1




Plain language for voters and
election workers
Dana Chisnell, UPA | Usability in Civic Life
Drew Davies, AIGA | Desi...
2




 Many changes




lever                            punch card      DRE   optical scan




http://www.flickr.com/photo...
3
Constraints exist 	




State law   Machines   Expense   History
5




                             Best practice
                   + Incremental changes
                        + Usabil...
6




Design problems cause voter errors
Design best practice helps
Plain language helps
Best practice + usability testing...
7




Design problems cause voter errors
Design best practice helps
Plain language helps
Best practice + usability testing...
8
9




Key points
Poor ballot design frustrates voters,
undermines confidence, and contributes
to related Election Day probl...
10




Key points
Thousands of votes are lost or miscast

All voters are affected

The risk is greater for some groups of
...
11




Design for Democracy - EAC
       Best practice is a
   great place to start to
         redesign ballots
12




Design problems cause voter errors
Design best practice helps
Plain language helps
Best practice + usability testin...
Top 10 election design guidelines
1 Use lowercase letters
Optical scan ballots [detail]
Rolling DRE (touchscreen) ballot [detail]
2	 Avoid centered type
Rolling DRE (touchscreen) ballot [detail]
3	 Pick one sans-serif font
Optical scan ballots [detail]
Rolling DRE (touchscreen) ballot [detail]
Voter information materials [detail]
4	 Use big enough type
Optical scan ballots [detail]
Rolling DRE (touchscreen) ballot [detail]
Voter information materials [detail]
5 Support process
  and navigation
Optical scan ballots [detail]
Rolling DRE (touchscreen) ballot [detail]
Voter information materials [wayfinding]
6	 Use clear, simple language
“A vote for the names
 of a political partyʼs
 candidates for president     Vote for one
 is a vote for the electors
 of t...
STATE REFERENDA 2A - CITY OF SPRINGFIELD

SHALL CITY OF SPRINGFIELD DEBT BE INCREASED BY AN AMOUNT NOT TO EXCEED $4,600,00...
7
 Use accurate instructional

 illustrations
Optical scan ballots [detail]
Rolling DRE (touchscreen) ballot [detail]
Voter information materials
8
 Use informational

 icons (only)
Optical scan ballots [detail]
Voter information materials [detail]
9
 Use contrast and

 color functionally
Rolling DRE (touchscreen) ballot
Optical scan ballots [detail]
10
Decide what’s

 most important
Grid-style optical scan ballot
Optical scan ballot [detail]
Voter information material
Top 10 election design guidelines
•   Use lowercase letters
•   Avoid centered type
•   Pick one sans-serif font
•   Use b...
Resources

•
    EAC report
•
    Sample files and software
•
    Get design help
•
    Additional resources
Get design help

•
    www.designfordemocracy.org
•
    AIGA Designer Directory
•
    AIGA Election Design Fellows now in
...
Additional resources




Marcia Lausen: Ballot + Election Design
[University of Chicago Press]
Additional resources




Ballot design sample collection
Additional resources




AIGA | Design for Democracy
Get Out The Vote campaign
67




Design problems cause voter errors
Design best practice helps
Plain language helps
Best practice + usability testin...
68




HAVA and NIST	



✤ HAVA calls for improved standards for voting systems

✤ NIST provides technical support to deve...
69




Design for every voter	



✤ Universal access and usability

✤ Design standards based on best practice and research...
70




Groundbreaking 	



✤ First ever standards for usability and accessibility of voting systems

✤ Unique performance-...
71




Wanted: research on plain language in elections


 2005               2006-08          2007            2008
 Review...
72




Does plain language make a difference
when people vote?
73




Does clear information make a difference in
election worker performance?
74




Does plain language make a difference
when people vote?
75




Empirical study of
language on ballots
Do voters vote more accurately
on a ballot with plain language
instructions?...
76


                                            Education               # of

Who                                        ...
77




Where, what
3 locations
  Georgia
  Maryland
  Michigan

suburban, city, small town


2 ballots
  only the wording ...
78




Ballot A (traditional language)
79




Ballot B (plain language)
80




“Retain” or “Keep”?
81




Does plain language make a difference
when people vote?
82




Yes.
83




Participants voted more accurately
45 participants; 18 possible               Ballot A   Ballot B   Total
correct v...
84




Voting on B first helped on A
                                                16.700
Very little difference on B
whe...
85




Participants recognized and
overwhelmingly preferred plain language

Preference               # of participants   %...
86




Education made a difference
Education level                             Mean # correct both ballots


Less than hig...
87




1. At the beginning of the ballot, explain
how to vote, how to change a vote, and that
voters may write in a candid...
88




2. Put instructions where voters need them.
89




3. Include information that will prevent
voters from making errors, such as a
caution to not write in someone alrea...
90




4. Write short sentences.
91




5. Use short, simple, everyday words.
92




6. Write in active voice, where the person
doing the action comes before the verb.
93




7. Write in the positive. Tell people what to
do rather than what not to do.
94




8. When giving people instructions that are
more than one step, give each step as an
item in a numbered list. Do no...
95




9. Keep paragraphs short. A one-sentence
paragraph is fine.
96




10. Separate paragraphs by a space so
each paragraph stands out on the page.
97




To see all 28 guidelines, go to
http://vote.nist.gov/NISTIR-7556.pdf
The guidelines are the last appendix in the
re...
98




Does clear information make a difference
in election worker performance?
99


Qualitative, exploratory
study of voting system
documentation for poll
workers

How should the documentation be
teste...
100




Testing the test	


✤ Drafted protocol and checklists

✤ Recruited 4 pairs of participants

✤ 2 voting systems - o...
101




Observations
102




                Matching the
                documentation to the
                machine was difficult




Dana Ch...
103




                Participants had
                questions that the
                documentation didn’t
         ...
104




                Information on
                troubleshooting was
                hard to use because
           ...
105




Documentation
covered too many
systems
106




Met many best
practices but fails
because the
configuration is not
the same as
implementation
107




Met many best
practices but fails
because the
configuration is not
the same as
implementation
108




Does clear information make a difference
in election worker performance?
109




Yes.
110




Evidence
✤ Participants are able to use voting system
  documentation to:

   ✤ Complete tasks without asking ques...
111




Pass / fail criteria



✤ Have participants asked for help?

✤ Have they completed the tasks in the time
  allotte...
112




Design problems cause voter errors
Design best practice helps
Plain language helps
Best practice + usability testi...
113




What is a usability test?
114




What is usable?
   You: A countable ballot
   Voter: Voting as intended




                                Dana...
115




                Sit next to someone.
                    Watch. Listen.
Dana Chisnell
116




                  When
                  something
                  changes
                  Take
              ...
117




Why test?
Avoid residual votes and fall-off

Even best practice design can
introduce unpredictable problems

Make ...
118




The Testing Kit
What you need to know

Session script

Report template
119




The Testing Kit
What you need to know

Session script

Report template
120




The Testing Kit
What you need to know

Session script

Report template
121




The Testing Kit
What you need to know

Session script

Report template
122



Redesign.                  Test.                   Improve.

Look at best practice     Low risk, low cost       Smo...
123




Design problems cause voter errors
Design best practice helps
Plain language helps
Best practice + usability testi...
124




Resources

                Usability Professionals’ Association:
                   www.usabilityprofessionals.org...
125




Resources

                Brennan Center for Justice at NYU: Better
                   Ballots
                  ...
126




Announcing
LEOExchange
Online discussion group for local election
officials
127




Dana


       Dana Chisnell
       dana@usabilityworks.net

       www.usabilityworks.net
       415.519.1148
128




Drew


       Drew Davies
       drew@oxidedesign.com

       www.oxidedesign.com
129




Design problems cause voter errors
Design best practice helps
Plain language helps
Best practice + usability testi...
Voter Registration Form (Before)
Voter Registration Form (After)
           Version 1
Voter Registration Form (After)
                             Version 2




Back of this form looks exactly like Version 1 ...
Application Ballot by Mail (Before)
              Front
Application Ballot by Mail (Before)
              Back
Application Ballot by Mail (After)
   Front
  Layout went
from bifold to
       trifold
Application Ballot by Mail (After)
  Back
  Layout went
from bifold to
       trifold
137




Questions?
138




Thank you.
IACREOT - Plain language for voters and poll workers
IACREOT - Plain language for voters and poll workers
IACREOT - Plain language for voters and poll workers
IACREOT - Plain language for voters and poll workers
IACREOT - Plain language for voters and poll workers
IACREOT - Plain language for voters and poll workers
IACREOT - Plain language for voters and poll workers
IACREOT - Plain language for voters and poll workers
IACREOT - Plain language for voters and poll workers
IACREOT - Plain language for voters and poll workers
IACREOT - Plain language for voters and poll workers
IACREOT - Plain language for voters and poll workers
IACREOT - Plain language for voters and poll workers
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IACREOT - Plain language for voters and poll workers

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This talk covers guidelines for writing plain language instructions on ballots and clear information in poll worker manuals. It also talks about common ballot design problems and wraps up with information about usability testing using the UPA LEO Usability Testing Kit.

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IACREOT - Plain language for voters and poll workers

  1. 1. 1 Plain language for voters and election workers Dana Chisnell, UPA | Usability in Civic Life Drew Davies, AIGA | Design for Democracy Kim Kizer, Elections Division - Texas IACREOT - Spokane - 2009
  2. 2. 2 Many changes lever punch card DRE optical scan http://www.flickr.com/photos/plemeljr/61432544/
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. Constraints exist State law Machines Expense History
  5. 5. 5 Best practice + Incremental changes + Usability testing lower residual vote rates + better security
  6. 6. 6 Design problems cause voter errors Design best practice helps Plain language helps Best practice + usability testing helps Resources The Texas story
  7. 7. 7 Design problems cause voter errors Design best practice helps Plain language helps Best practice + usability testing Resources The Texas story
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. 9 Key points Poor ballot design frustrates voters, undermines confidence, and contributes to related Election Day problems Dana Chisnell
  10. 10. 10 Key points Thousands of votes are lost or miscast All voters are affected The risk is greater for some groups of voters All voting technologies are affected Usability testing is the best way to make sure that voters are successful Dana Chisnell
  11. 11. 11 Design for Democracy - EAC Best practice is a great place to start to redesign ballots
  12. 12. 12 Design problems cause voter errors Design best practice helps Plain language helps Best practice + usability testing Resources The Texas story
  13. 13. Top 10 election design guidelines
  14. 14. 1 Use lowercase letters
  15. 15. Optical scan ballots [detail]
  16. 16. Rolling DRE (touchscreen) ballot [detail]
  17. 17. 2 Avoid centered type
  18. 18. Rolling DRE (touchscreen) ballot [detail]
  19. 19. 3 Pick one sans-serif font
  20. 20. Optical scan ballots [detail]
  21. 21. Rolling DRE (touchscreen) ballot [detail]
  22. 22. Voter information materials [detail]
  23. 23. 4 Use big enough type
  24. 24. Optical scan ballots [detail]
  25. 25. Rolling DRE (touchscreen) ballot [detail]
  26. 26. Voter information materials [detail]
  27. 27. 5 Support process and navigation
  28. 28. Optical scan ballots [detail]
  29. 29. Rolling DRE (touchscreen) ballot [detail]
  30. 30. Voter information materials [wayfinding]
  31. 31. 6 Use clear, simple language
  32. 32. “A vote for the names of a political partyʼs candidates for president Vote for one is a vote for the electors of that party…” “Vote for not more than Vote for one pair one set of candidates”
  33. 33. STATE REFERENDA 2A - CITY OF SPRINGFIELD SHALL CITY OF SPRINGFIELD DEBT BE INCREASED BY AN AMOUNT NOT TO EXCEED $4,600,000, WITH A MAXIMUM REPAYMENT COST OF $8,000,000, AND SHALL CITY OF SPRINGFIELD TAXES BE INCREASED $1,047,000 (FIRST FULL FISCAL YEAR DOLLAR INCREASE) ANNUALLY; SUCH DEBT TO CONSIST OF SALES TAX REVENUE BONDS ISSUED SOLELY FOR THE FOLLOWING PURPOSES: · ACQUIRING, CONSTRUCTING AND EQUIPPING A COMMUNITY RECREATION CENTER WHICH SHALL INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING: · AQUATICS CENTER/SWIMMING POOL · FITNESS CENTER · GYMNASIUM FOR BASKETBALL, VOLLEYBALL, AEROBICS AND OTHER ACTIVITIES · FAMILY, YOUTH AND SENIOR MULTI-PURPOSE ROOMS · PAYING ALL NECESSARY OR INCIDENTAL COSTS RELATED THERETO, INCLUDING THE FOLLOWING: · OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE EXPENSES, WHICH MAY INCLUDE EXERCISE AND RECREATION ACTIVITIES FOR ALL AGES, INTERESTS AND ABILITIES · THE FUNDING OF A BOND RESERVE FUND AND COSTS OF ISSUING THE BONDS SUCH BONDS TO BE ISSUED, DATED AND SOLD AT SUCH TIMES, AND AT SUCH PRICES (AT, ABOVE OR BELOW PAR) AND CONTAINING SUCH TERMS, NOT INCONSISTENT HEREWITH, AS THE CITY COUNCIL MAY DETERMINE; SUCH TAX TO BE IMPLEMENTED BY AN AMENDMENT TO CHAPTER 5.06 OF THE SPRINGFIELD MUNICIPAL CODE AND TO CONSIST OF A RATE INCREASE IN THE CITY-WIDE SALES TAX OF 0.70% (SEVENTY ONE- HUNDREDTHS OF ONE PERCENT, WHICH REPRESENTS SEVEN CENTS ON EACH TEN DOLLAR PURCHASE AS SHOWN IN THE TAX SCHEDULE AT THE END OF THIS BALLOT ISSUE) BEGINNING ON OR AFTER JANUARY 1, 2005, WITH A REDUCTION OF SUCH TAX TO 0.50% (FIFTY ONEHUNDREDTHS OF ONE PERCENT, WHICH REPRESENTS FIVE CENTS ON EACH TEN DOLLAR PURCHASE) BEGINNING JANUARY 1, 2026 OR SUCH LOWER RATE AS THE CITY COUNCIL MAY DETERMINE AFTER SUCH DATE, TO BE USED SOLELY TO PAY THE FOLLOWING: · COSTS OF ACQUIRING, CONSTRUCTING AND EQUIPPING THE COMMUNITY RECREATION CENTER DESCRIBED ABOVE · PAYING DEBT SERVICE ON THE SALES TAX REVENUE BONDS DESCRIBED ABOVE · PAYING ALL NECESSARY OR INCIDENTAL COSTS RELATED THERETO, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE EXPENSES, WHICH MAY INCLUDE EXERCISE AND RECREATION ACTIVITIES FOR ALL AGES, INTERESTS AND ABILITIES, AND REPAIRS, RENEWALS, REPLACEMENTS AND RENOVATIONS THEREOF, AND THE FUNDING OF RESERVES THEREFOR; AND · CONSTRUCTION OR UPGRADES TO CITY OUTDOOR ATHLETIC FACILITIES; AND SHALL ALL TAX REVENUES GENERATED FROM THE SALES TAX AUTHORIZED HEREIN AND FROM ANY EARNINGS FROM THE INVESTMENT OF SUCH REVENUES AND THE PROCEEDS OF SUCH BONDS CONSTITUTE A VOTER-APPROVED REVENUE CHANGE, AND AN EXCEPTION TO THE REVENUE AND SPENDING LIMITS OF ARTICLE X, SECTION 20 OF THE COLORADO CONSTITUTION, OR ANY OTHER LAW?
  34. 34. 7 Use accurate instructional illustrations
  35. 35. Optical scan ballots [detail]
  36. 36. Rolling DRE (touchscreen) ballot [detail]
  37. 37. Voter information materials
  38. 38. 8 Use informational icons (only)
  39. 39. Optical scan ballots [detail]
  40. 40. Voter information materials [detail]
  41. 41. 9 Use contrast and color functionally
  42. 42. Rolling DRE (touchscreen) ballot
  43. 43. Optical scan ballots [detail]
  44. 44. 10 Decide what’s most important
  45. 45. Grid-style optical scan ballot
  46. 46. Optical scan ballot [detail]
  47. 47. Voter information material
  48. 48. Top 10 election design guidelines • Use lowercase letters • Avoid centered type • Pick one sans-serif font • Use big enough type • Support process and navigation • Use clear, simple language • Use accurate instructional illustrations • Use informational icons (only) • Use contrast and color functionally • Decide whatʼs most important
  49. 49. Resources • EAC report • Sample files and software • Get design help • Additional resources
  50. 50. Get design help • www.designfordemocracy.org • AIGA Designer Directory • AIGA Election Design Fellows now in Oregon and Washington • designfordemocracy@aiga.org
  51. 51. Additional resources Marcia Lausen: Ballot + Election Design [University of Chicago Press]
  52. 52. Additional resources Ballot design sample collection
  53. 53. Additional resources AIGA | Design for Democracy Get Out The Vote campaign
  54. 54. 67 Design problems cause voter errors Design best practice helps Plain language helps Best practice + usability testing Resources The Texas story
  55. 55. 68 HAVA and NIST ✤ HAVA calls for improved standards for voting systems ✤ NIST provides technical support to develop standards through EAC and TGDC
  56. 56. 69 Design for every voter ✤ Universal access and usability ✤ Design standards based on best practice and research ✤ Performance standards: user-based testing
  57. 57. 70 Groundbreaking ✤ First ever standards for usability and accessibility of voting systems ✤ Unique performance-based usability standards
  58. 58. 71 Wanted: research on plain language in elections 2005 2006-08 2007 2008 Review of ballot Test of ballot Review of Development instructions instructions voting system of and system documentation pass/fail test messages of voting system documentation for poll workers
  59. 59. 72 Does plain language make a difference when people vote?
  60. 60. 73 Does clear information make a difference in election worker performance?
  61. 61. 74 Does plain language make a difference when people vote?
  62. 62. 75 Empirical study of language on ballots Do voters vote more accurately on a ballot with plain language instructions? Do voters recognize the difference in language? Do voters prefer one ballot over the other?
  63. 63. 76 Education # of Who achieved participants participated? Less than high school 9 45 voters High school or equivalent 15 Eligible - US citizens age 18+ Focused on lower education levels Some college or associate 12 Balanced for gender ethnicity Bachelor’s degree 8 age (18-61; median = 36) Courses beyond college 1
  64. 64. 77 Where, what 3 locations Georgia Maryland Michigan suburban, city, small town 2 ballots only the wording was different based on NIST DRE “medium” ballot
  65. 65. 78 Ballot A (traditional language)
  66. 66. 79 Ballot B (plain language)
  67. 67. 80 “Retain” or “Keep”?
  68. 68. 81 Does plain language make a difference when people vote?
  69. 69. 82 Yes.
  70. 70. 83 Participants voted more accurately 45 participants; 18 possible Ballot A Ballot B Total correct votes on each ballot Correct 698 726 1424 Marginally statistically Incorrect 112 84 196 significant, p<.071 Total 810 810 1620
  71. 71. 84 Voting on B first helped on A 16.700 Very little difference on B whether it was first or second 12.525 Correct Votes 8.350 A first, ave. correct = 14.4 A second, ave. correct = 16.3 4.175 Statistically significant, p<.001 0 A First B First Correct Votes on A Correct Votes on B
  72. 72. 85 Participants recognized and overwhelmingly preferred plain language Preference # of participants % of participants Ballot A 4 9% (traditional language) Ballot B 37 82% (plain language) No preference 4 9% Total 45 100%
  73. 73. 86 Education made a difference Education level Mean # correct both ballots Less than high school (n=9) 14.4 High school graduate or equivalent (n=15) 15.6 Some college or associate 16.0 Bachelor’s degree (n=8) 17.4 Some courses beyond college (n=1) 17.0 Statistically significant, p<.004
  74. 74. 87 1. At the beginning of the ballot, explain how to vote, how to change a vote, and that voters may write in a candidate.
  75. 75. 88 2. Put instructions where voters need them.
  76. 76. 89 3. Include information that will prevent voters from making errors, such as a caution to not write in someone already on the ballot.
  77. 77. 90 4. Write short sentences.
  78. 78. 91 5. Use short, simple, everyday words.
  79. 79. 92 6. Write in active voice, where the person doing the action comes before the verb.
  80. 80. 93 7. Write in the positive. Tell people what to do rather than what not to do.
  81. 81. 94 8. When giving people instructions that are more than one step, give each step as an item in a numbered list. Do not number other instructions.
  82. 82. 95 9. Keep paragraphs short. A one-sentence paragraph is fine.
  83. 83. 96 10. Separate paragraphs by a space so each paragraph stands out on the page.
  84. 84. 97 To see all 28 guidelines, go to http://vote.nist.gov/NISTIR-7556.pdf The guidelines are the last appendix in the report, pages 189-190
  85. 85. 98 Does clear information make a difference in election worker performance?
  86. 86. 99 Qualitative, exploratory study of voting system documentation for poll workers How should the documentation be tested? What are poll workers’ tasks? How long do the tasks take? How many participants will it take to pass or fail the documentation? What should the pass/fail criteria for the documentation be?
  87. 87. 100 Testing the test ✤ Drafted protocol and checklists ✤ Recruited 4 pairs of participants ✤ 2 voting systems - one DRE and one optical scan ✤ Each pair worked on both systems
  88. 88. 101 Observations
  89. 89. 102 Matching the documentation to the machine was difficult Dana Chisnell
  90. 90. 103 Participants had questions that the documentation didn’t answer Dana Chisnell
  91. 91. 104 Information on troubleshooting was hard to use because it was not related to tasks Dana Chisnell
  92. 92. 105 Documentation covered too many systems
  93. 93. 106 Met many best practices but fails because the configuration is not the same as implementation
  94. 94. 107 Met many best practices but fails because the configuration is not the same as implementation
  95. 95. 108 Does clear information make a difference in election worker performance?
  96. 96. 109 Yes.
  97. 97. 110 Evidence ✤ Participants are able to use voting system documentation to: ✤ Complete tasks without asking questions ✤ Find the information they need ✤ Match messages between system and documentation ✤ Read, understand, and react ✤ Perform tasks without missing steps ✤ Perform steps to complete tasks
  98. 98. 111 Pass / fail criteria ✤ Have participants asked for help? ✤ Have they completed the tasks in the time allotted?
  99. 99. 112 Design problems cause voter errors Design best practice helps Plain language helps Best practice + usability testing Resources The Texas story
  100. 100. 113 What is a usability test?
  101. 101. 114 What is usable?  You: A countable ballot  Voter: Voting as intended Dana Chisnell
  102. 102. 115 Sit next to someone. Watch. Listen. Dana Chisnell
  103. 103. 116 When something changes Take constraints into account Complement to Reveal best practice remedies
  104. 104. 117 Why test? Avoid residual votes and fall-off Even best practice design can introduce unpredictable problems Make it more likely that voter intent is carried out More likely to have only good news about an election Dana Chisnell
  105. 105. 118 The Testing Kit What you need to know Session script Report template
  106. 106. 119 The Testing Kit What you need to know Session script Report template
  107. 107. 120 The Testing Kit What you need to know Session script Report template
  108. 108. 121 The Testing Kit What you need to know Session script Report template
  109. 109. 122 Redesign. Test. Improve. Look at best practice Low risk, low cost Smoother voting within your constraints Reveal issues that are Smoother counting Use checklists local, subtle Better experience
  110. 110. 123 Design problems cause voter errors Design best practice helps Plain language helps Best practice + usability testing Resources The Texas story
  111. 111. 124 Resources Usability Professionals’ Association: www.usabilityprofessionals.org/ LEO Usability Testing Kit: http://www.usabilityprofessionals.org/ civiclife/voting/leo_testing.html Ballot Usability and Accessibility Blog: http://ballotusability.blogspot.com/ National Institute of Standards and Technology: http://vote.nist.gov Dana Chisnell
  112. 112. 125 Resources Brennan Center for Justice at NYU: Better Ballots http://www.brennancenter.org/ content/resource/better_ballots/ AIGA - Design for Democracy: Effective Design for Federal Elections http://www.aiga.org/content.cfm/ design-for-democracy-eac-reports Handbook of Usability Testing, Second Edition by Jeff Rubin and Dana Chisnell Dana Chisnell
  113. 113. 126 Announcing LEOExchange Online discussion group for local election officials
  114. 114. 127 Dana Dana Chisnell dana@usabilityworks.net www.usabilityworks.net 415.519.1148
  115. 115. 128 Drew Drew Davies drew@oxidedesign.com www.oxidedesign.com
  116. 116. 129 Design problems cause voter errors Design best practice helps Plain language helps Best practice + usability testing Resources The Texas story
  117. 117. Voter Registration Form (Before)
  118. 118. Voter Registration Form (After) Version 1
  119. 119. Voter Registration Form (After) Version 2 Back of this form looks exactly like Version 1 – horizontal layout versus vertical layout
  120. 120. Application Ballot by Mail (Before) Front
  121. 121. Application Ballot by Mail (Before) Back
  122. 122. Application Ballot by Mail (After) Front Layout went from bifold to trifold
  123. 123. Application Ballot by Mail (After) Back Layout went from bifold to trifold
  124. 124. 137 Questions?
  125. 125. 138 Thank you.
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