7. Voters areballot-centricthey’re focused on that act,not conscious of the overall process
8. What’s on the ballot?
9. ? ? ?
10. ? ??
11. ! ?
12. If voters don’t know whatis on the ballot they are more likely to go to third-party sources they are less likely to show up at the right polling place they’re likely to undervote down-ballot they are less likely to turn out
13. Website design problems arewell understoodsites are hard to ﬁnd ﬁnd other sourcesnavigation reﬂects don’t know where to godepartment don’t know how to get tolabels are jargon contentdates and deadlines don’t know when to actare vague get distracted or lost in thegraphics are gratuitous site, lose trustsites are not accessible disenfranchisement
14. San Francisco and Oakland,December 2011EVN, March 2012
15. Portland, Maine 2011
16. Alameda Co. demo ballot
17. Minneapolis 2011
18. New York state demo
19. Voter slate
20. How is my vote counted?
21. Ballot design problems arewell understoodsplit contests across columns overvotingthere are responses on both overvotingsides of namesarrows rather than bubbles marking incorrectlyformatting is inconsistent or undervotingtoo consistentinstructions are complicated all kinds of crazy thingsor lackingvoters don’t know how to lost votescorrect their ballots
22. How RCV works
23. n=52 Joe
24. Mental models People make inferences about how things work based on available information and context
25. Mental models This is what we teach people
26. Mental modelsSometimes it really is this simple -but not in the US
27. Mental modelsSometimes it really is this simple -but not in the US
28. Much more like signing for a mortgage
29. This is the ballotwe testNIST medium complexity ballot
30. Mental models Point system Weighted Reversed
31. Point / weight system
32. Intent is loaded Preparing to vote Knowing what to expect Interacting with the ballot
33. What’s on the ballot? What are my options for voting? absentee early voting Election Daywhat’s the where do I vote? where do I vote?deadline to apply?what do I have todo to get one?when is it due?
34. what’s the where do I vote? where do I vote?deadline to apply?what do I have todo to get one?when is it due? who is in ofﬁce now? do I need ID to vote? what’s the deadline for registering?
35. 1. Voters develop faulty mental models
36. 2. Voters don’t understand the consequences of their actions
37. 3. Voters vote counter to their intentions
38. Portland, Maine 2011
39. straight party voting + regular contests + RCV + multi-candidate+ retention contests + measures6 different models
42. Votersbear a cognitive burdenthat design can relieve.
43. Poor design and instructionson ballots makeunderstanding, marking, and castingdifﬁcult, time-consuming, andcomplicated
44. Poor design and instructionson ballots makecounting, verifying, and auditsdifﬁcult, time-consuming, andcomplicated
45. Raises questions about what is beingsecured.
46. complex ballots = lost votes
47. complex ballots + vote-by-mail = lost votes
48. complex ballots+ multi-language = lost votes
49. RCV + VBM+ multi-language = 1000s of lost votes
50. Lack of trust in electionsLack of trust in ofﬁcialsRecallsScrambling county boards
51. Security may add to thecognitive burdenwithout thoughtful design.
52. Security = Counted as cast
53. Security = Cast as intended + counted as cast
54. This moment
55. Voter ed is not the answer.
56. If it’s not usable, it’s not valid.
57. If it’s not usable, it’s not countable.
58. If it’s not usable, it’s not veriﬁable.
59. If it’s not usable, it’s not auditable.
60. If it’s not usable, it’s not secure.
61. Thank youRick Bond Jared SpoolCyd Harrell David CaryEthan Newby Rebecca SherrillCallie Wheeler Frank CastroChelsey Glasson Sandy OlsonSara Cambridge Nancy FrishbergLaura Paajanen Yelena NakhimovskyBeth Lingard Whitney QuesenberyBeth Pickard
62. And...Andrea Moed Doug HankeKristen Johansen Karen McGraneBoaz Gurdin Krysta ChaunceyAshley Pearlman Karen BachmannDonald A. Cox Rosa MoranKamaria Campbell Josie ScottPaul Schreiber Rachel GoddardJenn Downs Samantha LeVanJacqui Adams Kate AurigemmaMichelle Milla Erin LimanJosh Keyes Alessandra BrophyJosh Bright Andrea Fineman
63. New tools.
64. Field Guides seriesResearch Research Usability and Civic Researchcommissioned by commissioned by Life Project commissioned byEAC NIST NIST
65. Coming soonDesigning Writing voter Guiding voters Poll workerelection education through the security bestdepartment materials polling place practiceswebsites Research partially Research partially From research Research to be funded by funded by funded by EAC funded by the MacArthur MacArthur and work by National Science Foundation Foundation Design for Foundation Democracy
66. ComingsoonAnywhereballotfunded by ITIF(EAC AVTI)
67. Field Guides To EnsuringVoter Intentcivicdesigning.org /ﬁeldguides
68. If it’s not usable,it’s not secure.
69. Thank you.
70. Dana Chisnelldana@firstname.lastname@example.org@danachis@ChadButterﬂy