and are continually created.Olfactory cells in the olfactory epithelium are stimulated by gases dissolved in the fluid covering themembrane.For a stimulus to be smelled, it must be dissolved.
    66. 66. HOW DOES THE NOSE WORK?Olfactory cells carry information to the olfactory bulb. The olfactory bulb activates the prefrontal cortex.Olfactory receptor neurons have a life cycle of about 30 days and are continually created.Olfactory cells in the olfactory epithelium are stimulated by gases dissolved in the fluid covering themembrane.For a stimulus to be smelled, it must be dissolved.Odors or scents stimulate the olfactory epithelium.
    67. 67. HOW DOES THE NOSE WORK?Olfactory cells carry information to the olfactory bulb. The olfactory bulb activates the prefrontal cortex.Olfactory receptor neurons have a life cycle of about 30 days and are continually created.Olfactory cells in the olfactory epithelium are stimulated by gases dissolved in the fluid covering themembrane.For a stimulus to be smelled, it must be dissolved.Odors or scents stimulate the olfactory epithelium.Odors can evoke highly emotional memories (e.g., Herz, 2004).
    68. 68. HOW DOES THE NOSE WORK?Olfactory cells carry information to the olfactory bulb. The olfactory bulb activates the prefrontal cortex.Olfactory receptor neurons have a life cycle of about 30 days and are continually created.Olfactory cells in the olfactory epithelium are stimulated by gases dissolved in the fluid covering themembrane.For a stimulus to be smelled, it must be dissolved.Odors or scents stimulate the olfactory epithelium.Odors can evoke highly emotional memories (e.g., Herz, 2004).On average, women detect odors more readily than men. Also, brain responses to odors are stronger inwomen than in men (Kalat, 2007).
    69. 69. HOW DOES THE NOSE WORK?Olfactory cells carry information to the olfactory bulb. The olfactory bulb activates the prefrontal cortex.Olfactory receptor neurons have a life cycle of about 30 days and are continually created.Olfactory cells in the olfactory epithelium are stimulated by gases dissolved in the fluid covering themembrane.For a stimulus to be smelled, it must be dissolved.Odors or scents stimulate the olfactory epithelium.Odors can evoke highly emotional memories (e.g., Herz, 2004).On average, women detect odors more readily than men. Also, brain responses to odors are stronger inwomen than in men (Kalat, 2007).Pheromones: same-species odors, used as a form of chemical communication
    70. 70. HOW DOES THE NOSE WORK?Olfactory cells carry information to the olfactory bulb. The olfactory bulb activates the prefrontal cortex.Olfactory receptor neurons have a life cycle of about 30 days and are continually created.Olfactory cells in the olfactory epithelium are stimulated by gases dissolved in the fluid covering themembrane.For a stimulus to be smelled, it must be dissolved.Odors or scents stimulate the olfactory epithelium.Odors can evoke highly emotional memories (e.g., Herz, 2004).On average, women detect odors more readily than men. Also, brain responses to odors are stronger inwomen than in men (Kalat, 2007).Pheromones: same-species odors, used as a form of chemical communicationAnosmia is the loss or lack of sense of smell. Specific anosmia is the inability to smell a single chemical.
    71. 71. TASTE(GUSTATORY SYSTEM)
    72. 72. TASTE(GUSTATORY SYSTEM)Detects chemicals that come into contact with the tongue
    73. 73. TASTE(GUSTATORY SYSTEM)Detects chemicals that come into contact with the tongueWhat we experience as taste is actually more about smell than taste
    74. 74. TASTE(GUSTATORY SYSTEM)Detects chemicals that come into contact with the tongueWhat we experience as taste is actually more about smell than tasteTaste receptor cells, gustatory cells, are clustered in papillae on the tongue
    75. 75. TASTE(GUSTATORY SYSTEM)Detects chemicals that come into contact with the tongueWhat we experience as taste is actually more about smell than tasteTaste receptor cells, gustatory cells, are clustered in papillae on the tongueReceptors are sensitive to five basic taste qualities: Sweetness, Saltiness,Sourness, Bitterness, Umami—glutamates {Given the complexities and recentdiscovery of umami, its classification as a fifth taste quality is a source of currentdebate (for an overview of umami research, see Beauchamp, 2009)}.
    76. 76. TOUCH(CUTANEOUS SYSTEM)
    77. 77. TOUCH(CUTANEOUS SYSTEM)Part of a larger sensory system known as the somatic senseswhich provides the brain with information about the body,its condition, and the body’s relationship with the outsideworld
    78. 78. TOUCH(CUTANEOUS SYSTEM)Part of a larger sensory system known as the somatic senseswhich provides the brain with information about the body,its condition, and the body’s relationship with the outsideworldCutaneous receptors respond to pressure, shape, texture,movement, and temperature
    79. 79. TOUCH(CUTANEOUS SYSTEM)Part of a larger sensory system known as the somatic senseswhich provides the brain with information about the body,its condition, and the body’s relationship with the outsideworldCutaneous receptors respond to pressure, shape, texture,movement, and temperatureNociceptors extend from the spinal cord to the body and areinvolved in the experience of pain
    80. 80. HOW DOES TOUCH WORK?
    81. 81. HOW DOES TOUCH WORK?Kinesthesis: Communicates information about movement and location of body parts. Receptors are foundin joints and ligaments
    82. 82. HOW DOES TOUCH WORK?Kinesthesis: Communicates information about movement and location of body parts. Receptors are foundin joints and ligamentsVestibular sense: This is also called equilibratory sense. Receptors are in semicircular canals and vestibularsacs found in the inner ear. This is concerned with the sense of balance and knowledge of body position. Thevestibular organ monitors head movements and movements of the eyes. The semicircular canals are filledwith a jelly-like substance lined with hair cells.
    83. 83. HOW DOES TOUCH WORK?Kinesthesis: Communicates information about movement and location of body parts. Receptors are foundin joints and ligamentsVestibular sense: This is also called equilibratory sense. Receptors are in semicircular canals and vestibularsacs found in the inner ear. This is concerned with the sense of balance and knowledge of body position. Thevestibular organ monitors head movements and movements of the eyes. The semicircular canals are filledwith a jelly-like substance lined with hair cells.Skin senses: Basic skin sensations include cold, warmth, pressure, and pain. Current research does notsupport the belief that specialized receptor cells for each of the four skin sensations exist.
    84. 84. HOW DOES TOUCH WORK?Kinesthesis: Communicates information about movement and location of body parts. Receptors are foundin joints and ligamentsVestibular sense: This is also called equilibratory sense. Receptors are in semicircular canals and vestibularsacs found in the inner ear. This is concerned with the sense of balance and knowledge of body position. Thevestibular organ monitors head movements and movements of the eyes. The semicircular canals are filledwith a jelly-like substance lined with hair cells.Skin senses: Basic skin sensations include cold, warmth, pressure, and pain. Current research does notsupport the belief that specialized receptor cells for each of the four skin sensations exist.Touch plasticity: When an area of the skin is used a lot, it becomes more sensitive, and the receptorsactually “take over” more brain space in the corresponding sensory region of the brain. Thus, when blindpeople use their first two fingers for brail, it has been found that in the brain, the region of the cortexdevoted to these two fingers actually spreads and takes over less- used cortex from other touch areas. Thus,physical experience changes the brain directly (this has broader connections for the influence of experienceon perceptual processing and thought).
    85. 85. HOW DOES TOUCH WORK?Kinesthesis: Communicates information about movement and location of body parts. Receptors are foundin joints and ligamentsVestibular sense: This is also called equilibratory sense. Receptors are in semicircular canals and vestibularsacs found in the inner ear. This is concerned with the sense of balance and knowledge of body position. Thevestibular organ monitors head movements and movements of the eyes. The semicircular canals are filledwith a jelly-like substance lined with hair cells.Skin senses: Basic skin sensations include cold, warmth, pressure, and pain. Current research does notsupport the belief that specialized receptor cells for each of the four skin sensations exist.Touch plasticity: When an area of the skin is used a lot, it becomes more sensitive, and the receptorsactually “take over” more brain space in the corresponding sensory region of the brain. Thus, when blindpeople use their first two fingers for brail, it has been found that in the brain, the region of the cortexdevoted to these two fingers actually spreads and takes over less- used cortex from other touch areas. Thus,physical experience changes the brain directly (this has broader connections for the influence of experienceon perceptual processing and thought).Pain
    86. 86. BASICS OF PAIN
    87. 87. BASICS OF PAINPain is not triggered by one stimulus (e.g., as light does for vision), and at certain intensities other stimulican cause pain (e.g., coolness).
    88. 88. BASICS OF PAINPain is not triggered by one stimulus (e.g., as light does for vision), and at certain intensities other stimulican cause pain (e.g., coolness).Pain circuit: Sensory receptors respond to potentially damaging stimuli by sending an impulse to the spinalcord, which sends the message to the brain, which interprets the signal as pain.
    89. 89. BASICS OF PAINPain is not triggered by one stimulus (e.g., as light does for vision), and at certain intensities other stimulican cause pain (e.g., coolness).Pain circuit: Sensory receptors respond to potentially damaging stimuli by sending an impulse to the spinalcord, which sends the message to the brain, which interprets the signal as pain.Thicker and faster axons convey sharp pain, and thinner ones convey dull pain. These axons enter the spinalcord, where they release two neurotransmitters depending on the severity of the pain:
    90. 90. BASICS OF PAINPain is not triggered by one stimulus (e.g., as light does for vision), and at certain intensities other stimulican cause pain (e.g., coolness).Pain circuit: Sensory receptors respond to potentially damaging stimuli by sending an impulse to the spinalcord, which sends the message to the brain, which interprets the signal as pain.Thicker and faster axons convey sharp pain, and thinner ones convey dull pain. These axons enter the spinalcord, where they release two neurotransmitters depending on the severity of the pain:Mild pain releases glutamate. Severe pain releases both glutamate and Substance P, a neuromodulator.
    91. 91. BASICS OF PAINPain is not triggered by one stimulus (e.g., as light does for vision), and at certain intensities other stimulican cause pain (e.g., coolness).Pain circuit: Sensory receptors respond to potentially damaging stimuli by sending an impulse to the spinalcord, which sends the message to the brain, which interprets the signal as pain.Thicker and faster axons convey sharp pain, and thinner ones convey dull pain. These axons enter the spinalcord, where they release two neurotransmitters depending on the severity of the pain:Mild pain releases glutamate. Severe pain releases both glutamate and Substance P, a neuromodulator.Pain receptors can also react to chemicals. For example, capsaicin is a chemical found in hot peppers thatstimulates pain receptors. Capsaicin also leads to insensitivity to pain.
    92. 92. BASICS OF PAINPain is not triggered by one stimulus (e.g., as light does for vision), and at certain intensities other stimulican cause pain (e.g., coolness).Pain circuit: Sensory receptors respond to potentially damaging stimuli by sending an impulse to the spinalcord, which sends the message to the brain, which interprets the signal as pain.Thicker and faster axons convey sharp pain, and thinner ones convey dull pain. These axons enter the spinalcord, where they release two neurotransmitters depending on the severity of the pain:Mild pain releases glutamate. Severe pain releases both glutamate and Substance P, a neuromodulator.Pain receptors can also react to chemicals. For example, capsaicin is a chemical found in hot peppers thatstimulates pain receptors. Capsaicin also leads to insensitivity to pain.Pain relief: Endorphins block the release of Substance P in the spinal cord and brain stem.
    93. 93. BASICS OF PAINPain is not triggered by one stimulus (e.g., as light does for vision), and at certain intensities other stimulican cause pain (e.g., coolness).Pain circuit: Sensory receptors respond to potentially damaging stimuli by sending an impulse to the spinalcord, which sends the message to the brain, which interprets the signal as pain.Thicker and faster axons convey sharp pain, and thinner ones convey dull pain. These axons enter the spinalcord, where they release two neurotransmitters depending on the severity of the pain:Mild pain releases glutamate. Severe pain releases both glutamate and Substance P, a neuromodulator.Pain receptors can also react to chemicals. For example, capsaicin is a chemical found in hot peppers thatstimulates pain receptors. Capsaicin also leads to insensitivity to pain.Pain relief: Endorphins block the release of Substance P in the spinal cord and brain stem.Gate control theory of pain: The brain can only focus on one pain stimulus at a time. For example, athletesare so focused on the competition that they often are unaware of any injuries until after they have finishedcompeting.
    94. 94. BASICS OF PAINPain is not triggered by one stimulus (e.g., as light does for vision), and at certain intensities other stimulican cause pain (e.g., coolness).Pain circuit: Sensory receptors respond to potentially damaging stimuli by sending an impulse to the spinalcord, which sends the message to the brain, which interprets the signal as pain.Thicker and faster axons convey sharp pain, and thinner ones convey dull pain. These axons enter the spinalcord, where they release two neurotransmitters depending on the severity of the pain:Mild pain releases glutamate. Severe pain releases both glutamate and Substance P, a neuromodulator.Pain receptors can also react to chemicals. For example, capsaicin is a chemical found in hot peppers thatstimulates pain receptors. Capsaicin also leads to insensitivity to pain.Pain relief: Endorphins block the release of Substance P in the spinal cord and brain stem.Gate control theory of pain: The brain can only focus on one pain stimulus at a time. For example, athletesare so focused on the competition that they often are unaware of any injuries until after they have finishedcompeting.Phantom limb pain: The person feels pain in area of amputated limb. Phantom limb sensations suggest thatthe brain can misinterpret spontaneous central nervous system activity that still occurs even when normalsensory input (from limbs, eyes, nose, or skin) is not there. See Melzak (1992, 1993) and Ramachandran(2007) if you’d like to learn more:)
    95. 95. PERCEPTION IS THE PROCESS OF SELECTINGAND IDENTIFYING INFORMATION FROM THE ENVIRONMENT
    96. 96. PERCEPTION IS THE PROCESS OF SELECTINGAND IDENTIFYING INFORMATION FROM THE ENVIRONMENTPerception is the interpretation of information from the environment so that we can identify its meaning.
    97. 97. PERCEPTION IS THE PROCESS OF SELECTINGAND IDENTIFYING INFORMATION FROM THE ENVIRONMENTPerception is the interpretation of information from the environment so that we can identify its meaning.Sensation usually involves sensing the existence of a stimulus, whereas perceptual systems involve thedetermination of what a stimulus is.
    98. 98. PERCEPTION IS THE PROCESS OF SELECTINGAND IDENTIFYING INFORMATION FROM THE ENVIRONMENTPerception is the interpretation of information from the environment so that we can identify its meaning.Sensation usually involves sensing the existence of a stimulus, whereas perceptual systems involve thedetermination of what a stimulus is.Expectations and perception: Our knowledge about the world allows us to make fairly accurate predictionsabout what should be there—so we don’t need a lot of information from the stimulus itself.
    99. 99. PERCEPTION IS THE PROCESS OF SELECTINGAND IDENTIFYING INFORMATION FROM THE ENVIRONMENTPerception is the interpretation of information from the environment so that we can identify its meaning.Sensation usually involves sensing the existence of a stimulus, whereas perceptual systems involve thedetermination of what a stimulus is.Expectations and perception: Our knowledge about the world allows us to make fairly accurate predictionsabout what should be there—so we don’t need a lot of information from the stimulus itself.Bottom-up processes are processes that are involved in identifying a stimulus by analyzing the informationavailable in the external stimulus. This also refers to information processing that begins at the receptor leveland continues to higher brain centers.
    100. 100. PERCEPTION IS THE PROCESS OF SELECTINGAND IDENTIFYING INFORMATION FROM THE ENVIRONMENTPerception is the interpretation of information from the environment so that we can identify its meaning.Sensation usually involves sensing the existence of a stimulus, whereas perceptual systems involve thedetermination of what a stimulus is.Expectations and perception: Our knowledge about the world allows us to make fairly accurate predictionsabout what should be there—so we don’t need a lot of information from the stimulus itself.Bottom-up processes are processes that are involved in identifying a stimulus by analyzing the informationavailable in the external stimulus. This also refers to information processing that begins at the receptor leveland continues to higher brain centers.Top-down processes are processes that are involved in identifying a stimulus by using the knowledge wealready possess about the situation. This knowledge is based on past experiences and allows us to formexpectations about what we ought to perceive.This also refers to information processing that begins inhigher brain centers and proceeds to receptors. b. Top-down processes allow for perceptual judgments andbias to start influencing how we process incoming stimuli and information. Early incoming information isalready being processed in terms of top-down influences and previous experience.
    101. 101. PERCEPTION
    102. 102. PERCEPTIONA.K.A. the process through which we select, organize, interpret, and givemeaning to sensations
    103. 103. PERCEPTIONA.K.A. the process through which we select, organize, interpret, and givemeaning to sensationsFigure-ground perception and grouping are ways we begin to organize andunderstand sensations
    104. 104. PERCEPTIONA.K.A. the process through which we select, organize, interpret, and givemeaning to sensationsFigure-ground perception and grouping are ways we begin to organize andunderstand sensationsPerceptual selectivity describes reasons we select of some sensory inputs forattention and ignore others
    105. 105. PERCEPTIONA.K.A. the process through which we select, organize, interpret, and givemeaning to sensationsFigure-ground perception and grouping are ways we begin to organize andunderstand sensationsPerceptual selectivity describes reasons we select of some sensory inputs forattention and ignore othersStimulus factors are those characteristics of objects that affect our perception ofthe object
    106. 106. PERCEPTIONA.K.A. the process through which we select, organize, interpret, and givemeaning to sensationsFigure-ground perception and grouping are ways we begin to organize andunderstand sensationsPerceptual selectivity describes reasons we select of some sensory inputs forattention and ignore othersStimulus factors are those characteristics of objects that affect our perception ofthe objectPersonal factors including experience, values, expectations, context, and mentaland emotional states affect our perception
    107. 107. IMPORTANT TERMS
    108. 108. IMPORTANT TERMSPhoto receptors
    109. 109. IMPORTANT TERMSPhoto receptorsChemoreceptors
    110. 110. IMPORTANT TERMSPhoto receptorsChemoreceptorsMechanoreceptors
    111. 111. IMPORTANT TERMSPhoto receptorsChemoreceptorsMechanoreceptorsMechanoreceptors
    112. 112. IMPORTANT TERMSPhoto receptorsChemoreceptorsMechanoreceptorsMechanoreceptorsSignal detection theory
    113. 113. IMPORTANT TERMSPhoto receptorsChemoreceptorsMechanoreceptorsMechanoreceptorsSignal detection theoryAbsolute threshold
    114. 114. IMPORTANT TERMSPhoto receptorsChemoreceptorsMechanoreceptorsMechanoreceptorsSignal detection theoryAbsolute thresholdSensory adaptation
    115. 115. IMPORTANT TERMSPhoto receptorsChemoreceptorsMechanoreceptorsMechanoreceptorsSignal detection theoryAbsolute thresholdSensory adaptationJust noticeable difference
    116. 116. IMPORTANT TERMSPhoto receptorsChemoreceptorsMechanoreceptorsMechanoreceptorsSignal detection theoryAbsolute thresholdSensory adaptationJust noticeable differenceWeber’s Law
    117. 117. IMPORTANT TERMSPhoto receptorsChemoreceptorsMechanoreceptorsMechanoreceptorsSignal detection theoryAbsolute thresholdSensory adaptationJust noticeable differenceWeber’s LawVisual system
    118. 118. IMPORTANT TERMSPhoto receptorsChemoreceptorsMechanoreceptorsMechanoreceptorsSignal detection theoryAbsolute thresholdSensory adaptationJust noticeable differenceWeber’s LawVisual systemTrichromatic & Opponent-process theories ofcolor vision
    119. 119. IMPORTANT TERMSPhoto receptorsChemoreceptorsMechanoreceptorsMechanoreceptorsSignal detection theoryAbsolute thresholdSensory adaptationJust noticeable differenceWeber’s LawVisual systemTrichromatic & Opponent-process theories ofcolor visionAuditory system
    120. 120. IMPORTANT TERMSPhoto receptorsChemoreceptorsMechanoreceptorsMechanoreceptorsSignal detection theoryAbsolute thresholdSensory adaptationJust noticeable differenceWeber’s LawVisual systemTrichromatic & Opponent-process theories ofcolor visionAuditory system
    121. 121. IMPORTANT TERMSPhoto receptors Olfactory SystemChemoreceptorsMechanoreceptorsMechanoreceptorsSignal detection theoryAbsolute thresholdSensory adaptationJust noticeable differenceWeber’s LawVisual systemTrichromatic & Opponent-process theories ofcolor visionAuditory system
    122. 122. IMPORTANT TERMSPhoto receptors Olfactory SystemChemoreceptors Gustatory systemMechanoreceptorsMechanoreceptorsSignal detection theoryAbsolute thresholdSensory adaptationJust noticeable differenceWeber’s LawVisual systemTrichromatic & Opponent-process theories ofcolor visionAuditory system
    123. 123. IMPORTANT TERMSPhoto receptors Olfactory SystemChemoreceptors Gustatory systemMechanoreceptors Cutaneous systemMechanoreceptorsSignal detection theoryAbsolute thresholdSensory adaptationJust noticeable differenceWeber’s LawVisual systemTrichromatic & Opponent-process theories ofcolor visionAuditory system
    124. 124. IMPORTANT TERMSPhoto receptors Olfactory SystemChemoreceptors Gustatory systemMechanoreceptors Cutaneous systemMechanoreceptors Proprioception systemSignal detection theoryAbsolute thresholdSensory adaptationJust noticeable differenceWeber’s LawVisual systemTrichromatic & Opponent-process theories ofcolor visionAuditory system
    125. 125. IMPORTANT TERMSPhoto receptors Olfactory SystemChemoreceptors Gustatory systemMechanoreceptors Cutaneous systemMechanoreceptors Proprioception systemSignal detection theory Kinesthetic systemAbsolute thresholdSensory adaptationJust noticeable differenceWeber’s LawVisual systemTrichromatic & Opponent-process theories ofcolor visionAuditory system
    126. 126. IMPORTANT TERMSPhoto receptors Olfactory SystemChemoreceptors Gustatory systemMechanoreceptors Cutaneous systemMechanoreceptors Proprioception systemSignal detection theory Kinesthetic systemAbsolute threshold Vestibular systemSensory adaptationJust noticeable differenceWeber’s LawVisual systemTrichromatic & Opponent-process theories ofcolor visionAuditory system
    127. 127. IMPORTANT TERMSPhoto receptors Olfactory SystemChemoreceptors Gustatory systemMechanoreceptors Cutaneous systemMechanoreceptors Proprioception systemSignal detection theory Kinesthetic systemAbsolute threshold Vestibular systemSensory adaptation PerceptionJust noticeable differenceWeber’s LawVisual systemTrichromatic & Opponent-process theories ofcolor visionAuditory system
    128. 128. IMPORTANT TERMSPhoto receptors Olfactory SystemChemoreceptors Gustatory systemMechanoreceptors Cutaneous systemMechanoreceptors Proprioception systemSignal detection theory Kinesthetic systemAbsolute threshold Vestibular systemSensory adaptation PerceptionJust noticeable difference Top-down and bottom-up processingWeber’s LawVisual systemTrichromatic & Opponent-process theories ofcolor visionAuditory system
    129. 129. IMPORTANT TERMSPhoto receptors Olfactory SystemChemoreceptors Gustatory systemMechanoreceptors Cutaneous systemMechanoreceptors Proprioception systemSignal detection theory Kinesthetic systemAbsolute threshold Vestibular systemSensory adaptation PerceptionJust noticeable difference Top-down and bottom-up processingWeber’s Law GestaltVisual systemTrichromatic & Opponent-process theories ofcolor visionAuditory system
    130. 130. IMPORTANT TERMSPhoto receptors Olfactory SystemChemoreceptors Gustatory systemMechanoreceptors Cutaneous systemMechanoreceptors Proprioception systemSignal detection theory Kinesthetic systemAbsolute threshold Vestibular systemSensory adaptation PerceptionJust noticeable difference Top-down and bottom-up processingWeber’s Law GestaltVisual system Stimulus factorsTrichromatic & Opponent-process theories ofcolor visionAuditory system
    131. 131. IMPORTANT TERMSPhoto receptors Olfactory SystemChemoreceptors Gustatory systemMechanoreceptors Cutaneous systemMechanoreceptors Proprioception systemSignal detection theory Kinesthetic systemAbsolute threshold Vestibular systemSensory adaptation PerceptionJust noticeable difference Top-down and bottom-up processingWeber’s Law GestaltVisual system Stimulus factorsTrichromatic & Opponent-process theories of Personal factorscolor visionAuditory system
    132. 132. IMPORTANT TERMSPhoto receptors Olfactory SystemChemoreceptors Gustatory systemMechanoreceptors Cutaneous systemMechanoreceptors Proprioception systemSignal detection theory Kinesthetic systemAbsolute threshold Vestibular systemSensory adaptation PerceptionJust noticeable difference Top-down and bottom-up processingWeber’s Law GestaltVisual system Stimulus factorsTrichromatic & Opponent-process theories of Personal factorscolor vision Extrasensory perception and paranormalAuditory system psychology

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